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佛陀最后的时期和大般若涅磐经(七)

(2010-02-05 15:33:32)
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Early Buddhist texts describe the different aspects of Nirvana brought out by various words or terms.  The commentary on the Nettipakarana thus explains these terms.  Nirvana is called uncompounded or absolute (asankhata), because it is not accounted for by any known casual factor : endless or infinite (ananta), because it knows no extermination; stainless (anasva) because the influxes of sin have no hold on it, true or real (scca); the other shore (para), because it makes for the further shore of the ocean of existence through Samsara; subtle (nipuna); very difficult to see (sududdasa), because it cannot be apprehended save and except by the instrument of a gradually matured knowledge; unimpaired (ajajjara), because it is not affected by any process of decay; immutable (dhuva); not vanishing (apalokita), because it does not disappear on account of decay and death; it cannot be pointed out (anisassana); not subject to description (nippapanca), tranquil (santa); undying (amata), because it is of an immortal nature; excellent (panita)’safe (siva), because there is no effect on it of baneful consequences of sinful deeds; secure (khema), destruction of desire (tanhakkhaya); wonderful (acchariya); marvellous (abbhuta);unimpeded (anitika); not risky (anitika dhamma), because it is not of a nature to run any risk; unborn (ajata), undisturbed (anupaddava)’uncreated (akata); free from sorrow (asoka); uncomplicated (anupasagga); deep (gambhira); difficult of perception (duppassa); transcendental (uttara); unsurpassed (anuttara); unequalled (asama); matchless (appatisama); summum bonum (settha), supreme (jettha); habitat (lena); protection (tana); hitchless (arena); spotless (anangana); innocent (akama); unimpure (vimala); the island (dipa); immeasurable (appamana); support (patittha), because it is the stand to prevent sinking into dangerous waters of Samsara etc.  Nirvana is also knowns as sarana (ultimate refuge); Viraga (detachment); accutapada (immutable state); mutti (liberation); Visuddhi (purity); vimutti (emancipation); suddhi (holiness); and nibbuti (blessedness).

         早期的佛教文本通过不同的文字或术语描述了涅磐的不同面貌。

         关于Nettipakarana的评注解释了这些术语。涅磐是叫做混沌的或绝对的(asankhata),因为它不能被任何已经知道的偶然原因说明:无尽的或无限的(ananta),因为它知道没有灭绝;无污染(anasva)因为流入的罪没有它,真实或真的(scca);另一个岸(para),因为他进一步通过到达轮回海边;微妙的(nipuna);非常困难去看(sududdasa),因为他不能被任何衰退的过程影响,不可改变的(dhuva);不去消失(apalokita),因为它没有消失由于生和死,它不能被指出(anisassana);没有描述的主题nippapanca),平静(santa),不死(amata),因为它是一个不朽的本性,优秀 (panita)安全(siva),因为这里没有影响他的有害的结果和罪恶的种子;安心(khema),对欲望的破坏(tanhakkhaya),精彩(acchariya);奇妙(abbhuta),无障碍(anitika);不冒险(anitika dhamma),因为它不是本性要去冒险,未生(ajata),未被触及(anitika);不被干扰(anupaddava)不被创造(akata),从痛苦之中解脱(asoka);不复杂(anupasagga);深刻(gambhira);感觉困难(duppassa),先验(uttara),非常卓越(anuttara),不平等(asama),不匹配(appatisama),至善(settha)  ,最高(jettha),住处(lena);保护(tana),无盖(arena),一尘不染(anangana);清白(akama), 不参杂(vimala);支持(patittha),因为它站立起来以保护不要堕入危险的轮回之海。涅磐被当作sarana(终极庇护所),无欲(分离),accutapada(不变的状态),mutti 解脱 ,清静(纯洁), vimutti(解脱);suddhi(陛下),寂灭nibbuti(幸福)

        

Mahayana Nirvana sutra find out about Nirvana.

大乘涅磐佛经发现了涅磐。

What can Nirvana be? Nirvana is emancipation [“vimukti” - liberation]." Kasyapa again said: "Is emancipation a thing or not a thing?" The Buddha said: "What is no thing is the emancipation of the sravakas and pratyekabuddhas; what is a thing is the emancipation of the All-Buddha-Tathagata. The case being thus, emancipation is a thing and not a thing. The Tathagata speaks to all sravakas and presents it as no thing."  If it is not a thing, how can sravakas and pratyekabuddhas live?"  That which is such as Thoughtlessness-non-Thoughtlessness Heaven is also both a thing and not a thing. The Self, too, is not a thing. One might argue, saying: "If  Thoughtlessness-non-Thoughtlessness Heaven is not a thing, how can a person live and come and go, advance and stand still?" All such matters relate to the world of all Buddhas; they are not what sravakas and pratyekabuddhas can rightly know. It is thus. The same with emancipation. We also speak of matter [“rupa” = matter, form, body] and non-matter [“arupa” = non-matter, non-form, non-body], and it is presented as not a thing. Also, we speak of thought and thoughtlessness, and this is presented as thoughtlessness. All such things belong to the world of all Buddhas and are not what sravakas and pratyekabuddhas may know."

 涅磐是什么?涅磐是解脱(“vimukti” – 解脱)迦叶佛接着说:“解脱一件事或不是一件事?”佛陀说:“没有什么东西是声闻乘和辟支佛的解脱;这件事是什么就是诸佛如来的解脱。这个例子就是,解脱是一个事而不是一个事。如来对所有的声闻乘说并且表现出它没有事。如果这不是一个事,声闻乘和辟支佛如何生活?这就是非想非非想天也是一个事和不是一个事。自我,也是,不是一个事。一个人也许会争辩,说:”如果非想非非想处天不是一个事,一个人如何生活并且来和去呢,前进和站好?所有这样的事与诸佛的世界是有关的。他们不是声闻乘和辟支佛能立刻知道的。他就是如此。与解脱是一样的。我们也许说到物质(“rupa”,事,形式,身体)并且没有物质(arupa=没有物质,没有形式,没有身体),它表现为不是一个事。所以,我们谈到思想和无思想,这被表现为无思想。所有这些事是属于诸佛的世界并且不是声闻乘和辟支佛乘可以知道。“

 

      Then Bodhisattva Kasyapa said to the Buddha: Please condescend to explain to me what pertains to Mahaparinirvana and the meaning of emancipation." The Buddha praised Kasyapa, saying: "Well said, well said, True emancipation means segregation of one's own self from all the bonds of illusion. If one truly attains emancipation and segregation of one's own self from the bonds of illusion, there is no self, or nothing to conjoin as in the case of [the sexual union between] parents, as a result of which a child is born. True emancipation is not like that. That is why emancipation is bootlessness. It is like sarpirmanda, which is pure in its nature. The same is the case with the Tathagata. He is not what arises through the conjoining of parents, as a result of which a child comes about. His nature is pure. [The Tathagata's] displaying of parents is [an expedient means for helping] to pass beings over to the other shore. True emancipation is the Tathagata. The Tathagata and emancipation are not two, are not different. It is as when we sow seeds in spring and autumn, for instance, when it is warm and wet and as a result of which the seeds shoot out buds. True emancipation is not thus.

       接着迦叶菩萨对佛说:请屈尊来给我解释什么是涉及大般若涅磐经和解脱的意义呢“佛陀赞扬迦叶说:说得好,说得好,真正的解脱意味这从自我和所有的幻觉的束缚之中走出来。如果一个人真正的达到解脱并且从自我的环境的束缚中解脱出来,这里就没有自我,或这没有链接任何事,就如在父母关系的例子(性的链接),结果就是孩子出生了。真正的解脱不是象这样。这就是为什么解脱是无益的。这就象是醍醐,它的本性是纯洁的。同样的例子是如来。他不是从父母的链接中出来的,作为结果一个孩子出来的。它的本性是纯洁的(如来就是)父母的表演(权益帮助之法)为了把生命带到另外的岸边。真正的解脱是如来。如来和解脱不是两个,是不同的。它就是当我们播的种子在春天和秋天,比如,当它是温暖和湿润时作为一个结果种子发芽了。解脱不是这样。

    

      Also, emancipation is nothingness. Nothingness is emancipation. Emancipation is the Tathagata and the Tathagata nothingness. It is not anything that come about from doing [action]. Such doing is like a castle building. True emancipation does not come about in this way [i.e. is not a compounded, constructed thing]. For this reason, emancipation is at once the Tathagata. Also, emancipation is the non-created. A potter makes a pot, which breaks to pieces again. Things are not like that in emancipation. True emancipation is bootlessness and deathlessness. That is why emancipation is the Tathagata.  

        

此外,解脱是虚无。虚无是解脱。解脱是如来而如来是虚无。这不是任何关于做的行动。这就象修建一个城堡。真正的解脱不是以这种方式而来的(即不是一个复合的,构造的东西)。由于这个原因,解脱就是如来。当然,解脱是没有创造的。一个陶工铸造了陶器,又被打成了碎片。在解脱中事情不是这样的。真正的解脱是无根的和死亡的。这就是为什么解脱是如来。

          

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