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特定名词的简要说明(三)

(2010-02-05 15:53:09)
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Cakkavati-raja The ideal king of righteousness according to Buddhist tradition.

Cakkavati-raja: 根据佛教传统的正义之王的理想

Cāpāla-cetiya : Here the Buddha, three months before his parinibbāna, definitely decided to accede to the request of Māra that he should die. When he announced this decision the earth shook. Buddha in his life, states that during the first twenty years of the Buddha's ministry, he sometimes dwelt in Cāpāla-cetiya. It was once the residence  was erected on the site for the use of the Buddha.

Cāpāla-cetiya ::这是佛,在他涅磐三个月以后,明确决定接受Mara的邀请就是他将死了。当宣布这个决定后大地震动。佛陀在他的生命中,宣布在佛陀掌教的第一个二十年,他有时候会住在Cāpāla-cetiya。这是为佛陀使用建立起来的居住地。

Celestial flower which appears on earth only on special occasions, particularly in connection with the chief events in the life of the Buddha.  Its appearance in the hands of the Ajivaka ascetic signaled to the venerable Maha Kassapa that the Buddha’s Parinibbana had already taken place.

Celestial flower天花只出现在特殊场合,特别是与佛的生命相连的主要事件 。这发生在Ajivaka禁欲主义的手上对尊者Maha Kassapa就是佛陀的涅磐已经发生。

 

Cetiyas : (Pagoda) Monuments enshrine the relics of the Buddha.

Cetiyas:(塔)供奉佛陀遗物的纪念碑。

Channa : Gotama's charioteer and companion, born on the same day as Gotama. Later he become monk, in a dispute between the monks and the nuns, he deliberately sided with the latter; this was considered so perverse and so lacking in proper esprit de corps, that the Buddha decreed on him the carrying out of the whereby all monks were forbidden to have anything whatsoever to do with him. This was the last disciplinary act of the Buddha, and the carrying out thereof was entrusted to Ananda. It would, however, that the punishment  was inflicted on Channa for his having repeatedly reviled Sāriputta and Moggallāna in spite of the Buddha's warning. In this version other details also vary.

Channa:乔答摩的驾车者和随从,与乔达摩同一天出生。后来,他成为僧侣,在僧侣和尼姑的争端之中,他故意站在后者一边,这被认为是反常很缺乏必要的团队精神,佛陀宣布让他退出团队并且所有的和尚都禁止和他在一起。这是佛陀最后最后的纪律制裁,并且将执行权委托给阿难。这将是,当然,这个惩罚造成了Channa不顾佛的警告而不断的咒骂Sāriputta 和Moggallāna。在这个版本之中其它的细节也有所不同。

 Chakravarti : She-wei-ti-to………………… - Lit a holy kind, who turns the wheel.  A military monarch and conqueror who governs part or the whole of  universe.  A universal ruler.

Chakravarti : She-wei-ti-to………………… - Lit一个圣人,他转动轮子。一个军事君主和征服者已经控制了部分或整个宇宙。一个宇宙的支配者。

 

Channa : The young Buddha's charioteer and personal attendant.

 

Channa :佛陀最小的驾车者和个人追随者

Cūla Vagga : The second of the two volumes known as the two Khandhakas of the Vinaya Pitaka. The book consists of twelve chapters or Khandhakas, and brings the ecclesiastical history of the Buddhist Order down to the Second Council.

Cūla Vagga:

第二部分的两卷被两个藏律的两个Khandhakas的两卷所知道。这本书包括12章或Khandhakas,随之而来是是佛教的第二届理事会的教会历史。

 

Cunda lived in Pává and invited the Buddha to a meal, which proved to be his last. It was on this occasion that the Cunda Sutta was preached. From Pává the Buddha journeyed on to Kusinara, crossing the Kakkuttha on the way. According to the Sangíti Sutta, at the time the Buddha was staying at Pává, the Mallas had just completed their new Mote hall, Ubbhataka, and, at their invitation, the Buddha consecrated it by first occupying it and then preaching in it. After the Buddha had finished speaking, Sariputta recited the Sahgíti Sutta to the assembled monks.

Cunda住在Pává并且邀请佛陀去吃饭,这被证明是他最后的。就是因为这个机会纯陀布道说。从Pává佛陀旅行到了Kusinara,穿过Kakkuttha的路。经过Sangíti Sutta,在那时佛陀呆在Pává,,魔王已经完成了他们的新Mote大厦,Ubbhataka,由于他们的邀请,佛陀被视为神圣的由于第一次占有它接着祷告。在佛已经结束发言后,舍利弗背诵了Sahgíti经对撞配的僧人。

Dana : Giving, liberality; offering, alms. Specifically, giving of any of the four requisites to the monastic order. More generally, the inclination to give, without expecting any form of repayment from the recipient. Dana is the first theme in the Buddha's system of gradual training, the first of the ten perfection (paramis), one of the seven treasures, and the first of the three grounds for meritorious action

Dana:给予,慷慨,提供,施舍。具体来说,对寺院的秩序给予任何的四个要求。一般地,倾向给予,而不会受到来自收件人的任何形式的偿还。Dana是在佛陀的循序渐进式,第一个10个完美的 (波罗蜜),7个瑰宝之一,和三分之一的场地做为值得称赞的行为。

Deva : (Singh. Dewa. Tib. Lha. Mong. Tegri)……….. explained by ………….. lit. inhabitants of the Brahmalokas, or by ……….. lit. spirits of heaven.  (1.)  General designation of the gods of Brahminism, and of all inhabitants of the Dokas who are subject to metempsychosis.  (2.)  Name of the 15th patriarch, a native of southern India, a disciple of Nagardjuna, also called Devabodhisattva ……………….. and Arya Deva …………, and Nilanetra ………. (lit. azure eye) or ………….. (lit. distinguishing brightness), author of 9 works, a famous antagonist of Brahminism.

Deva天神:(Singh. Dewa. Tib. Lha. Mong. Tegri) …提婆……..解释者 梵天人………lit。Brahmalokas的居民,或者天神………..天堂的神灵。(1.)婆罗门教的一般天神的名号,所有Dokas的居民他们将进入轮回。(2.)第十五世教主的名字,南印度的土著,Nagardjuna的门徒,也叫做Devabodhisattva。。。。Arya 天神…………, 和Nilanetra…青目…….(lit.蔚蓝色的眼睛)或者…分别目………..(lit。有区别的光明),9个作者的工作,著名的婆罗门教反对者。

 

Devadatta : Son of the Sākiyan Suppabuddha (maternal uncle of the Buddha) and his wife Amitā. He had a sister Bhaddakaccānā, who married Prince Siddhattha.

提婆达多:Sākiyan Suppabuddha的儿子(佛的舅父 )和他的妻子阿弥它。他有一个妹妹叫Bhaddakaccānā,她嫁给了王子悉达多。

He assumed the form of a child having a girdle of snakes, and suddenly appeared on Ajātasattu's lap, frightening him. He then resumed his own form, and Ajātasattu, much impressed, paid him great honour and, it is said, visited him morning and evening with five hundred chariots and sent him daily five hundred dishes of food. This encouraged Devadatta in his schemes, and he conceived the idea of taking the Buddha's place as leader of the Sangha. As soon as this thought occurred to him, his iddhi-power disappeared.

他承假装儿童的状态并且有一个蛇的腰带,并且立刻出现在Ajātasattu'的圈子,吓唬他。他接着重新回复了自己的形式,而Ajātasattu,非常压抑,给他以非常大的荣誉,它说,白天和晚上和500个战车来拜访他并且送给他五百餐的食品。这鼓励了提婆达多在他的计划,他构思了这个观念带着佛的地方做为僧伽的领导。只要这种思想发生到他身上,他的iddhi-动力消失了

 Sometime later, Devadatta went to the Buddha and suggested that the leadership of the Order should be handed over to him in view of the Buddha's approaching old age. The Buddha scorned the suggestion, saying, "Not even to Sāriputta or Moggallāna would I hand over the Order, and would I then to thee, vile one, to be vomited like spittle?". Devadatta showed great resentment and vowed vengeance. Thereupon, at the Buddha's suggestion, a proclamation was issued to the Sangha that in anything done by Devadatta in the name of the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha, none but Devadatta was to be recognised.

稍后,提婆达多到佛陀那里,并建议秩序的领导力应该转到他那里在看到佛陀到老年的时候。佛陀蔑视这个建议,他说,“即使以舍利弗或目犍连我也会移交出该命令,并将然后我到你,卑鄙的人,要像吐痰?”。提婆达多表现出极大的不满,并誓言报复。于是,根据佛陀的建议,向僧众发出公告, 提婆达多完成的以佛,法,僧的名字,正法和僧伽 ,处理提婆达多是必须明白的。

It was at this time that Devadatta incited Ajātasattu to kill his father, Bimbisāra, while he himself prepared to kill the Buddha. (The Ap.ii.300f explains that all these plans of Devadatta to harm the Buddha were the result of the Buddha's previous evil deeds).

正是在这个时候,提婆达多煽动Ajātasattu杀死他的父亲,频毗娑罗Bimbisāra,,而他本人准备杀佛。 (在Ap.ii.300f解释说,所有这些提婆达多计划损害佛陀是佛陀以前恶事的结果)。

Ajātasattu agreed, and provided Devadatta with royal archers to shoot the Buddha. These were placed on different paths, one on one path, two on another, and so on up to sixteen, and the plan was so laid that not one of them would survive to tell the tale. But when the Buddha approached the first man, he was terrified by the Buddha's majesty, and his body became stiff. The Buddha spoke kindly to him, and the man, throwing away his weapons, confessed his intended crime. The Buddha thereupon preached to him and, having converted him, sent him back by a different path. The other groups of archers, tired of waiting, gave up the vigil and went away one after the other. The different groups were led to the Buddha by his iddhi-power, and he preached to them and converted them. The first man returned to Devadatta saying that he was unable to kill the Buddha because of his great iddhi-power.

Ajātasattu同意了,并提供了Devadatta皇家射箭来伤害佛。这些被放置在不同的道路上,在一个在一条路上 ,两个在另外的路上,因此最多有16个,而且该计划已经搁置没有人能生还下去来讲故事。 但是,当佛陀接触的第一人,他被佛陀的威严吓坏了,他的身体变得僵硬。佛陀善言劝告他,那名男子,扔掉他的武器,承认自己的犯罪意图。佛陀于是向他布道,他皈依,由另一条路径将他送回。其它团队的弓箭手,等得不耐烦了,放弃了守夜一个又一个走了。不同的小组到了佛陀那里由于佛的神力,他为他们祷告并且转变了。第一个人回到Devadatta那里说他不能杀害佛因为他的伟大神力。

Devadatta's next attempt on the Buddha's life was to persuade elephant-keepers to let loose a fierce elephant, Nalāgiri (or Dhanapāla), drunk with toddy, on to the road by which the Buddha would pass. The news spread rapidly, and the Buddha was warned, but refused to turn back. As the elephant advanced he pervaded it with love, and thus completely subdued it.

提婆达多试图伤害佛陀的生命,他说服大象的主人释放一头大象,Nalāgiri (或 Dhanapāla),喝点棕榈酒,在佛陀要经过的路上。这个消息传得很快,佛陀警告说,他拒绝回头。这头大象前进时他充满慈悲,因此完全屈服于它。

 

These five went accordingly to the Buddha and asked for the imposition of five rules on all members of the Sangha:

这5个去相应的佛陀和5对僧团的所有成员实行的规则要求:

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