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特定名词的简要说明(五)

(2010-02-05 15:56:03)
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Lo-hu-lo ……………, Rahula. – One of the Four Great Disciples, or Bikshus (supra).  The eldest son of Sakyamuni by Yasodhara, also called Rahula-mata, or Rahula’s mother.  Dwells in the Priyangudvipa region, or “Land of Millet” (some translate “Chestnuts”).  Converted to Buddhism, he followed his father as an attendant and disciple.  Was distinguished for his diligent study of the Canon and his uncompromising strictness in carrying out the rules of his profession.  After his father’s death, he became the founder of a philosophical realistic school.  It is his lot to die and return to the world as the eldest son of every future Buddha.  He is not to pass finally out of existence for many ages.  He appeared as a very old bikshu with white bushy eyebrows to a Buddhist layman at a town not very far from Kusinagara sometime before the period of Hsuan Tsang ………….. (seventh century A.D.).  When the layman gave the old bikshu boiled milk, the latter sighed over it as being as insipid as the river water he once used when attending Buddha, subsequently explaining that he was Rahula.  Hsuan Tsang…………., visiting the ruins of Kapilavastu, saw a statue representing him, together with his mother, Rahula-mata.  He is often represented in pictures and images as having the large “umbrella-shaped” head, prominent eyes, and hooked nose which some books ascribe to him, but in many cases without any distinctive features or attribute.  He is worshipped as the special patron of Buddhist novices.

Lo-hu-lo 罗睺罗……………Rahula 四大弟子之一,或Bikshus(同上),释迦牟尼最大的长子耶输陀罗,也被称为Rahula-mata,或胡拉的母亲。住在Priyangudvipa地区,或“小米地”(有些翻译为栗子).与佛教相反,他追随他的父亲以随从和弟子。由于勤奋学习佛教的经典而受到尊重他坚定的执着履行了他的职责。在父亲逝世后,他成为现实哲学教派的奠基人。这就是不幸的逝世并且返回了世界作为每个未来佛的长子。在很多世纪里他没有最终从这个世界迁化。他显现为一个白色浓眉的老比丘对佛教的门外汉在离Kusinagara不远的一个镇上有时是在Hsuan Tsang之前。。。(公元前7世纪)。当那个外行给老比丘煮好的牛奶时,他叹了口气就象他到佛陀那里去他曾用过的河水一样平淡,接着就解释说他就是Rahula Hsuan Tsang…拜访了迦毗罗卫国的废墟,看到了他的铜像,还有他的母亲,Rahula-mata。他被经常在图片和照片上使用有很大伞形头,突出的眼睛,鹰钩鼻子就象一些书描述的那样,但是在许多案例下没有任何与众不同的特点或属性。他被崇敬为特殊的佛教赞助新人。

 

Lumbini near Kapilavatthu, the ancestral seat of the Sakyans in the foothills of the Himalayas. An Asokan pillar marks the spot.

蓝毗尼附近Kapilavatthu, Sakyans祖先的席位在喜马拉雅山山麓。一个标有Asokan的柱子的地方。

 

Magadha : (Magadha) formed one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas (Sanskrit "Great Countries") or regions in ancient India. The core of the kingdom was the area of Bihar south of the Ganges; its capital was Rajagaha (modern Rajgir). Magadha expanded to include most of Bihar and Bengal with the conquest of Licchavi and Anga respectively,[1] followed by much of eastern Uttar Pradesh. The ancient kingdom of Magadha is mentioned in the Ramayana, Mahabharata, Puranas. It is also heavily mentioned in Buddhist and Jain texts.

Magadha摩揭陀:(摩揭陀)是16个 Mahājanapadas之一(梵语“伟大的国家”),或在古印度的地区。王国的核心是比哈尔邦以南地区恒河,其首都在王舍城Rajagaha(现代叫Rajgir)。摩揭陀扩大到包括大多数比哈尔邦和西孟加拉邦与征服地Licchavi和Anga [1]东部主要是Uttar Pradesh.。在摩揭陀古王国中提到的,罗摩衍那,摩诃婆罗多,往世书。这也是在佛教和耆那教中也大量提到 。

 

Mahakasyapa :  Mo-ho-chia-yeh Tsun-che………………………… “Kasyapa, or as he is more generally called Maha-Kasyapa, the Great Kasyapa, was a Brahman or Magadha (Bahar), in Central India, and one of the principal disciples of Buddha.  He grasped readily the teaching of the Master, and practiced a severve ascetic life.  Buddha wished him to sit on the same seat as himself, but to this he would never consent.  When Guatama died at Kusinara, he was apprised of the fact by an earthquake.  Immediately afterwards, he convoked an assembly of five hundred Arhats, in the Sattapanni cave, at Gridkrakuta, and compiled the first Buddhist Canon.  He then expounded the Law during twenty years at Rajagriha, and being at the point of death, entrusted the deposit of the doctrine to Ananda.”  Kasyapa is held to be the first patriarch of Indian Buddhism.  He is greatly honoured in China. Represented as an old man, with extremely long eyebrows.  Hold a mendicant’s staff in his left hand, and in his right a scroll, symbolical of his great work, the compilation of the Sutras.

Mahakasyapa 迦叶:摩诃迦叶尊者…………………………迦叶,他通常被叫做摩诃迦叶,大迦叶,是一为婆罗门或摩揭陀(巴哈尔),在中印度,是佛主要的弟子之一。他很欣然的接受大师的教法,并且严格修苦行。佛陀希望他和自己坐在一起,但是他永远不同意,当乔达摩在拘尸Kusinara死亡时,他从一场地震之中明白了这个事实。紧接着,他召集了五百罗汉的会议,在Sattapanni的山洞,在Gridkrakuta,编辑了第一部佛教的经典。在以后的二十年里,在王舍城,他接着释解佛法,直到死亡,将保存的教法托付给阿难。迦叶被当作印度佛教的第一长老。他在中国受到广泛的尊重。示现为一个老人,他有长长的眉毛。左手托钵,右手持卷,他的伟大工作的代表,就是对佛经的编著。

 

Mahayana (School):  Ma-ho-yen-na …………………………  or Ma-ho-sheng ………………….., etc.  The third degree of saintship, the state of a Bodhisattva, who, “being able to transport himself and others to Nirvana, may be compared with a large vehicle (ta-sheng 大乘).  A school formed by Nagardjuna, which influenced more or less the whold Buddhist church.  It is one of the three phases of development”(v. Triyana).  Its characteristics are “an excess of transcendental speculation tending to abstract nihilism, and the substitution of fanciful degrees of meditation (Samadhi and  Dhyana, qq. v.)  in place of the practical asceticism of the Hinayana School.  It is not known to southern Buddhists as a separate system, though it appears to have influenced Singhalese Buddhists, whom Hiuen (Hsuan) Tsang ………..classed among the followers of the Mahayana School.”

Mahayana 大乘(学派):摩诃耶那…………………………或摩诃生…………………..,等。圣徒的第三级,菩萨境界,他“能够让他自己和他人进入涅磐,可以比喻为大的车子(大乘)。这一学派是由Nagardjuna龙猛形成的,这或多或少的影响了整个佛教界。是其发展过程的三个重要阶段之一(v.三乘)。它的特点是“超过先验思考的导致了抽象的虚无主义,是禅定幻想的替代物(三摩地和禅,qq. v.)在小乘佛教的禁欲苦修之中流行。南部佛教徒没有把它当作一个独立的体系,尽管它似乎已经影响了僧伽罗的佛教徒,莲花生大士………..可以归为大乘教派的追随者。

 

Maitreya :  (Pali. Metteyo. Singh. Maitri. Siam. Phrai. Tib. Byampspa mgon po or Chamra. Mong. Maidari)…………….. or ………………. or ……..explained by ……… lit. he whose name is charity.  A fictitious Bodhisattva often called Aditja, a principal figure in the retinue of S’akyamuni, though not a historic disciple.  It is said S’akyamuni visited him in Tuchita and appointed him to issue thence as his successor after the lapse of 5,000 years.  Maitreya is the expected Messiah of the Buddhists and even now controls the propagation of the faith.  A philosophical School (……………lit. School of the five-fold nature) regards him as their founder.  Statues were erected in his honour as early as B.C. 350.  See also Avalokites’vara, Purnamaitrayani and Mandjus’ri.

Maitreya 弥勒:(Pali. Metteyo. Singh. Maitri. Siam. Phrai. Tib. Byampspa mgon po or Chamra. Mong. Maidari) 梅恒丽邪…………….. 或者 …昧袒履曳……………. 或者弥勒……..解释者 …慈氏……说明。他的名字是慈爱。一个虚构的菩萨通常叫做Aditja,释迦牟尼的追随者中的主要象征,而不是一个历史上的弟子。据说释迦牟尼在Tuchita拜访了他并且指定他为5000年后的继承人。弥勒佛是预期的佛教徒的弥撒亚并且现在控制着信仰的传播。一个哲学流派(……………五重自性的教派)把他当作他们的创始人。早在公元前350年就为他树立了雕像.也可以看到观自在,富楼那和文殊。

Makutabandhana : A "shrine" of the Mallas to the east of Kusināra, where the Buddha's body was cremated. It was a Hall in which the Malla chiefs put on their ornaments on festival days. It was called a cetiya because it was decorated.

Makutabandhana :在东Kusināra 拘尸的Mallas的圣地,那里佛陀的身体被火化了。这是一个大厅在那里Malla的酋长在节日期间装饰。这被叫做遗塔,因为它是装饰。

 

Mara :  Mo-10 ………… or ………..- The God of lust, sin and death, represented with a hundred arms and riding on an elephant.  He assumes various monstrous forms, or sends his daughters, or inspires wicked men (like Devadatta, or the Nirgranthas qqv) to seduce or frighten saints on earth.  The word more is explained as “ he who kills “. (sha-che…………, The murderer) also as the culprit.  The maras are considered as demons being enemies of Buddha’s doctrine, although they inhabit one of the lokas or heavens of Hindu cosmogoing.  The king of the maras ( mo kuei : …………..) is called “Po Haun ……….. and Mo (Ma) wang ………

Mara : 魔Mo-10 ………… 或 ………..欲望,罪和死亡之神,表现为100手臂并且骑在大象上。他呈现为不同的骇人形式,或者送他的女儿,或者鼓励邪恶的人(就象提婆达多,尽管他们居住在lokas或印度的天堂cosmogoing。Maras的国王(魔鬼mo kuei)被叫做Po Haun 婆含,Mo (Ma) wang魔王)

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