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耶鲁大学心理学讲座(二上)

(2010-04-28 09:59:37)
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January 24, 2007 << back

Professor Paul Bloom: Okay. The last class we talked about the brain. Now we're going to talk a little bit about some foundations. So today and Monday we're going to talk about two very big ideas and these ideas are associated with Sigmund Freud and B. F. Skinner and are psychoanalysis and behaviorism. And I want to talk about psychoanalysis today and behaviorism next week.

Now, one of these things--One of the things that makes these theories so interesting is their scope. Most of the work we're going to talk about in this class--Most of the ideas are narrow. So, we're going to talk about somebody's idea about racial prejudice but that's not a theory of language acquisition. We'll talk about theories of schizophrenia but they're not explanations of sexual attractiveness. Most theories are specialized theories but these two views are grand theories. They're theories of everything, encompassing just about everything that matters, day-to-day life, child development, mental illness, religion, war, love. Freud and Skinner had explanations of all of these.

保罗。布鲁姆教授:当然。最后一课我们要讨论大脑。现在我们要谈论一些基础的东西。因此今天和星期一我们要讨论一下两个非常庞大的理论而这些理论和西格蒙。弗洛伊德和B.F.斯金纳有关这些是心理分析和行为主义。今天我要谈论一下心理分析和行为主义。我希望在今天谈论心理分析而下周谈论行为主义。现在,这些事情之一-一个让这些理论非常有趣的是他们的范围。我们要在这节课谈论的是-大多数理念是狭窄的。因此,我要谈论某些人的种族歧视偏见但是这不是一个语言习得的理论。我们要讨论的是精神分裂的理论但是他们不是性吸引力的解释。大多数理论是精神分裂得到理论但是他们不是性吸引力的理论。他们是每件事的理论,遭遇了每件所遇的事,日差生活,儿童发展,心理疾病,宗教,战争,爱,弗洛伊德和斯金纳已经解释了所有这些。

Now, this is not a history course. I have zero interest in describing historical figures in psychology just for the sake of telling you about the history of the field. What I want to tell you about though is--I want to talk about these ideas because so much rests on them and, even more importantly, a lot of these ideas have critical influence on how we think about the present. And that's there. [pointing at the slide]

现在,这不是一节历史课。我没有兴趣来描述在心理学的历史图表只是为了告诉你关于这个领域的历史。我希望告诉你的就是-我希望谈论这些理念因为这些停留在他们之中,甚至更重要,有许多这些观念对我们怎样思考现在产生重要的影响。就在这里。(指向影片)

Now, for better or worse, we live in a world profoundly affected by Sigmund Freud. If I had to ask you to choose a--no, name a famous psychologist, the answer of most of you would be Freud. He's the most famous psychologist ever and he's had a profound influence on the twentieth and twenty-first century. Some biographical information: He was born in the 1850s. He spent most of his life in Vienna, Austria, but he died in London and he escaped to London soon after retreating there at the beginning of World War II as the Nazis began to occupy where he lived.

现在,更好或更坏,我们住在一个受弗洛依德深刻影响的世界。如果我不得不要你选择-不,一个著名的心理学家,你们大多数会选择弗洛伊德。他曾是最著名的心理分析家并且他对20世纪21世纪有非常深的影响。某些生物拓扑学的信息:他出生在1850年。他大部分生活在奥地利的维也纳,但是在伦敦去世当第二次世界大战开始时纳粹占领了他住的地方他很快从那里撤离。

He's one of the most famous scholars ever but he's not known for any single discovery. Instead, he's known for the development of an encompassing theory of mind, one that he developed over the span of many decades. He was in his time extremely well known, a celebrity recognized on the street, and throughout his life. He was a man of extraordinary energy and productivity, in part because he was a very serious cocaine addict, but also just in general. He was just a high-energy sort of person. He was up for the Nobel Prize in medicine and in literature; didn't get either one of them; didn't get the prize in medicine because Albert Einstein--Everybody loves Albert Einstein. Well, Albert Einstein really wrote a letter because they asked for opinions of other Nobel Prizes. He wrote a letter saying, "Don't give the prize to Freud. He doesn't deserve a Nobel Prize. He's just a psychologist." Well, yeah. Okay.

他是一个最著名的学者但不是以任何单项的发明而著称。事实上,他为人所知是因为他发展了一大片关于心理学的理论,受到普通民众欢迎的,贯穿了他整个的一生。他是一个有着旺盛精力和创造性的男人,某种程度上他是非常严重的可卡因吸食者,但是仅仅是一般意义上的。他是那种有很高能量的人。他被推选为诺贝尔医学和文学奖的提名,但是他两者都没有得到,他没有获得医学的奖因为阿尔伯特爱因斯坦-每个人都喜欢阿尔伯特爱因斯坦。当然,阿尔伯特爱因斯坦写了一封信因为他们征求其它诺贝尔奖获得者的观点。他写了一封信说,“不要给弗洛依德奖。他不适合的诺贝尔奖,因为他只是一个心理学家。好的。

While he's almost universally acclaimed as a profoundly important intellectual figure, he's also the object of considerable dislike. This is in part because of his character. He was not a very nice man in many ways. He was deeply ambitious to the cause of promoting psychoanalysis, to the cause of presenting his view and defending it, and he was often dishonest, extremely brutal to his friends, and terrible to his enemies. He was an interesting character.

他最普遍意义上被认为是一个非常有智慧的图表,他也是被认为不受欢迎的目标。他是这样是因为他的性格。在很多方面他不是一个非常出色的人。他非常有野心去发展促成心理分析的野心,由于他表现他的观点并且防伪他,他经常说谎,对他的朋友非常的冷酷,对他的敌人很恐怖。这是他的一个非常有趣的性格。

My favorite Freud story was as he was leaving Europe during the rise of the Nazis, as he was ready to go to England from, I think, either Germany or Austria, he had to sign a letter from the Gestapo. Gestapo agents intercepted him and demanded he sign a letter saying that at no point had he been threatened or harassed by the Gestapo. So he signs the letter and then he writes underneath it, "The Gestapo has not harmed me in any way. In fact, I highly recommend the Gestapo to everybody." It's--He had a certain aggression to him. He was also--He's also disliked, often hated, because of his views. He was seen as a sexual renegade out to destroy the conception of people as good and rational and pure beings. And when the Nazis rose to power in the 1930s he was identified as a Jew who was devoted to destroying the most sacred notions of Christianity and to many, to some extent, many people see him this way. And to some extent, this accusation has some truth to it.

我的有趣的关于弗洛伊德的故事就是在纳粹上升期间当他离开欧洲,他准备就此到英国,我认为,要么是德国或澳大利亚,他不得不从盖世太保那里签署一封信。盖世太保的代理人拦截了他并且要求他签署一封信说明他没有受到盖世太保的威胁和骚扰。因此他签署信件并且写了藏在其下。盖世太保对他没有任何伤害。事实上,我高度赞扬盖世太保对每个人。它是-他对他有一个确定的攻击。他也-他也不受喜欢,经常被仇恨,由于他的观点。他被看做是一个性的叛逆者以便打破人们关于善良和理性和纯洁生命的观念。当纳粹在三十年代崛起并获得权力他被认为是犹太人并且致力于破坏最为珍贵的基督徒精神还有很多。在某种范围内,许多人这样看待他。在某些领域,这种指控有某种真实性。

Freud made claims about people that many of us, maybe most of us, would rather not know. Well, okay. What did he say? Well, if you ask somebody who doesn't like Freud what he said, they'll describe some of the stupider things he said and, in fact, Freud said a lot of things, some of which were not very rational. For instance, he's well known for his account of phallic symbols, arguing certain architectural monuments are subconsciously developed as penile representations. And related to this, he developed the notorious theory of penis envy. And penis envy is an account of a developmental state that every one of you who is female has gone through, according to Freud. And the idea is that you discovered at some point in your development that you lacked a penis. This is not--This is a catastrophe. And so, each of you inferred at that point that you had been castrated. You had once had a penis but somebody had taken it from you. You then turn to your father and love your father because your father has a penis, so he's a sort of penis substitute. You reject your mother, who's equally unworthy due to her penis lack, and that shapes your psychosexual development.

  弗洛依德宣称我们之中的许多人,我们之中的许多人,将不会知道。当然,很好。他说的是什么?当然,如果你问某人为什么他不喜欢弗洛依德,他们会描述某些他说的愚蠢的事,事实上,弗洛依德谈到了很多事情,某些东西也不是非常理智。比如,他非常著名是因为他对性象征的说明,讨论了特殊的建筑古迹被潜意识的发展为性的表征。与此相关,他发展了名声不好的阴茎妒忌的理论。阴茎妒忌就是对每个状态的说明就你们之中的每个女性都已经经历过了,根据弗洛依德的。这个理念就是你在你的发展阶段的某一点上缺少了阴茎。这不是-这是一个灾难。并且,因此,你们之中的每一个涉及的人都已经去势了。你一但有了一个阴茎某些人从你那里拿来。你接着就转向了你的父亲并且你喜欢你的父亲是因为你的父亲有一个阴茎,因此他是某种阴茎的替代。你拒绝你的母亲,他同等的是无价值的是因为他的阴茎的缺失,而这形成了你的心理性欲的发展。

Now, if that's the sort of thing you know about Freud, you are not going to have a very high opinion of him or of his work, but at the core of Freud's declamation, the more interesting ideas, is a set of claims of a man's intellectual importance. And the two main ones are this. The two main ones involve the existence of an unconscious, unconscious motivation, and the notion of unconscious dynamics or unconscious conflict which lead to mental illnesses, dreams, slips of the tongue and so on.

  现在,如过这类你知道的关于弗洛依德的事,你就不会有有个非常高的关于他或他的工作的观点,但是在弗洛依德的演说之中,更为有趣的观念,是一个男人的智力的重要性的宣称。这两个重要的观点就是这个。这两个重要的观点包括了无意识的存在,无意识的动机,无意识观念的动力学或无意识的困惑导致的精神疾病,梦,语误等等。

The first idea – the idea of unconscious motivation – involves rejecting the claim that you know what you're doing. So, suppose you fall in love with somebody and you decide you want to marry them and then somebody was asked to ask you why and you'd say something like, "Well, I'm ready to get married this stage of my life; I really love the person; the person is smart and attractive; I want to have kids" whatever. And maybe this is true. But a Freudian might say that even if this is your honest answer – you're not lying to anybody else –still, there are desires and motivations that govern your behavior that you may not be aware of. So, in fact, you might want to marry John because he reminds you of your father or because you want to get back at somebody for betraying you.

第一个理念-无意识动机的理念-包括拒绝宣称你知道你在做什么。因此,设想你爱上了某人并且你决定要和他们结婚并且某人被要求问你什么和你要这样说:“好的,我会在这个阶段结婚;我真的爱上那个人;人是聪明的和有吸引力的;我要有孩子”但是。也许这是真的。但是一个弗洛依德主义者也许会说也许这是你的诚实的答案。-你没有对任何其它人说谎-当然,他们是控制你行为的欲望和动机但是你并不知道。因此,事实上,你也许希望和John结婚因为它记得你的父亲或者因为你想要从某人那里取回什么或背叛你。

If somebody was to tell you this, you'd say, "That's total nonsense," but that wouldn't deter a Freudian. The Freudian would say that these processes are unconscious so of course you just don't know what's happening. So, the radical idea here is you might not know what--why you do what you do and this is something we accept for things like visual perception. We accept that you look around the world and you get sensations and you figure out there is a car, there is a tree, there is a person. And you're just unconscious of how this happens but it's unpleasant and kind of frightening that this could happen, that this could apply to things like why you're now studying at Yale, why you feel the way you do towards your friends, towards your family.

  如果某人告诉你这个,你也许会说,“这完全是无意义的”但是那不会阻止一个弗洛依德主义者。弗洛依德主义者会说这些过程是无意识的因此当然你不会知道正在发生什么。因此,激进主义者的理念就是你不会知道什么-为什么你这样做以及这是某种我们要获得的东西就象是视觉感知。我们承认你环视世界并且你获得意义并且你指出这里有一辆汽车,这里有一棵树,这里有一个人。但是你对这一切是如何发生的却是无意识的但是这是非常令人不愉快的有某种可能发生的威胁,这就会为你提供回答这样的问题如为什么你现在要在耶鲁大学学习,为什么你感觉到你要对待你的朋友,对你的家庭的方法。

Now, the marriage case is extreme but Freud gives a lot of simpler examples where this sort of unconscious motivation might play a role. So, have you ever liked somebody or disliked them and not known why? Have you ever found yourself in a situation where you're doing something or you're arguing for something or making a decision for reasons that you can't fully articulate? Have you ever forgotten somebody's name at exactly the wrong time? Have you ever called out the wrong name in the throes of passion? This is all the Freudian unconscious. The idea is that we do these things--these things are explained in terms of cognitive systems that we're not aware of.

  现在,婚姻的例子是极端的但是弗洛伊德提供了许多简单点的例子这类无意识的动机也许会扮演一个角色。因此,你是否喜欢某人或者不喜欢他们并且不知道为什么?你是否发现你在一个环境之种你在做什么或者你在讨论什么事情或者由于某种原因去做决定你完全不能表达?你是否忘记了某人的名子恰好在某个错误的时间?你是否曾经在剧烈的痛苦之中叫错名子?这些是所有的弗洛伊德的无意识。这个观念是我们做这些事情-这些事情以我们不知道的认识系统的术语来解释。

Now, all of this would be fine if your unconscious was a reasonable, rational computer, if your unconscious was really smart and looking out for your best interest. But, according to Freud, that's not the way it works. According to Freud, there are three distinct processes going on in your head and these are in violent internal conflict. And the way you act and the way you think are products, not of a singular rational being, but of a set of conflicting creatures. And these three parts are the id, the ego, and the superego and they emerge developmentally.

  现在,所有的这些会变得很好如果你的无意识是合理的,理智的电脑,如果你的无意识是真的非常聪明和警惕你的最佳利益。但是,根据弗洛依德,这里有三个在你的大脑里运行的有差别的程序而他们是在暴力的内部混乱。你所运行的方式和你所想的方式是产物,而不是单独理性的生命,但是一系列令人困惑的生物。这三部分就本我,自我,超我而且他们在,他们发展性的出现。

The id, according to Freud, is present at birth. It's the animal part of the self. It wants to eat, drink, pee, poop, get warm, and have sexual satisfaction. It is outrageously stupid. It works on what Freud called, "The Pleasure Principle." It wants pleasure and it wants it now. And that's, according to Freud, how a human begins – pure id. Freud had this wonderful phrase, "polymorphous perversity," this pure desire for pleasure.

本我,根据弗洛依德,是与生俱来。这是动物的自我部分。它需要吃,喝,拉,洒,取暖并且获得性满足。这是非常的愚蠢的。它是按弗洛伊德的称为“愉快原则”的方式工作。它需要快乐并且它希望现在就有。而这就是,根据弗洛依德,一个人-纯自我。弗洛依德有这种非常的阶段,多边形反常,这类纯粹的快乐的欲望。

Now, unfortunately, life doesn't work like that. What you want isn't always what you get and this leads to a set of reactions to cope with the fact that pleasure isn't always there when you want it either by planning how to satisfy your desires or planning how to suppress them. And this system is known as the ego, or the self. And it works on the "Reality Principle." And it works on the principle of trying to figure out how to make your way through the world, how to satisfy your pleasures or, in some cases, how to give up on them. And the ego – the emergence of the ego for Freud--symbolizes the origin of consciousness.

  现在,不幸的是,生命并不这样工作。你所希望的并不总是你获得的而这导致了依系列的反映来符合事实就是愉快并不总是在那里当你的需要它或者试图计划怎样去满足你的欲望或者计划怎样压制他们。而这个系统就被当作是自我,或本我。它是按照现实原则来运行的。它运行的原则试图指出你穿过这个世界的方式,怎样去满足你的愉快或者,在某些例子种,怎样放弃他们。而本我-对弗洛依德本我的出现-是无意识产生的符号化。

Finally, if this was all there it might be a simpler world, but Freud had a third component, that of the superego. And the superego is the internalized rules of parents in society. So, what happens in the course of development is, you're just trying to make your way through the world and satisfy your desires, but sometimes you're punished for them. Some desires are inappropriate, some actions are wrong, and you're punished for it. The idea is that you come out; you get in your head a superego, a conscience. In these movies, there'd be a little angel above your head that tells you when things are wrong. And basically your self, the ego, is in between the id and the superego.

  最后,如果这完全是一个简单化的世界,但是弗洛依德有第三个元素,就是超我。超我是在社会之种的父母亲的内置化的规则。因此,在发展阶段所发生的就是,你试图找到通往世界的道路并且满足了你的欲望,但是某些时候你惩罚了他们。因此某些欲望是不正确的某些行为是错的,你压抑了它。这个观念是你产生,你在你的头脑里产生一个超我,一个良知。在这些动机,他们会做一点在你的头脑之中的小天使会在事情错误的时候告诉你。并且基于你自己,你的本我,是在自我和超我之间。

One thing to realize, I told you the id is outrageously stupid. It just says, "Oh, hungry, food, sex, oh, let's get warm, oh." The superego is also stupid. The superego, point to point, is not some brilliant moral philosopher telling you about right and wrong. The superego would say, "You should be ashamed of yourself. That's disgusting. Stop doing that. Oh." And in between these two screaming creatures, one of you; one of them telling you to seek out your desires, the other one telling you, "you should be ashamed of yourself," is you, is the ego.

一件要认识的事情,我告诉你本我是非常的愚蠢的。它只是说,“哦,饥饿,食品,性,哦,让我们获得温暖。哦”超我也是愚蠢的。这个超我,点对点,不是某些非常聪明的道德哲学家告诉你的有关的正确和错误。这个超我将会说“你应该为你自己感到羞耻。这是令人厌恶的。不要做那个了。哦”在这两个令人吃惊的生物前,你们中的一个,他们之中的一个会告诉你发现你的欲望,另一个人告诉你。“你应该对自己感到羞愧。”是你,是本我。

Now, according to Freud, most of this is unconscious. So, we see bubbling up to the top, we feel, we experience ourselves. And the driving of the id, the forces of the id and the forces of the superego, are unconscious in that we cannot access them. We don't know what--It's like the workings of our kidneys or our stomachs. You can't introspect and find them. Rather, they do their work without conscious knowledge.

现在,根据弗洛依德,大多数这些是无意识的。因此,我们冒气泡,我们感到,我们经历了我们自己。而本我的驱使,超我的力量,是无意识的在其中我们不能达到他们。我们不知道为什么-这就像是我们的肾或我们的胃的工作一样。我们不能够反省和发现他们。当然,他们做他们的工作没有无意识的知识。

Now, Freud developed this. This is the Freudian theory in broad outline. He extended it and developed it into a theory of psychosexual development. And so, Freud's theory is, as I said before, a theory of everyday life, of decisions, of errors, of falling in love, but it's also a theory of child development. So, Freud believed there were five stages of personality development, and each is associated with a particular erogenous zone. And Freud believed, as well, that if you have a problem at a certain stage, if something goes wrong, you'll be stuck there. So, according to Freud, there are people in this room who are what they are because they got stuck in the oral stage or the anal stage. And that's not good.

现在,弗洛依德发现了这个。这是弗洛依德理论的大概轮廓他发展了它并且将它发展为一种心理性欲发展的理论。因此,弗洛依德的理论就是,正如我以前说的,日常生活,决心,错误,陷入爱的理论,但是它是一个儿童发展的理论,而每一个都与特定的性欲区相联。而弗洛依德相信,当然,如果你在某个特定阶段有一个问题,如果某些东西错误了,你就会停滞在那里。因此,根据弗洛依德,在这间房子里的人是他们所是的因为他们在口欲区或肛门期就粘住了。这不是好的。

So, the oral stage is when you start off. The mouth is associated with pleasure. Everything is sucking and chewing and so on. And the problem for Freud is premature weaning of a child. Depriving him of the breast, could lead to serious problems in his personality development. It could make him, as the phrase goes, into an oral person. And his orality could be described literally. Freud uses it as an explanation for why somebody might eat too much or chew gum or smoke. They're trying to achieve satisfaction through their mouth of a sort they didn't get in this very early stage of development. But it can also be more abstract. If your roommate is dependent and needy, you could then go to your roommate and say, "You are an oral person. The first year of your life did not go well."

 因此,口欲期阶段开始以后。嘴是与快乐联系在一起的。每件事是吮吸和咀嚼等等。弗洛依德的问题是一个孩子早产断奶。由于剥夺的乳房,这可以在他的人格发展之中导致严重的问题。这可以让他,正如这个阶段进行,进入了口腔期的人。而他的口头性可以被文学话的描述。弗洛依德用它来解释为什么某人会吃很多或者嚼口香糖,或吸烟。在这个非常早期的发展阶段,他们试图通过他们没有通过他们的嘴达到了满足。但是这可以是更为绝对的。如过你的室友是独立的和需要的,你可以接着进入了你的房子并且说,“你是一个口欲的人。你人生之中的第一年并不怎么样。”

A phrase even more popular is the anal stage and that happens after the oral stage. And problems can emerge if toilet training is not handled correctly. If you have problems during those years of life, you could become an anal personality, according to Freud, and your roommate could say, "Your problem is you're too anal." And, according to Freud, literally, it meant you are unwilling to part with your own feces. It's written down here. I know it's true. And the way it manifests itself, as you know from just how people talk, is you're compulsive, you're clean, you're stingy. This is the anal personality.

另一个更为普遍的阶段是口欲期之后肛门期。这些问题的出现是如果厕所的训练不是正确的执行的。如果你在生命的这些年有问题,你可以变成一个肛门期人格,根据弗洛依德,表明的,它意味着你不愿意粘上你的粪。就这样写下来。我知道它是真的。而它表明它自己的方法,你知道人们是怎样谈论的了,你是强迫症,你是洁癖,你是吝啬。这是肛门期性格。

 

Then it gets a little bit more complicated. The next stage is the phallic stage. Actually, this is not much more complicated. The focus of pleasure shifts to the genitals and fixation can lead to excessive masculinity in females or in males or if you're female a need for attention or domination. Now, at this point something really interesting happens called the "Oedipus Complex." And this is based on the story, the mythical story of a king who killed his father and married his mother. And, according to Freud, this happens to all of us in this way. Well, all of us. By "all of us," Freud meant "men."

接着它变得更复杂了。另一个阶段是生殖器阶段。事实上,这不是很复杂的。愉快感转移到了生殖器阶段并且固定可以导致在女性或男性之中导致非常的男性化。现在,在这一点上某些真正让人感兴趣的事情发生了叫做“俄狄浦斯情结”。这是建立在故事上的,一个国王杀死了他的父亲并且娶了他的母亲。并且,根据弗洛依德,这些以这种方式对我们所有的人发生。当然,我们所有的人。“我们所有的人”,弗洛依德意指“人们”。

So, here's the idea. You're three or four years old. You're in the phallic stage. So, what are you interested in? Well, you're interested in your penis and then you seek an external object. Freud's sort of vague about this, but you seek some sort of satisfaction. But who is out there who'd be sweet and kind and loving and wonderful? Well, Mom. So the child infers, "Mom is nice, I love Mom." So far so--And so this is not crazy; a little boy falling in love with his mother. Problem: Dad's in the way.

因此,这是这个观念。你是三岁或四岁。你就在生殖器阶段。因此,你对什么感兴趣?当然,你对你的阴茎感兴趣并且你寻找一个外在的目标。弗洛伊德的某种模糊的,但是你寻找某种满足。谁在外面呢我们会变得甜蜜和善良和可爱和精彩?当然,妈妈。因此这个孩子推断,“妈妈是非常漂亮的,爱妈妈”如此-因而这不是疯狂的。一个小男孩爱上了他的母亲。问题:爸爸就是这样的。

Now, this is going to get progressively weirder but I will have to say, as the father of two sons, both sons went through a phase where they explicitly said they wanted to marry Mommy. And me – if something bad happened to me that wouldn't be the worst thing in the world. So, there's this. But now it gets a little bit aggressive. So, the idea is the child determines that he's going to kill his father. Every three- and four-year-old boy thinks this. But then because children, according to Freud, don't have a good sense of the boundary between their mind and the world, which is a problem – the problem is they don't – they think their father can tell that they're plotting to kill him and they figure their father is now angry at them. And then they ask themselves, "What's the worst thing Dad could do to me?" And the answer is castration. So, they come to the conclusion that their father is going to castrate them because of their illicit love for their Mom. And then they say, "Dad wins" and then they don't think about sex for several years and that's the latency stage.

 现在,这会更进一步变得怪异但是我不得不说,作为有两个孩子的父亲,两个孩子通过了这个阶段他们明确的指出他们想和妈妈结婚。而我-如果某些不好的事情在我身上发生了那不会是世界上最坏的事情。因此,这是这样。现在它取得了一点进步。因此,这个观念就是儿童决定他将要杀掉他的父亲。每三-到四岁的儿童这样想。但是接着由于儿童,根据弗洛伊德,在他们的心灵和世界之间没有一个良好的世界界限的感觉,这是一个问题-这个问题是他们不知道-他们认为他们的父亲可以鉴别出他们密谋杀害他并且他们指出他们的父亲现在对他们很生气。而接着他们问他们自己,“什么是父亲对我能做的最坏的事情。”而答案是阉割。因此,他们得出了一个结论就是他们的父亲倾向于阉割他们因为他们非法的喜欢了他们的母亲。而接着他们说,“父亲胜利了”而接着他们在很多年内不在思考性而这是潜在的阶段。

 

The latency stage is they've gone through this huge thing with Mom and Dad, "fell in love with Mom, wanted to kill my father, Dad was going to castrate me, fell out of love with Mom, out of the sex business." And then, sex is repressed until you get to the genital stage. And the genital stage is the stage we are all in – the healthy adult stage. Now that you're adults and you've gone through all the developmental stages, where do you stand? You're not out of the woods yet because unconscious mechanisms are still--Even if you haven't got fixated on anything, there's still this dynamic going on all the time with your id, your ego and your superego. And the idea is your superego--Remember, your superego is stupid. So, your superego isn't only telling you not to do bad things, it's telling you not to think bad things. So, what's happening is your id is sending up all of this weird, sick stuff, all of these crazy sexual and violent desires, "Oh, I'll kill him. I'll have sex with that. I'll have extra helpings on my dessert." And your superego is saying, "No, no, no." And this stuff is repressed. It doesn't even make it to consciousness.

潜在的阶段就是他们和爸爸妈妈一起经历了这个大事“爱上了妈妈,希望杀掉我的爸爸,父亲想要阉割我,不被母亲喜爱,没有性事。”接着,性是压抑的直到你进入了阴茎阶段。这个阴茎阶段就是一个我们都有进入的阶段-健康的成人阶段。现在你是成年人和你经历了所有的发展阶段,你在哪个阶段?你没有在森林之外因为无意识的机制仍然是这样-即便你没有附着在任何事上,这里仍然有这个动态的事情在运行在所有的时间与你的本我,自我,超我。而这个观念就是你的超我-记住,你的超我是愚蠢的。因此,你的超我不仅是告诉你不要做坏事,它也告诉你不要想坏事。因此,所发生的就是你的本我释放出了所有怪异的,病态的事情,所有这些肮脏的性欲和暴力的欲望。“哦,我要杀了他。我已经和那个发生性关系。我要有额外的甜心。”而你的超我就说,“不,不,不”而这些事是压抑的。它不会让它进入意识。

The problem is Freud had a very sort of hydraulic theory of what goes on and some of this stuff slips out and it shows up in dreams and it shows up in slips of the tongue. And in exceptional cases, it shows up in certain clinical symptoms. So what happens is, Freud described a lot of normal life in terms of different ways we use to keep that horrible stuff from the id making its way to consciousness. And he called these "defense mechanisms." You're defending yourself against the horrible parts of yourself and some of these make a little bit of sense.

这个问题是弗洛伊德有一个某种液压的理论什么在进行和某些这种物质的线索和它在梦中显现在语言之中流露。

而在其它的例子,他在特定的临床症状之中显现。因此所发生的就是,弗洛依德描述了许多日常生活之中的我们从本我到意识之中许多方法来保有这些脏东西。他把这些叫做防御机制。你防御你自己抵抗你自己身上可怕的部分而某些这个产生了一点意思。

 

 

One way to describe this in a non-technical, non-Freudian way is, there are certain things about ourselves we'd rather not know. There are certain desires we'd rather not know and we have ways to hide them. So, for instance, there's sublimation. Sublimation is you might have a lot of energy, maybe sexual energy or aggressive energy, but instead of turning it to a sexual or aggressive target what you do is you focus it in some other way. So, you can imagine a great artist like Picasso turning the sexual energy into his artwork.

我们表述这些的方法是一个非机械的,非弗洛依德的方法,我们有些事情关于我们自己是不能知道的。这里有特定的欲望我们不知道我们有办法隐藏他们。比如,这里有升华。升华就是你也许有许多的能量,也许是性能量或攻击能量,但是替代为一个性欲的或攻击性的目标你要做的就是你你用某种方式来集中它。因此,你可以设想一个伟大的艺术家如毕加索将性能量转换为他的艺术创作。

 

 

 

There is displacement. Displacement is you have certain shameful thoughts or desires and you refocus them more appropriately. A boy who's bullied by his father may hate his father and want to hurt him but since this would--this is very shameful and difficult. The boy might instead kick the dog and think he hates the dog because that's a more acceptable target.

这是替代。替代就是你有一些害羞的思想或欲念而你重新正确的调整了他们。一个被他的父亲欺负的男孩也许会痛恨他的父亲并且想要伤害他但是由此这将要-这是非常羞耻的和困难的。这个男孩也许代之以提狗或者想到他恨那只狗因为这是一个很可以接受的目标。

 

There is projection. Projection is, I have certain impulses I am uncomfortable with, so rather than own them myself, I project them to somebody else. A classic example for Freud is homosexual desires. The idea is that I feel this tremendous lust towards you, for instance, and--any of you, all of you, you three, and I'm ashamed of this lust so what I say is, "Hey. Are you guys looking at me in a sexual manner? Are you lusting after me? How disgusting," because what I do is I take my own desires and I project it to others. And Freud suggested, perhaps not implausibly, that men who believe other men--who are obsessed with the sexuality of other men, are themselves projecting away their own sexual desires.

这是投射。投射就是,我有特别的冲动我不满于,为了不让他们属于我自己,我把他们投射到另外的人身上。一个弗洛伊德的经典例子就是同性恋。这个观念就是我感到这是对你强大的欲望,比如,-并且-你们任何人,你们所有的人,你们三个,我对这种欲望感到羞愧因此我要说的就是“嗨。你们这帮家伙以色迷迷的方式看我?你是对我有性欲吗?这是多么另人厌恶”因此我要做的就是把我把握自己的欲望并且把它投射到他人身上。而弗洛伊德建议说,也许不是另人难以置信的,人们相信它人-他们有对其它男人纠缠有性欲,他们投射了他们自己的性欲望。

There is rationalization, which is that when you do something or think something bad you rationalize it and you give it a more socially acceptable explanation. A parent who enjoys smacking his child will typically not say, "I enjoy smacking my child." Rather he'll say, "It's for the child's own good. I'm being a good parent by doing this."

这是理性主义,这就是当你做什么事情或考虑什么事情很糟糕时你理性的认识他而你给予它一个更被社会承认的解释。一个喜欢拍打他的小孩的人典型的不会说,“我很喜欢打我的孩子”接着他会说,“这是由于孩子自己的善良。我要做这些是因为我是一个好父亲。”

 

And finally, there is regression, which is returning to an earlier stage of development. And you actually see this in children. In times of stress and trauma, they'll become younger, they will act younger. They might cry. They might suck their thumb, seek out a blanket or so on. Now, these are all mechanisms that for Freud are not the slightest bit pathological. They are part of normal life. Normally, we do these things to keep an equilibrium among the different systems of the unconscious, but sometimes it doesn't work. Sometimes things go awry and what happens is a phrase that's not currently used in psychology but was popular during Freud's time: hysteria.

而最后,这是退化,这退回到了早期的发展阶段。而你在儿童期间真正的看到了这个。为了强调和创伤,他们会变得更年轻,他们的行为会更年轻。他们也许叫喊。他们也许吮吸他们的拇指,找出毛毯或之类的。现在,这些对弗洛依德来说都是机制对弗洛依德来说没有丝毫的病态。他们是生命的部分。正常的,我们做这些事情是为了在无意识的不同系统内保持平衡,但是是某些时候它不能运作了。有时候事情变得扭曲并且所发生的是一个警句这不在心理学之中用到的但是在弗洛依德时期是普遍的:歇斯底里。

Hysteria includes phenomena like hysterical blindness and hysterical deafness, which is when you cannot see and cannot hear even though there's nothing physiologically wrong with you – paralysis, trembling, panic attacks, gaps of memory including amnesia and so on. And the idea is that these are actually symptoms. These are symptoms of mechanisms going on to keep things unconscious. It's a common enough idea in movies. Often in movies what happens is that somebody goes to an analyst. They have some horrible problem. They can't remember something or they have some sort of blackouts and so on. And the analyst tells them something and at one point they get this insight and they realize what--why they've blinded themselves, why they can't remember, and for Freud this is what happens. Freud originally attempted to get these memories out through hypnosis but then moved to the mechanism of free association and, according to Freud, the idea is patients offer resistance to this and then the idea of a psychoanalyst is to get over the resistance and help patients get insight.

  歇斯底里症包括的现象如歇斯底里失明和歇斯底里耳聋,这就是当你不能看和不能听的时候而这时候你没有什么物理的错误-瘫痪,发抖,痛苦的袭击,记忆力的缺失包括失忆症等等。而这个观念就是他们是完全的症状。这些症状的机制让事情保留到无意识之中去。这在电影里是经常出现的观念。经常在电影之中发生的就是某人去找分析师。他们有某些可怕的问题。他们不能够记住某些东西或者他们有某类停滞等等。而心理分析家告诉他们某些事情并且在某一点上他们获得了洞察力而他们认识到什么-为什么他们自己失眠了,为什么他们不能记住,而对弗洛伊德来说这是所要发生的。弗洛依德一般意义上试图通过催眠让那个这些记忆排除但是他们接着转移到了自由联想的机制并且,根据弗洛依德,这个观点是病人对此提出的抗据并且这个心理分析家会解除这个抵抗并且帮助病人获得洞察力。

The key notion of psychoanalysis is your problems are--actually reflect deeper phenomena. You're hiding something from yourself, and once you know what's going on to deeper phenomena your problems will go away. I'm going to give you an example of a therapy session. Now, this is not a Freudian analysis. We'll discuss later on in the course what a Freudian analysis is, but this is not a pure Freudian analysis. A Freudian analysis, of course, is lying on a couch; does not see their therapist; their therapist is very nondirective. But I'm going to present this as an example here because it illustrates so many of the Freudian themes, particularly themes about dreams, the importance of dreams, about repression and about hidden meaning.

精神分析的关键观点就是你的问题是-实际上更深反应了更深的现象。你试图从你自己身上隐藏你自己,一但你知道了在更深的现象上发生了什么你的问题就解除了。我会给你一个治疗会议的例子。现在,这不是一个弗洛伊德的分析。我们随后会在课堂上讨论什么是弗洛依德的分析,而这不是个个单纯的弗洛伊德的分析。一个弗洛依德的分析,当然,是在躺椅上,没有看到他们治疗者;他们的治疗师是非常非指导性的。我要表达这一点作为一个例子就是因为他表达了许多弗洛依德的主题,特别的主题是关于梦,梦的重要性,关于压抑和关于隐藏的意义。

So, this is from a television episode and the character's--Many--Some of you may have seen this. Many of you will not have. The character is suffering from panic attacks. [Professor Paul Bloom plays a short episode from the Sopranos]

当然,这是从一个电视的片段而主角-许多-你么之中的一些人已经看到了这个。你们之中的许多人不会拥有。这个角色是遭受痛苦的袭击。(保罗布鲁姆教授放映了一小段女高音的电视片)

Freud's contributions extend beyond the study of individual psychology and individual pathology. Freud had a lot to say about dreams as you could see in this illustration. He believed that dreams had a manifest content, meaning; "manifest" meaning what you experience in your dream. But dreams always had a latent content as well, meaning the hidden implication of the dream. He viewed all dreams as wish fulfillment. Every dream you have is a certain wish you have even though it might be a forbidden wish that you wouldn't wish to have, you wouldn't want to have. And dreams had--and this is an idea that long predated Freud. Dreams had symbolism. Things in dreams were often not what they seemed to be but rather symbols for other things. Freud believed that literature and fairy tales and stories to children and the like carried certain universal themes, certain aspects of unconscious struggles, and certain preoccupations of our unconscious mind. And Freud had a lot to say about religion. For instance, he viewed a large part of our--of the idea of finding a singular, all-powerful god as seeking out a father figure that some of us never had during development.

  弗洛依德的贡献超越了个人的心理研究和个人的病理研究。弗洛依德有很多关于梦的东西要说你可以在这个说明之中看到。他相信梦有明确的内容,就是说“明确”意味着你在梦中的经历。但是梦总是有一个当然潜在的内容,意味着隐藏梦的暗示。他声明说所有的梦都是愿望的满足。每个你有的梦就是一个特定的你思考的特定愿望这也许是一个被禁止的愿望你不希望拥有,你不想要拥有。而梦已经-这是弗洛依德很长时间说的。梦有象征性。事情在梦中并不总是他们似乎象的那样而是其它事情的象征。弗洛依德相信对孩子而言文学和神话传说故事之类的拥有特定的普遍主题,无意识斗争的特定面貌,我们无意识心灵的特定的专注。弗洛依德有很多关于宗教的说法。比如,他说明了我们之中的一大部分-在理念上发现了一个唯一的,全能的神犹如去寻找一个我们发展之中从没有的父亲形象。

What I want to spend the rest of the class on is the scientific assessment of Freud. So, what I did so far is I've told you what Freud had to say in broad outline. I then want to take the time to consider whether or not we should believe this and how well it fits with our modern science. But before doing so, I'll take questions for a few minutes. Do people have any questions about Freud or Freud's theories? Yes.

我们想要在这节课的后半部分对弗洛依德有一个科学的评估。因此,我要做的就是我已经告诉你弗洛伊德在大纲之中说的。我接着花时间考虑是否我们应该相信这些以及它是怎样与我们现代科学相符合的。但是在做这个之前,我要花一些时间来回答问题。你们有关于弗洛依德或弗洛依德理论的任何问题吗?好的。

 

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