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(2010-02-05 15:38:54)


The Mahaparinirvana



It is gratifying to note that the end of Lord Buddha came due to myocardial infraction and cardiac shock.  This has been revealed by a famous cardiologist Dr. Pinto of Jaslok Hospital, Bombay, in his gurest lecture and the same has been referred to in the Journal of international congress of Tropical cardiology, (Bombay, 1982).  The Buddhist literature available on the Buddha’s death informs us that the Buddha died on Diahorrea and vomiting after eating pork given to him by a lay disciple Cunda, the smith at Pava.  The Pali phrase ‘sukara-maddava’ ‘sweetness of Pigs’ is certainly ambiguous.  But the early commentators took it to mean a choice cut of pork.  Soon after he ate a meal of pork, he (Buddha) was attacked by diahorrea and vomiting, but he insisted on moving to the near by town Kusinagara.  Here, on the out skirts of the town, he laid down under a sal tree and that night he died.  The death was evidently precipitated by Diahorrea and vomiting leading into myocardial by diahorrea and vomiting leading into myocardial infraction and cardiac shock.  This literary evidence and the medical pronouncement can be corroborated and the death of Buddha precipitated in the medical term what is known as Myocardial infraction.  The vomiting and diahorrea which the Buddha had, had naturally led to myocardial infraction and cardiac shock.  Such a man had such a close.

    这是有趣的是佛主的逝世是由于心肌梗塞和心源性休克。这是被Jaslok医院著名的心脏病专家Dr. Pinto所揭示的,Bombay,在他的客户讲座中这样说,同样在热带心脏病国际会议的期刊中提到(Bombay, 1982).佛教徒关于佛陀的死亡的文学告诉我们佛陀死于腹泻和呕吐在吃了一个外行弟子纯陀送来的猪肉后,铁匠在Pava  。巴利文的句子设斋供佛和猪的甜蜜无疑是模糊不清的。但是早期的评论意思是切猪肉。随后他吃了一餐猪肉,他
(佛陀)被腹泻和呕吐袭击,但是他坚持到附近的Kusinagara.镇。那里,在城镇的外围,他躺在了萨拉树下那天晚上他逝世了。这个逝世是明显由于腹泻进而影响到心肌 ,呕吐导致心肌梗塞和心源性休克。这个文字上的证明和医学的声明可以被证实为佛陀的逝世是因为,用医学术语称之为心肌梗塞。佛有呕吐和腹泻 ,已经自然的导致了心肌梗塞和心源性休克。这样一个人有一个结束。


      To say that the Buddha attained parinirvana or Mahaparinirvana is the same as to say in ordinary language that he died (Kalamakarimuni).  In his own words, to attain parinirvana is to see’ the fire of life extinguished in that elemental condition of extinction which allows no residuum of possibility for reignition. The disciples of the Buddha who experience or realize the bliss of nirvana are praised as personages who ‘expire like a burning lamp (on the exhaustion of oil and wick).  Whilst they live, they live enjoying the bliss of peace obtained without having to pay any price for it.  Such is, in short, the Buddhist description of parinirvana, which is the natural end of life of those gifted men who realize nirvana in their present conscious existence.



      In Jainism also, parinirvana is the last fruit or final consummation of the highest perfection attained  by a man or attainable in human life.  But parinirvana is the same term as nirvana or moksa meaning final liberation that comes to pass on the complete waning out or exhaustion of the accumulated strength or force of karma.  With the Jains, nirvana or moksa is not a dreadful or terrible like the Buddhist parinirvana which suggests at once an idea of complete annihilation of individuality of a saint after death by the smile of the total extinction of a burning lamp on the exhaustion of the oil and the wick.  The point is discussed in the Jaina Moksasiddhi :  would you really think (with the Buddhist) that nirvana is a process of exhaustion of a burning lamp (on the exhaustion of the oil and the wick)?  The hearer is advised not to think like that.  For with the Jains, nirvana is nothing but a highly special or transcendental condition of human soul, in which it remains eternally and absolutely free from passion, hatred, birth, decay, discease and the like because of the complete warning out of all causes of suffering.

     在耆那教里,涅磐是一个人达到的最后果实或最高圆满觉悟。但是涅磐是一个同样的术语描述涅磐或解脱。意思是最后的解脱这来自于完整的削弱或耗尽积累的力量或业的力量。由于耆那教徒,涅磐或解脱不是可怕的或恐怖的,就象佛涅磐后圣人的个性完全消除就象油枯灯尽后灯的完全熄灭。这一点在耆那教Moksasiddhi中讨论。你是否真的想(和佛教徒) 涅磐是一个油灯耗尽的过程?听者是被建议不要这样想。由于耆那教,涅磐什么也不是但是一个很独特或先验的灵魂条件,这同样意味这完全留下和完全从感情,仇恨,出生,衰老,逝世中获得解脱,就像由于完全消除了所有痛苦的原因。


      After attainment of parinirvana the Buddha is no longer in that condition in which he is able to receive any offering made in his honour, though the offering itself as an act of worshipper is concerned.  Thus the Buddhist description of the Buddha’s parinirvana leaves no room for the popular belief in the possibility of resurrection of the bodily form, or even the spiritual form, of a saint.  It it never the less a complete cessation of personality, even if that personality is made up of pure consciousness?  There is then, cessation of all sings of manifestation, but not cessation of the process of vijnana in its own pure or transcendental mode.

         由于涅磐之后佛陀不再那个条件下他能够获得任何供养来增加他的荣耀,通过供奉自己的崇拜者的行为是值得关注的。因此佛教徒对佛陀的涅磐描写身体不可能复活没有为大众留下任何空间,或甚至精神的形式, 圣人的。它从不有一个完全的个人的终止,即便这个人是由纯意识构成的?这就是,停止所有的表现歌曲,但不要停止认识它自己纯洁或先验的模式。


      In all stages of the evolution of religious thought in India, the description of the ultimate goal of the higher path of religious effort carried with it the dread of extinction of the individual after death.  In the opinion of such ancient law givers. leading the traveler by an onward journey to the pure realm of infinity beyond the solar region, leads really but to the funeral ground And those who travel by that path ‘alone’, in disregard, become ultimately ‘dust and perish.



      The Buddha’s persistent reluctance to answer any of the four question put to him regarding the fate of the Tathagata after death caused puzzlement to his interlocutor.  The Buddha offered an explanation, the purport of which was to indicate that the condition of the Tathagata after prinirvana was incapable of description in all convenient terms.

佛陀一直不愿意回答任何关于这四个问题, 向他提出的如来死后的命运的问题,这引起参与谈话人的困惑。佛陀提供了一种解释,声称用所有的方便术语来说明如来涅磐后的状态。


      An illuminating description of state or condition of existence reached by a person on the attainment of parinirvana has been put into the mouth of the Buddha himself.  It is as follows :”where water, earth, heat, and air do not find footing, there no light burns and the sun does not shine, the moon does not shed her radiant beams, and darkness, does not exist.  When a sage who is a Brahmana has realized the truth by silent concentration, then he becomes free form and formlessness, happiness and suffering.

       对一个国家的描述或一个人涅磐后能达到的存在状态已经放到了佛他自己的嘴里。它是如下:没有水,地,热,和空气,没有光燃烧而太阳不再照耀,月亮不再散发它的光线,黑暗,并不存在。当时一个婆罗门时认识到了沉默冥想的真理 。接着他从色界和无色界解脱出来了,幸福和痛苦。


      As the Chinese sage said the world consists of only two categories of people, namely, those that are Buddhists and those that do not know that they are Budddhists.



"Do not do any evil; Do all that is good. Purify your mind. This is the teaching of all Buddhas."  (Mahayana sutra page (640).



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