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[转载]【美文赏析】荀子《劝学篇》

(2011-06-27 10:04:27)
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分类: 英语学习

荀子Hsun-Tzu Translated by Burton Watson
劝学篇第一 ENCOURAGING, LEARNING (SECTION 1)

君子曰:学不可以已。青、取之於蓝,而青於蓝;冰、水为之,而寒於水。木直中绳,輮以为轮,其曲中规,虽有槁暴,不复挺者,輮使之然也。故木受绳则直,金就砺则利,君子博学而日参省乎己,则知明而行无过矣。
The gentleman says: Learning should never cease. Blue comes from the indigo plant but is bluer than the plant itself. Ice is made of water but is colder than water ever is…. If the gentleman studies widely and each day examines himself, his wisdom will become clear and his conduct be without fault.

故不登高山,不知天之高也;不临深溪,不知地之厚也;不闻先王之遗言,不知学问之大也。干、越、夷、貉之子,生而同声,长而异俗,教使之然也。诗曰:「嗟尔君子,无恒安息。靖共尔位,好是正直。神之听之,介尔景福。」神莫大於化道,福莫长於无祸。
If you do not climb a high mountain, you will not comprehend the highness of the heavens; if you do not look down into a deep valley, you will not know the depth of the earth; and if you do not hear the words handed down from the ancient kings, you will not understand the greatness of learning. Children born among the Han or Yüeh people of the south and among the Mo barbarians of the north cry with the same voice at birth, but as they grow older they follow different customs. Education causes them to differ. The Odes says:

Oh, you gentlemen,
Do not be constantly at ease and rest!
Quietly respectful in your posts,
Love those who are correct and upright
And the gods will hearken to you
And aid you with great blessing.1

There is no greater godliness2 than to transform yourself with the Way, no greater blessing than to escape misfortune.

吾尝终日而思矣,不如须臾之所学也。吾尝跂而望矣,不如登高之博见也。登高而招,臂非加长也,而见者远;顺风而呼,声非加疾也,而闻者彰。假舆马者,非利足也,而致千里;假舟楫者,非能水也,而绝江河。君子生非异也,善假於物也。
I once tried spending the whole day in thought, but I found it of less value than a moment of study.3 I once tried standing on tiptoe and gazing into the distance, but I found I could see much farther by climbing to a high place. If you climb to a high place and wave to someone, it is not as though your arm were any longer than usual, and yet people can see. you from much farther away. If you shout down the wind, it is not as though your voice were any stronger than usual, and yet people can hear you much more clearly. Those who make use of carriages or horses may not be any faster walkers than anyone else, and yet they are able to travel a thousand li. Those who make use of boats may not know how to swim, and yet they manage to get across rivers. The gentleman is by birth no different from any other man; it is just that he is good at making use of things.

南方有鸟焉,名曰蒙鸠,以羽为巢,而编之以发,系之苇苕,风至苕折,卵破子死。巢非不完也,所系者然也。西方有木焉,名曰射干,茎长四寸,生於高山之上,而临百仞之渊,木茎非能长也,所立者然也。蓬生麻中,不扶而直;白沙在涅,与之俱黑。兰槐之根是为芷,其渐之滫,君子不近,庶人不服。其质非不美也,所渐者然也。故君子居必择乡,游必就士,所以防邪辟而近中正也。
In the south there is a bird called the meng dove. It makes a nest out of feathers woven together with hair and suspends it from the tips of the reeds. But when the wind comes, the reeds break, the eggs are smashed, and the baby birds killed. It is not that the nest itself is faulty; the fault is in the thing it is attached to. In the west there is a tree called the yeh-kan. Its trunk is no more than four inches tall and it grows on top of the high mountains, from whence it looks down into valleys a hundred fathoms deep. It is not a long trunk which afford the tree such a view, but simply the place where it stands. If pigweed grows up in the midst of hemp, it will stand up straight without propping. If white sand is mixed with mud, it too will turn black.4 The root of a certain orchid is the source of the perfume called chih; but if the root were to be soaked in urine, then no gentleman would go near it and no commoner would consent to wear it. It is not that the root itself is of an unpleasant quality; it is the fault of the thing it has been soaked in. Therefore a gentleman will take care in selecting the community he intends to live in, and will choose men of breeding for his companions. In this way he wards off evil and meanness, and draws close to fairness and right.

物类之起,必有所始。荣辱之来,必象其德。肉腐出虫,鱼枯生蠹。怠慢忘身,祸灾乃作。强自取柱,柔自取束。邪秽在身,怨之所构。施薪若一,火就燥也,平地若一,水就湿也。草木畴生,禽兽群居,物各从其类也。是故质的张而弓矢至焉;林木茂而斧斤至焉;树成荫,而众鸟息焉。醯酸而蟥聚焉。故言有招祸也,行有招辱也,君子慎其所立乎!
Every phenomenon that appears must have a cause. The glory or shame that come to a man are no more than the image of his virtue. Meat when it rots breeds worms; fish that is old and dry brings forth maggots. When a man is careless and lazy and forgets himself, that is when disaster occurs. The strong naturally bear up under weight; the weak naturally end up bound.5 Evil and corruption in oneself invite the anger of others. If you lay sticks of identical shape on a fire, the flames will seek out the driest ones; if you level the ground to an equal smoothness, water will still seek out the dampest spot. Trees of the same species grow together; birds and beasts gather in herds; for all things follow after their own kind. Where a target is hung up, arrows will find their way to it; where the forest trees grow thickest, the axes will enter. When a tree is tall and shady, birds will flock to roost in it; when vinegar turns sour, gnats will collect around it. So there are words that invite disaster and actions that call down shame. A gentleman must be careful where he takes his stand.

积土成山,风雨兴焉;积水成渊,蛟龙生焉;积善成德,而神明自得,圣心备焉。故不积跬步,无以致千里;不积小流,无以成江海。骐骥一跃,不能十步;驽马十驾,功在不舍。锲而舍之,朽木不折;锲而不舍,金石可镂。蚓无爪牙之利,筋骨之强,上食埃土,下饮黄泉,用心一也。蟹八跪而二螯,非蛇鳝之穴,无可寄托者,用心躁也。是故无冥冥之志者,无昭昭之明;无昏昏之事者,无赫赫之功。行衢道者不至,事两君者不容。目不能两视而明,耳不能两听而聪。螣蛇无足而飞,梧鼠五技而穷诗曰:「尸鸠在桑,其子七兮。淑人君子,其仪一兮。其仪一兮,心如结兮。」故君子结於一也。
Pile up earth to make a mountain and wind and rain will rise up from it. Pile up water to make a deep pool and dragons will appear. Pile up good deeds to create virtue and godlike understanding will come of itself; there the mind of the sage will find completion. But unless you pile up little steps, you can never journey a thousand li; unless you pile up tiny streams, you can never make a river or a sea. The finest thoroughbred cannot travel ten paces in one leap, but the sorriest nag can go a ten days’ journey. Achievement consists of never giving up. If you start carving and then give up, you cannot even cut through a piece of rotten wood; but if you persist without stopping, you can carve and inlay metal or stone. Earthworms have no sharp claws or teeth, no strong muscles or bones, and yet above ground they feast on the mud, and below they drink at the yellow springs. This is because they keep their minds on one thing. Crabs have six legs and two pincers, but unless they can find an empty hole dug by a snake or a water serpent, they have no place to lodge. This is because they allow their minds to go off in all directions. Thus if there is no dark and dogged will, there will be no shining accomplishment; if there is no dull and determined effort, there will be no brilliant achievement. He who tries to travel two roads at once will arrive nowhere; he who serves two masters will please neither. The wingless dragon has no limbs and yet it can soar; the flying squirrel has many talents but finds itself hard pressed. The odes says:

Ringdove in the mulberry,
Its children are seven.
The good man, the gentleman,
His forms are one.
His forms are one,
His heart is as though bound.6

Thus does the gentleman bind himself to oneness.

昔者瓠巴鼓瑟而流鱼出听;伯牙鼓琴而六马仰秣。故声无小而不闻,行无隐而不形。玉在山而草木润,渊生珠而崖不枯。为善不积邪,安有不闻者乎!
In ancient times, when Hu Pa played the zither, the fish in the streams came forth to listen; when Po Ya played the lute, the six horses of the emperor’s carriage looked up from their feed trough. No sound is too faint to be heard, no action too well concealed to be known. When there are precious stones under the mountain, the grass and trees have a special sheen; where pearls grow in a pool, the banks are never parched. Do good and see if it does not pile up. If it does, how can it fail to be heard of?

____________________
Notes:

1 "Lesser Odes," Hsiao-ming, Mao text no. 207. Here and elsewhere in quotations from the Odes and Documents I have for the most pan followed the interpretations of Karlgren.

2 Hsun Tzu repeats the word shen (gods) from the ode, but gives it a humanistic interpretation, making it a moral quality of the good man; I have therefore translated it as “godliness.”

3 A paraphrase of Confucius’ remark in Analects XV, 30.

4 This sentence has been restored from quotations of Hsun Tzu presented in other texts.

5 Following the interpretation of Liu Shih-p’ei.

6 “Airs of Ts’ao” Shih-chiu, Mao text no. 152. The last line I have interpreted differently from Karlgren in order to make it fit Hsun Tzu’s comment.

学恶乎始?恶乎终?曰:其数则始乎诵经,终乎读礼;其义则始乎为士,终乎为圣人。真积力久则入。学至乎没而后止也。故学数有终,若其义则不可须臾舍也。为之人也,舍之禽兽也。故《书》者、政事之纪也;《诗》者、中声之所止也;《礼》者、法之大分,类之纲纪也。故学至乎礼而止矣。夫是之谓道德之极。《礼》之敬文也,《乐》之中和也,《诗》《书》之博也,《春秋》之微也,在天地之间者毕矣。
Where does learning begin and where does it end? I say that as to program, learning begins with the recitation of the Classics and ends with the reading of the ritual texts; and as to objective, it begins learning to be a man of breeding, and ends with learning to be a sage.7 If you truly pile up effort over a long period of time, you will enter into the highest realm. Learning continues until death and only then does it cease. Therefore we may speak of an end to the program of learning, but the objective of learning must never for an instant be given up. To pursue it is to be a man, to give it up is to become a beast. The Book of Documents is the record of government affairs, the Odes the repository of correct sounds, and the rituals are the great basis of law and the foundation of precedents. Therefore learning reaches its completion with the rituals, for they may be said to represent the highest point of the Way and its power. The reverence and order of the rituals, the fitness and harmony of music, the breadth of the Odes and Documents, the subtlety of the Spring and Autumn Annals—these encompass all that is between heaven and earth.

君子之学也,入乎耳,箸乎心,布乎四体,形乎动静。端而言,蠕而动,一可以为法则。小人之学也,入乎耳,出乎口;口耳之间,则四寸耳,曷足以美七尺之躯哉!古之学者为己,今之学者为人。君子之学也,以美其身;小人之学也,以为禽犊。故不问而告谓之傲,问一而告二谓之囋。傲、非也,囋、非也;君子如向矣。  
The learning of the gentleman enters his ear, clings to his mind, spreads through his four limbs, and manifests itself in his actions. His smallest word, his slightest movement can serve as a model. The learning of the petty man enters his ear and comes out his mouth. With only four inches between ear and mouth, how can he have possession of it long enough to ennoble a seven-foot body? In old times men studied for their own sake; nowadays men study with an eye to others.8 The gentleman uses learning to ennoble himself; the petty man uses learning as a bride to win attention from others. To volunteer information when you have not been asked is called officiousness; to answer two questions when you have been asked only one is garrulity. Both officiousness and garrulity are to be condemned. The gentleman should be like an echo.

学莫便乎近其人。礼乐法而不说,诗书故而不切,春秋约而不速。方其人之习君子之说,则尊以遍矣,周於世矣。故曰:学莫便乎近其人。学之经莫速乎好其人,隆礼次之。上不能好其人,下不能隆礼,安特将学杂识志,顺诗书而已耳。则末世穷年,不免为陋儒而已。
In learning, nothing is more profitable than to associate with those who are learned. Ritual and music present us with models but no explanations; the Odes and Document deal with ancient matters and are not always pertinent; the Spring and Autumn Annals is terse and cannot be quickly understood. But if you make use of the erudition of others and the explanations of gentlemen, then you will become honored and may make your way anywhere in the world. Therefore I say that in learning nothing is more profitable than to associate with those who are learned, and of the roads to learning, none is quicker than to love such men. Second only to this is to honor ritual. If you are first of all unable to love such men and secondly are incapable of honoring ritual, then you will only be learning a mass of jumbled facts, blindly following the Odes and Documents and nothing more. In such a case you may study to the end of your days and you will never be anything but a vulgar pedant.

将原先王,本仁义,则礼正其经纬蹊径也。若挈裘领,诎五指而顿之,顺者不可胜数也。不道礼宪,以诗书为之,譬之犹以指测河也,以戈舂黍也,以锥餐壶也,不可以得之矣。故隆礼,虽未明,法士也;不隆礼,虽察辩,散儒也。

问楛者,勿告也;告楛者,勿问也;说楛者,勿听也。有争气者,勿与辩也。故必由其道至,然后接之;非其道则避之。故礼恭,而后可与言道之方;辞顺,而后可与言道之理;色从而后可与言道之致。故未可与言而言,谓之傲;可与言而不言,谓之隐;不观气色而言,谓之瞽。故君子不傲、不隐、不瞽,谨顺其身。诗曰:「匪交匪舒,天子所予。」此之谓也。  

百发失一,不足谓善射;千里跬步不至,不足谓善御;伦类不通,仁义不一,不足谓善学。学也者,固学一之也。一出焉,一入焉,涂巷之人也;其善者少,不善者多,桀纣盗跖也;全之尽之,然后学者也。君子知夫不全不粹之不足以为美也,故诵数以贯之,思索以通之,为其人以处之,除其害者以持养之。使目非是无欲见也,使耳非是无欲闻也,使口非是无欲言也,使心非是无欲虑也。及至其致好之也,目好之五色,耳好之五声,口好之五味,心利之有天下。是故权利不能倾也,群众不能移也,天下不能荡也。生乎由是,死乎由是,夫是之谓德操。德操然后能定,能定然后能应。能定能应,夫是之谓成人。天见其明,地见其光,君子贵其全也。

Notes:

7 Hsun Tzu customarily distinguishes three grades in the moral hierarchy of men: shih, chun-tzu, and sheng-jen, which I have translated as “man of breeding,” “gentleman,” and “sage” respectively, though at times he uses the first two terms more or less interchangeably.

8 This sentence is quoted from Analects XIV, 25, where it is attributed to Confucius.


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