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特定名词的简要说明(二)

(2010-02-05 15:51:07)
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Asoka : King of Magadha. He was the son of Bindusāra. Bindusāra had sixteen wives who bore him 101 sons. In order to purge the Order of undesirable monks and heretical doctrines, Moggaliputta-Tissa held the Third Council under the king's patronagev

阿育王:摩竭陀的国王。他是Bindusāra的儿子。 Bindusāra有16个妻子他们为他生了101个儿子。为了清除不良僧侣和异端教义,Moggaliputta-Tissa在国王的保护下举行了第三次会议。

 

Asura :  (Ashura in Sanskrit, Asura in Pali). It is a peculiar path in the Six Paths. They are the enemies of the devas, and are the mightiest of all demons. In terms of material enjoyment and psychic power, it is similar to Deva. However, in some aspects, it is even worse than the Human Path. The male Asura is extremely ugly and furious, and they always fight with each other. The female Asura is as beautiful as an angel.

 

阿修罗:(梵文Ashura,巴利文Asura )。这是在六道上的特殊一类。他们是天神的敌人,是最强大的恶魔。在物质享受和精神能量方面,他类似于天神。但是,在某些方面,甚至是不如人道。男性阿修罗是非常丑陋,愤怒,他们总是互相斗争。女性阿修罗非常美丽象一个天使。

Atta : 'Self', Ego, Personality, is in Buddhism a mere conventional expression_r, and no designation for anything really existing.

Atta:自我 ,本我,个性,在佛教之中仅仅是一个常规的表达, 并不是表示任何实际存在的代号。

Avijja : Unawareness; ignorance; obscured awareness; delusion about the nature of the mind

 Avijja不了解,无知,模糊的认识,对心灵的性质的妄想

Being :

生命

According to the commentators the term Tathagata in the context of the four alternative questions means being.  They seem to have maintained that those questions have been asked either due to externalist or nihilist or septic points of view. As Buddhism classifies an individual into ever-changing five aggregates, in the ultimate sense there is no individual other than a mere designation. Therefore an individual reborn is neither the same nor an other as Nagasena explained to King Milinda in the Milindapanha. The commentators seem to have avoided unnecessary philosophical complications by defining the word in the context as being. Even in the reply given to Anuradha by the Buddha, one can quite conveniently deduce the allusion to being for, Tathagata is nothing but a conglomeration of five physical and psychical factors just as much as a being is. In truth and in reality a Tathagata is not found even when he is existing, which is quite applicable to any individual in spite of the attainment of Arahanthood. Therefore the commentators seem to have had maintained an old tradition without committing themselves to either eternalism or nihilism or scepticism. Without permission he has gone. He has gone as he had come. This being the case why there be wailing? So in the highest sense the being that is reborn is neither the same nor another. There is no continuity of the identity of any being. It is difficult to give a categorical reply to the propositions involved in the four alternatives without analyzing the conceptual frame of the propositions to remove the ambiguity implied. It is probably on these grounds, in the opinion of the commentators, that the Buddha maintained silence in regard to the destiny of a Tathagata after death.

根据评论员的说法如来的术语在四个选择的问题的上下文意味着生命。他们似乎持有这样的观点即这些问到的问题要么属于外在的或虚无主义的或败坏的观点。正如佛教划分个人为不断变化的五蕴,在终极的意义上这里没有个人主义除了单纯的名字。因此个人的转生要么是同样的要么象另外的如Nagasena对国王Milinda 在Milindapanha解释的那样。评论员在描述生命这个词时似乎已经避免了不必要的哲学上的困惑。即使在由佛陀给Anuradha的回复中,一个人可以完全方便的推断对生命的暗示,如来不是别的但是五个物理和心理因素的聚集就象一个生命那样。在真理中在现实中如来没有被发现尽管他仍然存在,这是非常适用于任何个人无论是否达到阿罗汉果。因此这些评论员似乎已经获得了一个古老的传统没有把他们自己交付给永恒主义和虚无主义和怀疑主义。不用许诺他已经走了。他已经走了又已经回来的。这个生命是为什么他们要哭的原因。因此在更高意义上讲生命的转生即非相同或另外。这里没有对任何生命没有连续性的说明。很难给一个明确的回答对命题在四项选择中不必分析概念上的框架对着四个选择的命题没有分析概念框架的命题和去除含义模糊的暗示。这是可以肯定在这些基础上,在评论员的观点来看,佛陀对如来死后的命运问题保持沉默。

 

Beluva :  A village near Vesāli, where the Buddha spent his last rainy season  . This was ten months before his death. According to the Commentaries the Buddha did not go straight from Beluva to Vesāli, but turned back to Sāvatthi. He fell grievously ill during this period, but, by a great effort of will, overcame his sickness. It was at this time that the Buddha, in answer to a question by Ananda, said that he had kept nothing back from his disciples and had no special instructions for the Order to follow after his death. Each disciple must work out his own salvation. Ananda is also mentioned as having stayed at Beluva after the Buddha's death.

Beluva :  Vesāli,附近的村庄,那里佛陀度过了他最后的雨季。在他逝世前这有十个月的时间。 根据报道佛陀没有直接从Beluva到Vesāli,而是转到了Sāvatthi。在此期间他感到很悲痛,由于强大的意志力,他克服了他的疾病。就在这时佛陀,为了回答阿难Ananda的问题,说他没有为他的弟子留下什么并且没有对他死后提出过任何特别的说明。每一个弟子必须完成他自己的拯救。阿难已经提到了并且在佛陀逝世后留在了Beluva

 

Bhadrakalpa :  (Pali. Bhaddha Kappa. Siam. Phattakala) ……….. lit. the kalpa of the sages.  A designation for the kalpa of stability so called because 1,000 Buddhas (sages) appear in the course of it.  Our present period is a Bhadrakalpa and 4 Buddhas have already appeared.  It is to last 236 million years, but over 151 million years have already elapsed.

Bhadrakalpa :(巴利文. Bhaddha kappa.暹罗文。Phattakala)...贤劫 ... ... ..。在贤劫。这个被叫做稳定的劫有1,000个佛(圣贤)出世。我们现在的时期是一个贤劫。已经有4个佛出世了。它已经持续了236百万年,但是有151百万年已经过去了。

 

Bhagava : also rendered "the Auspicious One" or "the Exalted One"; the most frequent appellation of the Buddha, though not restricted to Buddhist usage.

薄伽梵歌:亦即呈现“吉祥之人”或“上人”,是最常使用的佛的名号,但不仅限于佛教使用。

Bhava : Becoming. States of being that develop first in the mind and can then be experienced as internal worlds and/or as worlds on an external level. There are three levels of becoming: on the sensual level, the level of form, and the level of formlessness.

Bhava :成为。国家的生命已经在心理首先发现并且可以在内部世界经验到或者达到外部世界的水平。这里有三个层次的变化;在感官水平上,在形色水平上,在无形色水平上。

 

Bhavasankhara : the formative force of becoming, in the sense of what forms existence.

Bhavasankhara:成为形成的力量 ,在感官上什么形色存在。

 

Bhikkhu : A Buddhist monk; a man who has given up the householder's life to live a life of heightened virtue in accordance with the Vinaya in general, and the rules in particular.

Bhikkhu :一个佛教和尚,一个已经放弃了家居生活并且根据一般戒律和特别戒律来过一种高尚道德的生活。

Bimbisāra : King of Magadha and patron of the Buddha. He ascended the throne at the age of fifteen and reigned in Rājagaha for fifty two years.

Bimbisāra:魔羯陀国王和佛陀的赞助人 。他15岁登上了王位,并在王舍城呆了五十二年。  

Bodhi : (Sanskrit and Pali) Enlightenment; the spiritual condition of a Buddha or Bodhisattva.

Bodhi 菩提:(梵文和巴利文)觉醒;是佛或菩萨的精神状态。

 

Bodhisattva :  ("A being (striving) for Awakening"; the term used to describe the Buddha before he actually become Buddha, from his first aspiration to Buddha hood until the time of his full Awakening. Sanskrit form: Bodhisattva.

Bodhisattva菩萨 :一个尽力觉悟的生命,这个术语是用来描述佛在成佛之前,从他第一愿望是达到佛的状态直到他完全觉悟的时间。梵文形式:菩萨。

Brahma :  (Siam. Phrom. Tib. Tshangs. Mong. Esrun tegri) ………………… or …………………. or……………or………………or………or……... explained by …………………. lit.  the father of all living beings.  The first person of the Brahminical Trimurti, adopted by Buddhism, but placed in an inferior position, being looked upon, not as creator, but as a transitory devata whom every saint, on obtaining bodhi, surpasses.

梵天:( 暹罗Phrom. Tib. Tshangs. Mong. Esrun tegri)婆罗吸摩………………… or …婆罗贺磨………………. Or梵览摩……………or……梵天王…………or…梵王……or…梵…... 被解释为 …一切众生之父……………….lit。所有的生命的父亲。婆罗门的三神一体,被佛教所吸收,但是放在较低的位置,被信奉,不是因为创造者,而是一个短暂的天神每个圣人,为了获得菩提,超越。

Brahma Sahampati was a high divinity of the Brahma-world.  It was he who originally requested the newly enlightened Buddha to teach the Dhamma to the world. 

梵天Sahampati是一个梵天世界的高神。就是他最先要求新的觉者佛陀给世界讲法。

 

Buddha :- Fo 佛-Buddha. Also Fo-t’o……….,  Fou-t’u………., P’o t’a…………, Mu-t’o…………, or Mei-t’a…………. The one who is awake or has understanding.  The first person of the Triratna. The highest degree of saintship, Buddhaship. Every intelligent person who has broken through the bondage of sense, perception and self, knows the unreality of all phenomena, and is ready to enter Nirvana.

      It is a mistake always to render Fo 佛 by “Buddha,” meaning the historical Buddha.  The latter “withdraws very decidedly into the background in real Mahayana, and, when he is mentioned, it is often as a new metaphysical figure, clad in the grab of spiritual glory”.

      Sakyamuni is the fourth Buddha of the present kalpa.  He will be followed by the fifth Buddha, Maitreya, Mi-bo_fo …………., who will appear on earth after a lapse of three thousand years.  “Following the life of Sakyamuni, there were to be three periods Dharma’s Wheel, or the Wheel of the Law. Would be constantly turned, and many lives saved.  Then there was to be a period of a thousand  years when commentators would explain the Law, and images would be set up to hold its idea before men.  This will be followed by a three thousand year period in which the world will go away into sin, until even Buddhism is not remembered.

佛:Fo 佛-Buddha. 此外Fo-t’o浮图……….,  Fou-t’u佛陀………., P’o t’a…勃塔………, Mu-t’o…母駄………, or Mei-t’a…没駄……….

是一个已经觉醒或已经理解的人。是三宝第一人。最高的程度的圣人之位和佛位。每个智慧的人已经突破了感官的束缚,感知和自我,知道所有现象的非真实性,并准备进入涅磐。

这是一个错误总是用佛陀来代替 fo佛,意思是历史上的佛。后者“退出每个决定性的背景在真的大乘佛教里,当,他被提醒时,这总是被当作新的形而上学的想象。覆盖在精神荣耀的争取中。

 释迦摩尼是现在劫的第四尊佛。他将会被第五尊佛取代,弥勒佛,Mi-bo_fo ………….,他将在三千年的时间流逝这后出现在地球上。跟随释迦摩尼的生命,这里有三个时间的法轮,或者轮法。将不断地变化,许多生命得到挽救。接着这里有一个千年时期当是评论员将解释这个法,并且要建立想象来在人们面前持有观念。这将是在三千年以后的一个时期在那是这个世界将陷入罪业,佛教将不会记起。

 

 

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