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特定名词的简要说明(七)

(2010-02-05 15:58:29)
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Pratyeka Buddha : (Pali. Patiekan, Singh. Pase Buddha, Burm. Ptetzega. Tib. Rangs sang dschei. Mong. Pratikavudor Ovoro Torolkitu)…………………………… or ………………. explained by ………….lit. individually intelligent, or by ………….lit. completely intelligent, or by…………..lit. intelligent as regards the Nidanas.  A degree of saintship (unknown to primitive Buddhism), viewed as one of the 3 conveyances to Nirvana (v. Madhyimayana), and practiced by hermits who, as attaining to Ruddhaship individually (e.i. without teacher and without saving others), are compared with the Khadga and called Ekas’ringa richi.  As crossing Sansara, suppressing errors, and yet not attaining to absolute perfection, the Pratyeka Buddha is compared with a horse which crosses a river, swimming, without touching the ground.  Having mastered the 12 Nidanas, he is also called Nidana Buddha,

Pratyeka Buddha 辟支佛:(Pali. Patiekan, Singh. Pase Buddha, Burm. Ptetzega. Tib. Rangs sang dschei. Mong. Pratikavudor Ovoro Torolkitu)……毕勒支底伽佛………………………或…辟支佛……………解释为 ……独觉……lit。个人的理解,或者…圆觉………完全的智慧,或者……缘觉……..说明。关于因缘的理解。达到圣人的程度(未知的原始佛教),被视为

三条通往涅磐的道路之一(中观),为隐士所修炼,他们独自达到Ruddhaship(即没有老师并且不能救度他人),与Khadga相比叫做Ekas’ringa richi.当穿过Sansara,清除了错误,但没有达到绝对的圆满,辟支佛可以比喻为一匹过河的马,游泳,没有触到地面。由于已经掌握了12因缘,他也被叫做因缘佛。

Pukkusa : He was a disciple of Alāra Kālama, and one day, while on his way from Kusinārā to Pāvā, he saw the Buddha seated under a tree by the roadside and stayed to talk to him. He mentioned that once five hundred carts had passed by where Ālāra sat, and yet so deep was he in meditation that he had failed to notice them. The Buddha told him how, when he himself, there was a great thunderstorm which killed two peasants and four oxen, but that he had heard and seen nothing, so deep was his concentration. Pukkusa was greatly impressed by this statement, and, having declared himself a follower of the Buddha, he gave to the Buddha two robes of cloth of gold, one of which, at the Buddha's suggestion, he handed to Ananda. When Pukkusa had left, Ananda draped one robe over the Buddha, and was greatly astonished at its pale appearance in comparison with the deep gold of the Buddha's body.

Pukkusa : 他是Alāra Kālama的一个弟子,有一天,在从KusinārāPāvā,的路上,他看到佛陀坐在路边的树下并且和他谈话。他注意到有一次有五百个车穿过Ālāra的地方,他正深度的冥想他没有注意到他们。佛陀告诉他怎样,当他自己,这是有非常大的雷杀死了两个农民和四头牛,但是他没有听到也没有看到什么,他专注得很深。Pukkusa为这些表白而深受感动,并且,成为了佛陀的追随者,他给了佛陀两个金色的袍子,其中一个,在佛陀的建议下,他交给了阿难。当Pukkusa离开是,阿难脱下一个袍子披在佛陀身上,并且非常惊讶与佛陀很深的金身相比他的面容显得苍白。

 

Rājagaha : A city, the capital of Magadha.

Rājagaha :一个城市,Magadha. 的首都

 

Rāmagāma : A village on the banks of the Ganges. Its inhabitants claimed and obtained a share of the Buddha's relics, over which they erected a thūpa.

Rāmagāma :恒河岸边的一个村子。它的居民宣称已经分享到了佛陀的遗物,他们在那里建立一个塔。

 

Rupa (Rupadhatu): Body; physical phenomenon; sense datum. The basic meaning of this word is "appearance" or "form." It is used, however, in a number of different contexts, taking on different shades of meaning in each. In lists of the objects of the senses, it is given as the object of the sense of sight. As one of the khandha, it refers to physical phenomena or sensations (visible appearance or form being the defining characteristics of what is physical). This is also the meaning it carries when opposed to nama, or mental phenomena.

Rupa (Rupadhatu)色:身体,物理现象,感官材料。这个词的最基本意思就是外表或形式。它被用来,当然,大量不同的语境下,每一个都有不同的含义。所列的感官目标来看,它是视觉感官的目标。作为五蕴之一,它是之物理现象或感觉(视觉形象或形式确定了物理的特点)。这也是它与nama或心理现象相对的概念。

 

Rupi.  This refers to form-sphere absorption (rupajjhana) obtained with form objects of one’s own body.

Rupi色身。这是指形式领域的吸收(rupajjhana)获得人自己身体的形式客体

Sakadagami : Once-returner. A person who has abandoned the first three of the fetters that bind the mind to the cycle of rebirth , has weakened the fetters of sensual passion and resistance, and who after death is destined to be reborn in this world only once more.

Sakadagami 斯陀含:一来果。一个人已经去除了三个轮回的精神枷锁之一,削弱了感情和阻碍的枷锁,死后注定要在这个世界转生一次。

 

Sakka : He is the king of the gods in the Tavatimsa heaven, and thus a lower figure in the cosmological picture than Brahma Sahampati.

Sakka :他是忉利天的众神之王,在宇宙图表中比大梵天要低

 

Sākiyā : A tribe in North India, to which the Buddha belonged. Sakyamuni Buddha.

Sākiyā :北印度的一个部落,佛陀属于释迦族的佛。

 

Sala trees : Buddha laying between twin sala trees.

Sala trees萨拉树:佛陀躺在两颗萨拉树之间

 

Samatha : (Pali) 'Tranquillity', is a symtom of samadhi (concentration). It is one of the mental factors in wholesome consciousness.

Samatha 奢摩他 :(巴利文)宁静,是三摩地(专注)的征兆。它是一种健康思想的心理因素之一。

 

Samyutta Nikāya : One of the five divisions of the Sutta Pitaka.

Samyutta Nikāya 杂阿含经:是三藏经中的五分之一。

 

Sangha : Buddhist monks.

Sangha 僧伽:佛教徒

Sankhara : Formation, compound, fashioning, fabrication — the forces and factors that fashion things (physical or mental), the process of fashioning, and the fashioned things that result. Sankhara can refer to anything formed or fashioned by conditions, or, more specifically, thought-formations within the mind.

Sankhara 想蕴:形成,组成,方式,构造-幻想事物的因素和力量(身体或精神),形成的过程,想象事情的结果。想蕴可以指任何形成或条件的方式,或,更具体的说,在心灵里的思想构成。

 

Sañña : Label; perception; allusion; act of memory or recognition; interpretation.

Sañña :标签,感知,暗指,记忆或认知行为;解释。

 

Sāriputta :  Sāriputta Thera. The chief disciple of Buddha.

Sāriputta舍利弗 :舍利弗长老。佛的首席弟子。

Sotapanni.-  Those who through Dhyana, or contemplation, have obtained the first inner perception of truth and sanctity, are called Sotapanni.  The Solapanno has freed himself from the first three fetters-namely, delusion of self, doubts about Buddha’s doctrine, and dependence on external rites.  He can only be reborn as a god or man, but not in the four lower phases of sentient beings (as an asura, or demon; an animal; a preta, or hungry ghost; or as a being undergoing torments in hell).

Sotapanni.须陀恒果-那些通过禅,或沉思,已经获得了第一个对真理和神圣的内部的觉察,叫做须陀恒。Solapanno已经从三个束缚之一解脱出来了-即,自我的破坏,对佛陀教义的怀疑,对外在仪式的依赖。他只能出生为一个神或人,但是不在有情众生的四个较低的阶段(如阿修罗,或恶魔,动物,饿鬼,正在经历痛苦的地狱)

 

Samadhi : (Pali. Samato) Concentration; the practice of centering the mind in a single sensation or preoccupation, usually to the point of jhana. ……………… or ……………… or ………… explained by ……lit. fixity, or by ………. lit. sam-adha, self-possessed, or by ……….lit. correct fixity; or ………………lit. samadha, explained by ………….. stop breathing, or by…………lit. listless.  One of the 7 Bodhyanga (q.v.), the mastery of abstract coutemplation and tranquility(…………or …………………..), variously defined, as perfect tranquility (Hardy), meditative abstraction (Turnour), or self-control (Burnouf).  The term Samadhi it sometimes used ethically, when it designates moral self-delive-rance from passion and vice (………….Mukti), and sometimes metaphysically, when it is interchanged with Dhyana (q.v.) and signifies abstract meditation, resulting in physical and mental coma and eventually in Nirvana.  “He consumed his body by Agni (the fire of)  Samadhi,” is the saint’s standing epitaph.  This love for quietistic self annihilation, traced back to Maudgalyayana, may have arisen through a natural reaction against the austerities of moral asceticism which characterized primitive Buddhism.  The Mahayana School invented numberless hair splitting distinctions of different degrees of Samadhi. Dhyana (q.v.) and Samapatti (q.v.) are practically the preliminary steps leading to Samadhi.

Samadhi 三摩地:(巴利文Samato)专注,集中精力在一个单独的点上或全神贯注的实践,通常是指禅……三摩提………… 或 …三摩地…………… 或 …三昧………解释为…定…lit.固定性,或通过- lit. 三摩地sam-adha, 沉静  ,或通过…正定…….lit. 正确的固定性; or 奢摩他解释为……止息…….. 停止呼吸, or通过……寂静……lit. 倦怠.7个菩提支之一(q.v.),掌握了抽象的观想和宁静(…定觉………或…了徹禅定………………..)不同的定义,就如非常的宁静(艰苦)抽象的冥想(道岔Turnour)自我控制(Burnouf)。三摩地这个术语有时候在伦理上适用, 指定为道德自我供应从情绪和邪恶(…解脱……….Mukti)中走出来时,有时候形而上学,当他与禅交互时,意味着抽象的冥想,导致了身体和心灵的昏迷并中最终处在涅磐状态。他耗尽了他的身体由于阿格尼Agni(火的)三摩地。是圣徒立起的墓志铭。这是对寂灭的爱,可以追溯到Maudgalyayana,也许可以通过一个自然反映产生道德的苦行主义这是原始佛教的特点。大乘教派发明了无数的不同程度的三摩地的细微区别。禅那和三摩钵地是实际的初步的导致三摩地的方法。

 

Sariputta was the chief disciple of the Buddha and the one who excelled in wisdom. For a full account of the life and works or this illustrious individual.

舍利弗是佛陀的首席弟子,一个出色的智者。对生命和工作的完整的考虑或对于生命和卓越的个人主义

Savatthi : Savatthi in Pali, Sravasti in Sanskrit. The capital of the ancient Kingdom of Kosala, where the famous monastery (Bodhimandala) Jetavanna Grove was located.

舍卫城:巴利文Savatthi,梵文Sravasti。这是古老的Kosala王国的首都,著名的修道院(Bodhimandala)祇桓精舍在那里。

 

Sila (paramis): Virtue, morality. The quality of ethical and moral purity that prevents one from falling away from the eightfold path. Also, the training precepts that restrain one from performing unskillful actions. Sila is the second theme in the gradual training, one of the ten paramis, the second of the seven treasures, and the first of the three grounds for meritorious action.

Sila(波罗蜜):德,道德。在道德和伦理上的纯洁性防止落入八正道。当然,这个训练的戒律遏制了一个人从事不熟练的行为。Sila是循序渐进训练的第二个主题,十波罗蜜之一,七宝之二,记忆行为的三个基础之一。

 

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