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佛陀最后的时期和大般若涅磐经(七)

(2010-02-05 15:35:50)
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He is bootlessness, non-extinction, agelessness, and is undying, unbreakable and indestructible. He is not anything created. Hence we say that the Tathagata enters Great Nirvana. What do we mean by agelessness and deathlessness? Age relates to what moves and changes. One's hair becomes white, and lines appear on one's face. By death is meant the breaking up [disintegration] of the body, as a result of which life departs. Nothing of this kind arises in emancipation. Since nothing of this kind arises, we say emancipation. With the Tathagata, too, there arise no such things of created existence as the turning white of the hair or the appearing of lines on the face. Thus, no ageing occurs in the case of the Tathagata. As there is no ageing, there is no death (22).

       他是无用的,不灭的,不老的,而且是不死的,不破的和不可毁灭的。他不是任何创造之物。因此我们说如来进入了涅磐。我们是否意味着要不老的和不死的呢?年龄涉及到动作和变化。一个人的头发变白,脸上出现皱纹。死亡就意味着身体的的瓦解,作为结果是 生命要离开。这类事不会产生于解脱。因为这不会产生任何东西,我们说是解脱。由于如来,也,没有这类的创造性的事情就像头发变白或者脸上出现皱纹一样。因此,就如来而言没有年龄的变化 。这里没有变化,这里没有死亡。

            Farther more describe,  emancipation is the "not-empty-empty". "Empty-empty" is non-possession. Non-possession is the emancipation which the tirthikas and Nirgrantha Jnatiputras [Jains] presume upon [base themselves upon]. But, in truth, the Nirgranthas do not possess emancipation. So we say "empty-empty". Not-empty-empty is true emancipation. True emancipation is the Tathagata.

         更进一步描述,解脱是“不空-空”“空-空”是没有所有的。没有拥有是解脱因此外道和Nirgrantha Jnatiputras(教徒)假设(把他们建造在上面)。但是,事实上,Nirgranthas并不拥有解脱。所以我们说“空空”。没有空空是真实的解脱。真实的解脱是如来。

"Also, emancipation is the "not-empty". The pot in which we put water, drink, milk, cream, butter, honey, etc., can well be called the water pot and suchlike, even when there is no water, drink, cream, butter, honey or any other thing in it. And yet, we cannot say that the pot is either empty or not-empty. If we say empty, there cannot be any colour, smell, taste or touch. If we say not-empty, what we see is that there is nothing in it such as water, drink or any other thing. We can say neither matter ["rupa"] nor non-matter ["arupa"]; we can say neither empty nor not-empty. If we say empty, there can be no Eternity, Bliss, Self, and Purity. If not-empty, who is the one blessed with Eternity, Bliss, Self, and Purity? Thus, we should say neither empty nor not-empty. Empty will entail [the notion] that the 25 existences, all illusions, suffering, the phases of life, and all actual actions do not exist. When there is no cream in the pot, we may say empty. Not-empty points to Truth, to whatever is Good, Eternal, Bliss, Self, Pure, Immovable and Unchanging. It is as in the case of taste and touch regarding the pot. That is why we say not-empty. In consequence, we may say that emancipation is as in the case of the pot. The pot will break in certain circumstances. But this is not so with emancipation. It cannot break. What is indestructible is true emancipation (23).

因此,解脱是非空。我们往这个锅里加水,饮料,牛奶,黄油,蜂蜜等等。但是我们不能说这个锅是空的或不空的。如果我们说是空的,这里就没有任何颜色,香味,味道或触觉。如果我们说没有-空,我们说这里什么都没有,比如水,饮料或其它的东西。我们可以说无论是物质[色"rupa"]或没有物质[非色"arupa"] ;我们可以说要么是空的或不空的。如果我们说是空的,这里就没有常,乐,我,净。如果是不空的,那么谁是常,乐,我,净的受者呢?因此,我们应该说没有空也没有非空。空是必须的(概念)这里有25类存在,所有的都是幻觉,痛苦,生命的阶段,而所有的事实上的行为是不存在的。锅中没有奶油,我们也许说空。不空是指真实,这是善的,常,乐,我,净,不动的和不变的。它是一个关于锅触觉和味觉的例子。这就是为什么我们说不空。作为结果,我们说解脱就像是锅中的东西。这锅就会在某种条件下打碎。但是这与解脱不是一回事。这不能破坏。这是不可破坏的,是真正的解脱。(23)

 

       Indolence is of the created, the foremost of suffering. The created is a place of death, the foremost of suffering. Nirvana is deathlessness, the most wonderful Bliss. Indolence calls in [i.e. is generative of] the created. This too is spoken of: eternal Bliss, deathlessness, and the Body Indestructible. What is indolence and what is not? The unholy common mortal [i.e. a tirthika] is of indolence and eternal death; the world-fleeing holy one [“shramana”] belongs to the class of non-indolence, in whom age-and-death has no abode. Why not? He gains the foremost of eternal Bliss and Nirvana. The holy persons of the supramundane stage have no indolence and there exists [for them] no age-and-death. Why not? They enter into the foremost stage of eternal Nirvana. Hence, Suffering and Bliss are two different things; Self and non-Self are two different things.

       懒惰是需要创造的,最重要是痛苦。创造的是死亡之地,最重要的是痛苦。涅磐是不死的,是最精彩的祝福。懒惰导致创造的(即是生产的)。这也是谈到;永恒的祝福,不死,这个身体不坏。什么是懒惰和什么不懒惰?非圣的普通凡人(即外)是懒惰的和永远死亡的;这个避世圣灵(沙门)是属于没有懒惰的阶层,他们不住生死。为什么不呢?他获得了最重要的永恒的祝福和涅磐。远离世俗的圣人没有懒惰并且这里存在(为他们)没有生和死。为什么不呢?他们进入了永恒涅磐的最重要阶段。因此,痛苦和祝福是两个不同的事。自我和无我是两个不同的事。

 

      A man stands on the ground and looks up at the sky, where he can see no trace of where the birds have flown. The same is the case [here]. The same is the case with beings. They do not possess the heavenly eye. Immersed in illusion, they cannot see the nature of the Tathagata, which they possess. For this reason, I now expound the [hitherto] undisclosed teaching on selflessness. Why? “A person who lacks the heavenly eye does not know the True Self”. Because he estimates Self in the wrong way. All things created by illusion are non-eternal. That is why I say that the Eternal and the non-Eternal are two different things (24). They do not die, nor do they get re-born. The Tathagata expounds to, Great Nirvana. When beings, Hear the closely guarded doctrine, They gain birthlessness and deathlessness(25).

      一个男子站在地上并且向天上看,那里他看不到任何鸟飞过的痕迹。同样在这里也是这个例子。他们没有天眼。陷入幻觉,他们看不到如来的本性,他们也拥有。由于这个原因,我现在论述了[迄今为止]对自我不明的教义。为什么?一个人没有天眼是不能知道真我的。因为他错误的估计了自己。所有的所造之物是幻觉非永恒的。这就是为什么我们说永恒和非永恒是两个不同的事情(24)他们不死,但他们也不再生。如来阐述了,大涅磐。当生命,听到戒备森严的学说,他们获得了不生和不死。

 

       Birth indeed calls forth things. There can be no birth by itself. It cannot come about by itself. Birth comes about dependent on birth. Birth-birth cannot so come about by itself. It is dependent upon a birth. Thus, the two births too are cause, and also cause of cause; and the effect is effect of effect. The case of faith and listening to Dharma is thus. This is effect and is not cause; it is Great Nirvana.

        出生确实唤起东西。这里不可能有它自己的出生。它不能由自己出来。出生带来依靠出生。生生不能被它自己产生。它依赖于生。因此,这两个鸟是原因,是原因的原因,而结果是结果的结果。这个信仰的原因和听闻大法是这样。这是结果而不是原因;它是大涅磐。

      Why do we say effect? Because this is the best fruit, the fruition of a sramana, that of a Brahmin, because it uproots birth-and-death. Because the person excises defilement. Because of this, we say result. It gets reproached by all kinds of defilement. Hence, we say that Nirvana is the result. We call defilement the wrong of the wrong.

          为什么我说效果?因为这是最好的果实,轮回的果实,是婆罗门,因为他植根于生和死。因为人除去污染。由于这一点,我们说结果。它受到各种染污的责备。因此,我们说涅磐是果。我们说染污是错中之错。

 

      Nirvana has no cause. It is the result. Why so? Because there is no birth-and-death. Because there is no action performed and because it is uncreated. It is a Non-Create. It is Eternal and Unchanging. It has no place where it exists [i.e. it is not limited to a particular place, it cannnot be pinned down to a specific location]. There is no beginning and no end.

       涅磐没有原因。它是结果。为什么呢?因为这里没有生和死。因为这里没有履行的行为并且这是没有创造性的。这是没有创造的。它是永恒和不变的。它没有驻留的地方(即这不是限制的特殊地方,这不能定在一个特殊的地方。这里没有开始没有结果。

 

      If Nirvana has any cause that can be named, this is not Nirvana. "Van" ["Vana" of "Nir-vana"] means cause; the Nirvana of causal relations means "not". As there is no cause that can be named, we say Nirvana. (26).

        如果涅磐有任何原因可以被命名,这不是涅磐。"Van" ["Vana" of "Nir-vana"]意味着原因;涅磐的偶尔的关系意味着不。这里没有原因可以被命名,我们说涅磐。

 

       Nirvana is formless. Why do we say formless? This derives from the fact that there are not the ten representational phases. What are these? They are the phases of:  (i) colour,  (ii) sound,  (iii) smell,  (iv) taste,  (v) touch,  (vi) being born,  (vii) existing [samsarically],  (viii) breaking up,  (ix) being born male, and  (x) being born female. It [Nirvana] does not possess these representational forms. Hence, formless.

        涅磐是无形的。为什么我们说是无形的?这源于这样的事实这里不是有代表性的10个阶段。他们是什么?他们是这些阶段(i) 色,  (ii) 声,  (iii) 香,  (iv) 味,  (v)触,  (vi) 出生,  (vii)存在 [对称],  (viii)破裂,  (ix) 出生为男性, 并且  (x) 出生为女性。

         

      Whatever represents a form is subject to ignorance. Ignorance evokes craving; craving evokes bondage; from bondage arises birth; from birth comes about death. When there is death, there is no eternity. If [one is] not attached to form, there is no ignorance. When there is no ignorance, there is no craving. When there is no craving, there is no bondage. When there is no bondage, there arises no birth. When there is no birth, there is no death. When there is no death, there is the Eternal. Due to this, we say that Nirvana is Eternal (27).

           一个形式的表现是无知的主题。无知唤起欲望;欲望唤起束缚;束缚产生出生;从生到死。当这里有死,这里没有永恒。如果(一个)没有形式的执着,这里没有无知。当这里没有无知,这里没有欲望。当这里没有欲望,这里没有束缚。当这里没有束缚,这里没有产生出生。当这里没有出生,这里没有死。当这里没有死,这里是永恒的。由于这些,我们说涅磐是永恒。

      

       There are two kinds of samatha. One is mundane, and the other supramundane. And there are two [further] kinds. One is accomplished, and the other non-accomplished. [Those of] the accomplished are all the so-called Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. And the non-accomplished are the so-called sravakas and pratyekabuddhas.

          这里有两类奢摩他。一个是平凡的,另一个是出世。这里有两类。一类是已经完成了,另一类是没有完成的。(那些)已经完成的是称名为佛和菩萨。而没有完成的是称名为声闻乘和辟支佛。

 

      Also, there are three kinds, namely: low, middle, and top. The low relates to common mortals; middle to sravakas and pratyekabuddhas; and top to all Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. Also there are four kinds, namely:  (i) retrogressing,  (ii) abiding,  (iii) progressing, and  (iv) greatly benefiting. Also, there are five kinds, which are the so-called five-knowledge samadhis. These are: (i) samadhi of non-eating,  (ii) faultless samadhi,  (iii) samadhi in which the body and mind are pure and the mind is one,  (iv) samadhi in which one feels pleased with both cause and effect, and  (v) samadhi in which one always prays in one's heart.

        此外,这里有三类,即:低,中,和高。低等的与一般人有关;中等的与声闻乘和辟支佛有关;而高等的是与佛陀和菩萨有关。当然,这里有四类的人,即:(i)倒退(ii)遵守(iii)前进,而(iv)大的利益。当然,这里有五类,他们就叫做五种知识的三摩地。他们是:(i) 不吃的三摩地  (ii)完美的三摩地,  (iii)身心纯洁的三摩地而且心灵是一个 (iv) 对因果关系感到愉悦的三摩地 (v) 在心中祷告的三摩地.

 

      Furthermore, there are six kinds, which are:  (i) samadhi in which one meditates on white bones,  (ii) samadhi of compassion,  (iii) samadhi on the twelve links of interdependent arising,  (iv) samadhi on anapana [breathing],  (v) samadhi on the discriminatory mind of beings, and  (vi) samadhi on birth and death. Also, there are seven kinds, namely the so-called seven Bodhi elements. These are:  (i) mindfulness,  (ii) discernment of Dharma,  (iii) effort,  (iv) joy,  (v) repose,  (vi) concentration, and  (vii) equanimity. Also, there are seven [further] kinds, which are: (i)srotapanna-samadhi,  (ii) sakrdagami-samadhi,  (iii) anagami-samadhi,  (iv) arhat-samadhi,  (v) pratyekabuddha-samadhi,  (vi) Bodhisattva-samadhi,  (vii) The Tathagata's All-Awakened Samadhi.

       此外,这里有六类,他们是(i)白骨观三摩地(ii)慈悲三摩地(iii)十二相互依存的关系的三摩地(iv) 安那般那三摩地(呼吸)(v)生命有分别心的三摩地,和(vi)生与死的三摩地。当然,这里有七类,也就是所说的七菩提元素。他们是

  (i) 心理的,  (ii) 洞察的,  (iii)精进,  (iv) 喜悦,  (v) 宁静,  (vi) 专注, 和(vii) 平和. 当然, 这里有更多的七类  , 他们是: (i)预流果三摩地,  (ii) 斯陀含三摩地 ,  (iii) 阿那汉三摩地,  (iv)阿罗汉三摩地,  (v)辟支佛三摩地  (vi) 菩萨三摩地,  (vii) 如来全觉三摩地。

 

 

      Also, there are eight kinds, which are none other than the eight Emancipation samadhis. These are:  (i) samadhi in which one gets Emancipated from the notion of matter by meditating on matter,  (ii) samadhi in which one seeks Emancipation by meditating further on the external phase of matter, though internally the matter notion has already been done away with,  (iii) samadhi in which one seeks Emancipation and its actualisation in one's own body through the meditation on purity,  (iv) boundlessness-of-space  Emancipation samadhi,  (v) boundlessness-of-consciousness Emancipation samadhi,  (vi) existencelessness Emancipation samadhi,  (vii) thoughtlessness-non-thoughtlessness Emancipation samadhi, and  (viii) cessation Emancipation samadhi.

此外,这里有八类,他们不是别的而是八解脱三摩地。他们是(i)通过对物质的冥想获得关于物质的观念的解脱的三摩地(ii)寻求进一步对外部阶段物质的冥想的解脱的三摩地,尽管是内部的这个物质的观念已经被去除了,(iii)通过对纯净的冥想在自己身体内部实现,一个人寻求在三摩地中解脱。(iv)无限空间解脱的三摩地(vii)非想非非想解脱三摩地,和(viii)终止解脱三摩地。

 

      Also, there are nine kinds, namely the so-called nine gradual samadhis. These are the four dhyanas, the four Voids, and the cessation samadhi. Also, there are ten kinds, which are the so-called ten all-place samadhis. What are the ten? They are the all-place samadhis on:  (i) earth,  (ii) water,  (iii) wind,  (iv) blue,  (v) yellow,  (vi) red,  (vii) white,  (viii) space,  (ix) consciousness, and  (x) non-possession. Also, there are innumerable kinds, which are: all Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. These are the representations of the samadhis. There are two kinds of Wisdom, which are: (i) earth,  (ii) water,  (iii) wind,  (iv) blue,  (v) yellow,  (vi) red,  (vii) white,  (viii) space,  (ix) consciousness, and  (x) non-possession. (i) mundane and (ii) supramundane. Also, there are three kinds: (i) prajna,  (ii) vipasyana, and  (iii) jnana. Prajna is all beings; vipasyana is all sages; and jnana relates to all Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. Also, prajna is the individual phase of representation, and vipasyana is the general phase of representation. Jnana is the breaking [dissolution] phase of representation. Also, there are four kinds, which are none other than the meditation on the Four Truths.

      当然,这里有9种,就是所谓的九层次地三摩地。这里有四界,四虚空,和终止禅定。当然,这里有10类,他们就是所谓的十地三摩地。什么十?他们是所有地方的三摩地(i)地,  (ii) 水,  (iii) 风,  (iv)蓝,  (v)黄,  (vi) 红,  (vii) 白,  (viii)空间,  (ix) 意识, 和  (x) 无有.。当然,这里有无数种类,他们是:所有的佛和菩萨。他们是三摩地的表现。这里有两类智慧,他们是(i)地,  (ii) 水,  (iii) 风,  (iv)蓝,  (v)黄,  (vi) 红,  (vii) 白,  (viii)空间,  (ix) 意识, 和  (x) 无有(i)世俗(ii)出世。当然,这里也有三类(一)般若,(二)毗婆舍那,和(三)证通,般若是所有的生命毗婆舍那是所有的圣人,证通是与诸佛和菩萨有关。所以,般若是个人的表现阶段,毗婆舍那是表现的一般阶段。证通是破坏(解散)表现的阶段。所以,这里有四类,他们不是别的对四真理的冥想

            

      One practises samatha for three purposes. What are these three: They are:  (i) non-indolence,  (ii) adornment for [with] great Wisdom, and  (iii) unmolestedness [i.e. unrestrictedness, freedom]. Also, next, one practises vipasyana for three purposes. What are these three? They are:  (i) to meditate on the evil karmic consequences of birth and death,  (ii) to increase the seeds of good, and  (iii) to crush out all the defilements(28).

          一个人修行奢摩他有三个目的。这三个目的是什么:他们是(i) 不懒散,  (ii) 大智慧饰品,和 (iii) 无扰 [即 没有限的, 自由].当然,另外,一个人修行毗婆舍那有三个目的。什么三个目的呢?他们是(i) 对生与死的恶业之果的冥想(ii)增加善的种子和(iii)去除所有的烦恼。(28)

       

       You ask why the srotapanna should be compard to the timi fish There are four things characterising the timi, which are:  (i) as its bones are small, it is light,  (ii)as it has fins, it is light,  (iii)it desires to seek the light,  (iv) it bites and holds on tightly. With the srotapanna, there are four things. Saying that the bones are small is comparable to the smallness of the amount of defilement. Having fins can be compared to samatha and vipasyana. Saying that it seeks and enjoys the light is comparable to darsanamarga. Saying that it bites and holds on tightly can be compared to the fact that the person hears what the Tathagata says regarding the non-eternal, suffering, non-Self, and the non-pure and that he holds tightly to what he has heard when Mara transforms himself and disguises himself as a Buddha, or when the rich man Sura sees and is wonderstruck, and that Mara, seeing the rich man moved in his heart, says: "What I said before about the Four Truths is not true. I shall now, for your sake, speak about the five truths, six skandhas, 13 spheres, and 19 realms." On hearing this, the rich man examines what is said and sees that there is nothing in it that is true. Hence, an analogy is sought here to explain the immovability of the mind."

          你问为什么预流果可以比喻为蒂米鱼。这里有四样东西来形容蒂米,他们是(i) 由于它的骨头小,重量轻,  (ii)它有鳍,它是光的。,  (iii)它要去找光,  (iv) 它咬着和仅仅持有。由于预流果,这里有四件事。说骨头是小的可以与小的染污相比。有鳍并且可以与奢摩他和毗婆舍那(samatha 和 vipasyana)相比。说他寻找和喜欢光是与见道相比的。说它咬和仅仅持有可以相比的事实就是当人听到如来说关于无永恒,苦,无我,和无纯洁,他仅仅持守他所听到的。当Mara改变他自己并且把他伪装成佛是,当富人Sura看到并万分惊讶,那个mara,看到那个富人走进他的心中,说:“我以前说的四真理不是真的。我现在要,对你,讲述第五真理,六蕴,13界,19域。”当听到这时,那个富人检查了它所说的并且看到这里什么都没有这是真的。因此,类似的要寻找和解释心灵的不动。

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