加载中…
个人资料
瓶中信
瓶中信
  • 博客等级:
  • 博客积分:0
  • 博客访问:20,070
  • 关注人气:9
  • 获赠金笔:0支
  • 赠出金笔:0支
  • 荣誉徽章:
相关博文
推荐博文
谁看过这篇博文
加载中…
正文 字体大小:

特定名词的简要说明(四)

(2010-02-05 15:54:50)
标签:

文化

这五个是关于佛陀的和要求所有僧伽都要受持的五戒

  • (1) that monks should dwell all their lives in the forest,
  •  和尚应该在森林里居住
  • (2) that they should accept no invitations to meals, but live entirely on alms obtained by begging,
  • 他们应该接受吃饭的邀请,但是完全靠乞讨生活。
  • (3) that they should wear only robes made of discarded rags and accept no robes from the laity,
  • 他们应该仅仅接受用破布制成的袍子并且不接受门外汉的袍子
  • (4) that they should dwell at the foot of a tree and not under a roof,
  •  他们应该住在大树下面而不是在屋檐下
  • (5) that they should abstain completely from fish and flesh.
  •    他们应该完全戒除鱼和肉

The Buddha's reply was that those who felt so inclined could follow these rules - except that of sleeping under a tree during the rainy season - but he refused to make the rules obligatory. This refusal delighted Devadatta, who went about with his party, declaring that the Buddha was prone to luxury and abundance. He was believed by the foolish, and in spite of the Buddha's warning against the dire sin of causing schism in the Order, Devadatta informed Ananda of his intention of holding an uposatha meeting without the Buddha, and, having persuaded five hundred newly ordained monks from Vesāli to join him, he went out to Gayāsīsa. On this occasion he tried to imitate the Buddha, keeping two chief disciples beside him.

佛陀的回答是这些倾斜的能够遵循这些戒律-除了睡觉在雨季的树下-他是他拒绝做出强制性规则。这些拒绝使提婆达多高兴,他和他的团对前行,宣不说佛陀倾向于奢华和富裕。他是被愚昧相信的,不管佛陀警告的恐怖的罪行由于造成秩序的涣散,提婆达多告诉阿难他的目的就是举行没有佛陀的布萨大会,并且,已经劝说了500从Vesāli新任命的和尚来加入他们,他出去到Gayāsīsa.在这个场合他试图模仿佛,让两个主要的弟子在他后面。

 

Dharani : Words or sentences possessing magic power.

Dharani 陀罗尼:拥有神奇力量的词或句子

Dharmakaya : The spiritual body.  The qualities  belonging to the body of every Buddha, luminous spiritually.

Dharmakaya 法身:精神性身体。是每个佛陀的身体的素质,精神性发光

Dhatu : Element; property, impersonal condition. The four physical elements or properties are earth (solidity), water (liquidity), six elements include the above four plus space and consciousness.

Dhatu元素,属性,非个人的条件。四个物理元素或属性是地球(坚固),水(流动性),风(运动)和火(热)。这六个要素包括上述四大加上空间和意识。

 

Dhyana :- Mystic meditation.    Meditation, concentration. It is the Sanskrit word of which Ch'an and Zen are Chinese and Japanese transliterations Abstract meditation intended to destroy all attachment to existence.  Buddhism taught that it was possible by intense self-absorption and mystic meditation to attain to a mental state by which six kinds of supernatural wisdom and ten supernatural powers (iddhi) were acquired.  A Buddha always possessed them; whether Arahats, as such, could work the particular miracles in question, and whether, of mendicants, only Arahats, or only Asekhas could do so is at present not clear.  They adhere, however, to the karma, so that a person who has practiced mystic ecstasy, or been very wise or very virtuous in one birth, may have extraordinary (supernatural) good fortune or powers in the next.  This throws, perhaps, some light on the origin of the belief.  Ordinary karma was held sufficient to produce ordinary continuous states; but when some quite unexpected and extraordinary piece of good luck happened to some one who had evidently done nothing to deserve it, some quite extraordinary religious exaltation in the last birth was postulated to explain it.

禅:神秘冥想。冥想,集中。这是梵语的字来源于中文和日文的禅那和禅的翻译。抽象的冥想是为了去除对存在的执著。佛教教导说通过强烈的自我专注和神秘的冥想可以达到一种精神状态获得6种超自然的智慧和十种超自然的能力(神力)。一个佛陀就总是拥有他们:无论阿罗汉,象这样,无疑可以有这种特殊的神迹,无论是否,乞丐,或只有阿罗汉可以这样做现在还不清楚。他们坚持,当然,对业力,因此一个人已经修炼了神秘的狂喜,或者非常智慧或 这一生非常正直,也许有卓越的(超自然)的好运或权力在文本中。这些,也许,给原初信仰带来了某些说明。普通的业是足够拥有来产生一般的连续状态;但是当某些非常不期待的和意想不到的幸运发生在某些人身上他明显什么都没做来承受它,某些非常意想不到的宗教兴奋在最后一身中是假设来解释它的。

Drona : peron who distribute Buddha’s relics.

Drona :一个人他分配佛陀的遗物。

Gatha : Verses; poem composed.

Gatha :经文;构成的诗。

Gotama : The last of the twenty-five Buddhas.

乔达摩:25佛的最后一位。

Hell : Four such states are mentioned, apâya, duggati, vinipâto, and nirayo, all of which are temporary states. The first three seem to be synonyms. The last is one of the four divisions into which the first is usually divided, and is often translated hell; but not being an eternal state, and not being dependent or consequent upon any judgment, it cannot accurately be so rendered.

 

Hell 地狱:有四个这样的国家被提到了,apâya, duggati, vinipâto, 和 nirayo,所有这些是暂时的状态。前三个似乎是同义字。最后一个是划分为第一个通常划分的,经常被翻译为地狱;但不是一个永恒的状态,不是独立的或在任何判断上的结果,它不能准确的呈现于此。

 

Garuda :  (Singh.  Garunda.  Siam.  Khrut.  Tib.  MkaIding or Phreng thogs)………….. or ………….. or ………….. or ………….. explained by ……………. lit. a bird with golden wings.  Monstrous birds (superior to men.), the enemies of Nagas.  The Garuda, king of birds, is in Brahminism, the constant companion of Vishnu.

Garuda 揭路荼:  (Singh.  Garunda.  Siam.  Khrut.  Tib.  MkaIding 或Phreng thogs.).. .揭路茶.. ... ... ..或.伽楼罗.. ... ... ... ..或...迦楼罗 ... ... ... ..或...誐噜蒘 ... ... ... ..解释为... ..金翅鸟. ... ... ...。lit。一个有金色翅膀的鸟。可怕的鸟(高于人),龙的敌人。揭路荼,百鸟之王,是婆罗门教,毗湿奴Vishnu. 毗湿奴的永远伴侣。

Himālayas : The name given to the Himālaya. It is one of the seven mountain ranges in India.

Himālayas 喜马拉雅山:给予喜马拉雅山的名称。是印度的7山脉之一。

 

Hinayana : "Inferior Vehicle," originally a pejorative term -- coined by a group who called themselves followers of the Mahayana, the "Great Vehicle" -- to denote the path of practice of those who adhered only to the earliest discourses as the word of the Buddha. Hinayanists refused to recognize the later discourses, composed by the Mahayanists, that claimed to contain teachings that the Buddha felt were too deep for his first generation of disciples, and which he thus secretly entrusted to underground serpents. The Theravada school of today is a descendent of the Hinayana.

Hinayana 小乘佛教:“小乘”,是一个轻视的术语-是一群自称为大乘佛教信徒创造的,“大乘”-指明了它是那些仅仅依止佛陀早期教义的修行之道。小乘佛教弟子拒绝承认后来的教义,那些由大乘佛教徒创作的,声称佛陀对第一批弟子的教义包涵了很多是非常深刻的,因此他秘密的托付给下面的弟子。今天的上部座佛教就是小乘佛教的产物。

 

Hiraññavatī : A river, on the bank of which was the Upavattana Sālavana of the Mallas of  Kusināra, where the Buddha died.

Hiraññavatī :一条河,岸边有Upavattana Sālavana它在拘尸那Kusināra城的Mallas,佛陀在那里逝世。

 

Iddhis : (Pali) Attributes or powers of the mind.

Iddhis :(巴利文)精神的力量和特质

Itivuttaka : The fourth book of the Khuddaka Nikāya, containing 110 suttas, each of which begins with the words: (vuttam h'etam Bhagavatā).

Itivuttaka : Khuddaka Nikāya的第四本书,包括110个经文,每一个篇都以这样的文字开头:(薄伽梵vuttam h'etam Bhagavatā)

Jambudīpa indicates the continent of India.

Jambudīpa :表明是印度大陆

Jātaka : The tenth book of Khuddaka Nikāya of the Sutta Pitaka containing tales of the former births of the Buddha. The also forms one of the nine angas or divisions of the Buddha's teachings, grouped according to the subject matter. The canonical book of the Jātakas (so far unpublished) contains only the verses, but it is almost certain that from the first there must have been handed down an oral commentary giving the stories in prose.

Jātaka本生 : Pitaka经中 Khuddaka Nikāya的第十本书包括了佛的前身的故事。是佛陀教义的九个angas或区分之一,根据这一主题事项集结。这一Jātakas经典故事(至今未被公布)仅包括这些经文,但是它是几乎可以肯定一开就就有很都散文中的故事通过口头语解说而流传下来。

 Jhana : Mental absorption. A state of strong concentration focused on a single physical sensation or mental notion . Development of jhana arises from the temporary suspension of the five hindrances through the development of five mental factors: (vitakka) directed thought, (vicara) uation, (piti) rapture, (sukha) pleasure, and (ekaggatarammana) singleness of preoccupation.

Jhana禅:精神的吸收。一个很强的专注状态与一个单独的物理感觉或精神观念。禅的发展产生于五种障碍的暂时中止通过五种精神要素的发展:(vitakka) 直接的思想,(vicara) 评估,(piti)极乐,(sukha) 愉快,和ekaggatarammana)以前占有的单一性。

 Kalpa : Chinese chich-po …………... A day and night of Brahma 4,320,000,000 years.  A period (ta-skin-fen)

(…………..) during which a physical universe is formed and destroyed.  There are great Kalpas (ta chich ……….) and small Kalpas (Hsiao chich …………..) Eight small Kalpas make one large Kalpa.  A great Kalpa is the period elapsing from the moment when a universe is formed to the moment when another is put in its place.  A small Kalpa is divided into a period of increase (tsend chich …………) four ages of iron, copper, silver and gold during which human life gradually increase to 84,000 years and the height of the human body to 84,000 feet ; and a period of decrease (chien chich …………….) divided into three periods.

Kalpa劫:中文劫波... ... ... ... ...梵天一昼夜有43.2亿年。这一时间(ta-skin-fen) (…………..)在此期间一个物理的宇宙形成并被破坏了。这里有大的劫(大劫 ……….)和小劫(小劫……….)八小劫就是一大劫。一大劫就是从这个时刻流逝当一个宇宙在某一刻形成了而另一个放在了它的位置。一小劫被分为一个增加的时间(tsend chich。。。。)四段时间铜,铁,银,金在其中人的生活逐渐增加的八万四千年而人的身体达到8万四千劫,而一个减少时间(减劫。。。。。)分为三个时期。
 

kamma (Skt. karma): Intentional acts that result in states of being and birth.

业力(梵文。业):国际的行为这导致了出生和死亡的状态。

 

karuna: Compassion; sympathy; the aspiration to find a way to be truly helpful to oneself and others. One of the ten perfections (paramis) and one of the four "sublime abodes.

karuna::爱心,同情,希望能够找到一种方法能够真正帮助自己和他人。10个菠萝蜜中的(波罗蜜)(paramis)中的一个 。

Kasyapa : Skr. (Kassapa Pali) Main disciple of the Buddha.

Kasyapa 迦叶:梵文(巴利文Kassapa)佛陀最主要的弟子。

 

Kotigāma : Last tour the Buddha crossed the river at Pātaligāma, went on to Kotigāma, and remained in that village preaching to the monks. Hearing that the Buddha was there, Ambapāli and hosts of Licchavis came from Vesāli to visit him, and Ambapāli gave him a meal. From Kotigāma the Buddha went to Nādikā

Kotigāma :最后一此旅行佛陀穿过了在Pātaligāma,的河流,接着去Kotigāma,并且停留在那个村子里向和尚布道。当听到佛陀在那里是,AmbapāliLicchavis的主人从Vesāli到来拜访他,而Ambapāli给了他一餐。从Kotigāma佛陀到了Nādikā。

Ksatriya : Ksatriya in Sanskrit, Khattiya in Pali. The second of the four Indian Castes at the time of Shakyamuni, they were the royal caste, the noble landlord, the warriors and the ruling castes.

Ksatriya:在梵文里Ksatriya,在巴利文里Khattiya。在释迦牟尼的时代是印度四种姓中的第二个。他们是皇家种姓,高贵的地主,勇士和执政种族。

 

Kukutthā : A river near Kusinārā in which the Buddha bathed and from which he drank water before entering Kusinārā for his parinibbāna. On its bank was a mango-grove where the Buddha rested awhile on a robe spread for him by Cundaka; there he reassured Cunda, telling him that no blame attached to him for having provided the Buddha with the meal which was to be his last. It is said (DA.ii.571) that when the Buddha bathed in the river, its banks and all the fishes it contained became golden.

Kukutthā 拘尸那:Kusinārā附近的河流,在其中佛陀洗澡并且从那里他饮水在进入Kusinārā之前为了涅磐。在它的河边是芒果林那里佛陀停在了由Cundaka为它铺开的袍子上,在那里消除了Cunda疑虑,告诉他这里没有对他的责备因为已经为佛陀提供了餐饭这是最后一顿。它就是说(DA.ii.571)当佛陀在河里洗澡时,它的岸边和所有的鱼都变成了个金色。

 

Kusinagara :  or Kus’igramaka (Pali. Kusinara. Singh. kusinana or Cusinara.  Tib.  Rtsa mtchogh grong)…………………… or ………………… or ……………. or …………..explained by ………………. lit. the birthplace of 9 scholars.  An ancient kingdom and city near Kusiah, 180 miles N. of Patna ; the place where S’akyamuni died.

Kusinagara :或者Kus’igramaka  (Pali. Kusinara. Singh. kusinana or Cusinara.  Tib.  Rtsa mtchogh grong) ...拘尸那揭罗 ... ... ... ... ... ... ...或... .拘夷那竭.. ... ... ... ... ...或... 拘尸城... ... ... ...。或... .拘尸那.. ... ... ..解释...九士生地 ... ... ... ... ...。lit,有9个学者的出生地。一个古老的王国和在Kusiah附近的城市,180英里N.的巴特那市,那里释迦牟尼逝世了。

 

Licchavi : Early Buddhist legends feature Licchavi as a ruling family during Gautama Buddha's time in India, however links to the Nepalese kingdom are speculative. The language of Licchavi inscriptions is Sanskrit, and the particular script used is closely related to official Gupta scripts, suggesting that India was a significant cultural influence. This was likely through Mithila - the northern part of modern Bihar, India.

Licchavi :早期的佛教传说的特征在印度乔达摩佛陀的时代Licchavi是一个统治者的家庭,当然与尼泊尔国王是非常投机的。Licchavi的语言名词是梵文,并且特殊的脚本是与古普塔脚本非常有相近的关系的,设想印度是一个非常重要的有文化影响的国家。这就象通过Mithila,现代的印度比哈尔邦的北部 。

Lohan :  ………….- A name derived from the Sanskrit arhan or arhat, Japanese and Korean rahan or rahat.  The ideal which Sakyamuni taught that every man should strive to attain.  An arhat is one who has traveled the Eight-fold Path, has reached enlightenment and is saved to all eternity (Encycl, Sinica,p.32, but v. infra).  The arhat is the perfected arya.   Arya, lit, the Reverend, venerable, worthy, deserving of honour, is a title given to those who, by mastering the Four Truths, or Dogmas (of misery, accumulation, extinction, and the path leading to the  extinction of passion and existence) have entered the arya’s path (the ssu tao 四道) to Nirvana.  The last step before perfect salvation is gained.  Following this he receives full enlightment and becomes a Buddha, has succeeded in placing himself outside the wheel of Transmigration, and is absolutely free.

Lohan 罗汉 :一个源于梵文阿罗汉或阿汉的名字,在日文和韩文中叫rahan 或rahat。这个释迦牟尼教导的观念说每个人都应努力达到。一个阿罗汉是一个人已经穿过了八倍的道路,已经达到了觉悟并且被拯救为永生。(Encycl, Sinica,p.32, but v. infra).阿汉是最好的arya。Arya,点燃,教士,尊者,可敬的,值得荣耀的,是给他们的一个标题,通过掌握了四真理,或教条(痛苦,积累,灭绝,通向灭绝的道路和感情和存在)已经到达了arya’的涅磐道路。(the ssu tao 四道)。最后的一步获得的是非常好的拯救。追随这个他获得了完全的觉悟并且成佛,已经个成功把他放到了轮回之外,这是绝对的自由。

 

      The arhat is the ascetic, who is freed from all the ten fetters ; from all attachment to existence, whether on earth or in heaven; and from all force of Karma (Hardy, Manual of Buddhism, p.38; Williams, Buddhism, p.133).  He is the completely freed man, and while still living is completely dead to the world.  He has also acquired transcendent powers over Nature, matter, time and space  (Eitel, p.13; Hardy, p.38; Williams, p. 133; Waddell, p.141; Geden, p.576)

          罗汉是苦修者,他已经从所有的10个束缚中获得了自由;从所有对存在的执着,无论是在地上或在天上;从所有业力之中(坚强,佛教的手册,p.38 ,威廉姆斯,佛教,p.133)。他是完全自由的人,并且仍然住着到世界完全死亡。他已经获得了超越本性的至高无上的力量,物质,时间和空间(Eitel, p.13; Hardy, p.38; Williams, p. 133; Waddell, p.141; Geden, p.576)

0

阅读 评论 收藏 转载 喜欢 打印举报/Report
  • 评论加载中,请稍候...
发评论

    发评论

    以上网友发言只代表其个人观点,不代表新浪网的观点或立场。

      

    新浪BLOG意见反馈留言板 电话:4000520066 提示音后按1键(按当地市话标准计费) 欢迎批评指正

    新浪简介 | About Sina | 广告服务 | 联系我们 | 招聘信息 | 网站律师 | SINA English | 会员注册 | 产品答疑

    新浪公司 版权所有