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佛陀最后的时期和大般若涅磐经(六)

(2010-02-05 15:31:39)
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07-02. Exposure and describe referring to Mahaparinibbana.

                    关于大般若涅磐经的说明和描述

 

Meaning of Nirvana

涅磐的意义

      The word Nibbana or Nirvana is derived from a root which signifies “Extinguished through lack of fuel” and since rebirth is the result of egotistic desire freedom from rebirth is attained by the extinguishing of all such desire.  Nirvana is therefore, a state attainable in this life, by right aspiration, purity of life, and elimination of egoism.  One who bad attained to this state is called a saint or arhat and at the death of his physical body attains complete, of final nirvana in which all the attributes relating to phenomenal existence cease and which his therefore, called the Sunyata or void.  This is cessation of existence; the attainment of being (as district from becoming); union with ultimate reality.  This is the goal of all mystic endeavor. In the Buddhist scriptures the Buddha speaks of it as “unborn, originated, uncreated, unformed”, contrasting it with the born, originated created and formed phenomenal world.

        涅磐或涅盘这个词是来源于表示“由于缺乏燃料而熄灭”的词根并且因此轮回是由于自我欲望的结果而从轮回之中解脱是去除所有这些欲望而达到的。涅磐因此,是一个在今生可以达到的状态,通过正确的愿望,纯洁生命,和去除自我。一个人已经达到了这个状态就叫做圣人或阿罗汉而在死亡时他的肉身完结,而最后的涅磐在其中。所有的相关现象存在的特质终止了而因此,叫做空或虚无。这就是存在的终止,生命的到达(通过变化的领域);最终现实的联合。这就是所有神秘主义者努力的结果。在佛教的经典之中佛谈到了“未生,出生,尚未产生,没有形成”,对比那些出生的,原来产生的和形成的现象世界。

        

      Nirvana is the summum bonum of Buddhism and the ultimate of all that a Buddha taught or would teach.  Buddhism is in essence a proclamation of the truth of nirvana, a clear statement of the truth about nirvana, a search for nirvana and a sure path leading to nirvana. Nirvana is the free state of consciousness, the tranquil stage of our internal nature, and the highest emotional state of spiritually and blessedness.  It consists mainly in subduing the haughty spirit, the perfect control of thirst, the paralyzing of the very storage of creative energy, the arrest of the course of Samsara as regards the fate of an individual, the rare attainment of the state of the void, the waning of desire, the dispassionate state, and the cessation of all sense of discordance.  Nirvana means the annihilation of all sense of discordance.  Nirvana means the annihilation of passion, hatred, and delusion. It is the waning out of all evils-the diminishing of the vicious and the weak in man, which is the negative aspect of his positive advance in becoming.  In its negative aspect, it means the removal of greed, ill will, and dullness and freedom from these; it may be variously described as comfort, end of ill, end of becoming, or life, end of craving and the rest.  In its positive aspect, it means mental illumination conceived as light, in sight, state of feeling happiness, cool and calm and content, peace, safety, and self-mastery.  Objectively considered, it means truth, the highest good, a supreme opportunity, a regulated life, communion with the best.

涅磐是佛教最终的至善和佛陀教导和将要教导所有的终极。佛教是在本质上一个涅磐真理的宣言,关于涅磐真理的清晰的说明,对涅磐的追求和通往涅磐的明确的道路。涅磐是意识的自由状态,我们内在本质的平静状态,精神最高的情绪状态和祝福。它主要包括克服傲慢的精神,对渴求的很好的控制,对储存的能量的静止,个人命运中轮回的终止,珍贵的虚空状态的领悟,欲望的削弱,公正的状态,所有感觉不一致的中止。涅磐意味着去除情爱,仇恨,和错觉。消除所有的罪恶-减少邪恶和人的虚弱,这是在变化之中他的正面前进的负面作用。在它的否定的一面,它意味着去除贪婪,病态的欲望,沉闷和从中获得自由;它意味着精神的觉醒构成了光,内视,睡眠状态,冷静和平静和满足,和平,安全,和自我控制。客观的考虑,它意味着真理,最高的善,最高的机会,规范的生命,最好的共融。

 

      Nirvana is immortally, the opposite of which is death.  The path of diligence is the path to immortality, and the way of indolence is the way to death.  It is secure from the worldly contact and unsurpassed in its reach.  The Buddha declare nirvana as the highest condition.  It is the greatest happiness. With the vision of nirvana the sinful nature vanishes for ever.  Without knowledge, there is no meditation; without meditation, there is no knowledge; he, who has knowledge and meditation is near unto nirvana.  It is the bliss of emancipation and the tranquil state. It is a matchless island which possesses nothing, grasps at nothing, which is the destroyer of decay and death. The world is bound by pleasure, and by giving up pleasure or desire, nirvana can be attained.

        涅磐是不朽,相反的是死亡。勤奋的道路是通往不朽的道路,懒惰的道路是死亡的道路。从世俗接触中安心并且达到了无上觉悟。佛陀宣布涅磐是最高的条件。它是最大的幸福。由于涅磐的洞察罪恶本性永远的消除了。没有知识,这里没有冥想;没有冥想,这里没有知识;他,拥有知识和冥想是接近于涅磐的。它是解脱的祝福和平静的状态,它是无与伦比的岛屿这不拥有什么,没有掌握什么,这是对死亡和腐败的破坏。这个词与愉快相邻,通过放弃愉快或欲望,涅磐是可以达到的。

 

      Nirvana is the extinction of five aggregate (Khandha).  It is the cessation of all sufferings.  It can be attained through meditation, wisdom, observance of precepts stead fastness, etc.  The attributes of nirvana consist of absence of passion, destruction of pride, avoidance of thirst, freedom from attachment and destruction of all sensual pleasures.  It is described as avoid.  A person obtains nirvana by making himself free from the wilderness of misdeeds.  It is freedom from all sins and final real from lower nature.  It means that from which the arrow of desire has been removed.  It is so called because it is a departure from that craving.  It is to be realized through knowledge belonging to the four paths (spiritual stages).  It is the object of those paths and their fruition.  It is excellent, transcendental (lokuttara), uncreated and free from lust.

        涅磐是五集结(蕴)的灭绝。它是所有痛苦的终止。它可以通过冥想,智慧,稳定遵守戒律,等。对涅磐的属性包括了感情的缺乏,骄傲的破坏,避免口渴,从执着中获得自由和破坏所有的感官愉悦。它被描述为避免。一个人通过不正当行为的荒野之中解脱获得涅磐。它也被这样叫是因为它从渴望中解脱。这是通过属于四条道路(精神阶段)的知识的认识获得的。它是那些道路的目标和他们的结果。它是极好的,先验的(时间),没有创造的和从欲望之中解脱。

    Nirvana is the blissful, peaceful element-the refuge which is free from the passion of craving.  It is the salvation which is eternal, unassailable, and noble; it means the cessation of the whole of suffering.  It is that supreme state in which there is not either birth or decay, nor disease, nor death, nor contact, with what is disagreeable, neither disappointment nor separation from what is agreeable.  It is that state which is tranquil, final, and imperishable.  Just as a lamp is extinguished forever from the exhaustion of oil, and does not depart to the earth or the sky or any of the quarters, so the saint who has reached nirvana does not come back to the earth.  In his case, salvation means the exhaustion of corrupting factors; it is tranquility only.  By extinguishing the blazing fire of passions with the water of steadfastness, the saint comes to the highest happiness like a man descending into a cool pool in the hot weather.  There is no more for him anything which is agreeable or disagreeable, any liking or disliking; he feels joy because of their absence.  Like one who has obtained safety after a great danger, or deliverance from great oppression, or light in darkness, or the safe shore, or like one who has gained in health after an unbearable illness, or release from a great debt, or escape from the jaws of a chasing enemy, or plenty after scarcity, the saint comes to a supreme state of peace.  The sure way to nirvana or salvation lies in the noble eightfold path, as propounded by the Buddha.

      涅磐是幸福,和平的要素-从对感情的渴望之中解脱出来的避难所。它是永恒,无懈可击,和尊贵的解脱;它意味这整个痛苦的终止。它是超级的状态在其中这里没有生或死,也没有疾病,没有死亡,没有接触,由于这是可以同意的,无论是沮丧或从赞同之中分离。它是这样的状态它是平静的,最终的,和不灭的。就象一盏灯由于耗尽了油而永久的熄灭了,并且不能离开到地面或空中或任何的角落,所以这个圣人已经达到了涅磐并且不再回到地球上了。在这个例子中,拯救意味着腐败因素的消尽;它是完全平静的。由于熄灭了激情燃烧的火焰由于稳定的水,圣人达到了最高的幸福就象一个人在炎热的季节里跳进了冰冷的湖里。对他来说这里没有更多的事情这是赞同的或不赞同的,任何喜欢或不喜欢;他感到高兴由于他们的缺席。就象一个人在很大的危险后获得了安全,或从巨大的压力下解脱了,或在黑暗之中点亮,或在安全的岸上,或者喜欢一个人在不可忍受的疾病之中他获得了健康,或从巨大的债务之中,或从追赶的敌人的嘴下逃跑,或者在贫穷之后获得富足,圣人达到了和平的最高状态。这个通往涅磐或拯救的确定的方法存在于尊贵的八正道,正如佛所提出的。

 

      Nirvana being uncaused, there is no cause that would bring about nirvana itself.  Nirvana is uncompounded, not made of anything yet it exists.  It is perceptible to the mind.  Nirvana is all bliss, though the process of seeking after it is painful.  It is bliss unalloyed.  It is neither past, nor future, nor present, nor produced, nor not produced, nor producible.  It is to be known by freedom from distress and danger, by confidence, peace, bliss, happiness, delicacy, purity, and freshness.  There is means that would bring about the realization of nirvana.  He who orders his life a right realizes nirvana.  He who gains the highest fruit of sainthood may be said to have seen nirvana face to face.

         涅磐是没有原因的,这里没有原因会带来涅磐本身。涅磐是没有混合的,不会由存在的东西构成。这是可感受的心灵。涅磐是所有的祝福,尽管寻找它是痛苦的过程。它不是合成的幸福。它不是过去,不是将来,不是现在,不是产生,也不是不产生,也不是产生的。这就是从痛苦和悲伤之中获得自由,由于信心,和平,祝福,幸福,精致,纯洁,和新鲜。这有方法会带来涅磐的认识。他命令他的生命一正确认识涅磐。他已经获得了圣徒的最高果位也许会说已经从面对面看到涅磐了。

 

      With a mystic, as distinguished from a devote or intellectualist, nirvana is a vision, an experience, a feeling, and self-state-the highest, the best and the most real of all that he knows of thinks of, or speaks of.  The vision of nirvana dawns upon consciousness; the realization of nirvana is possible in that stage of Samadhi which is aptly. According to the Buddha’s claim, this is the ninth stage of Samadhi, reached for the first time by him.  This is a state of trance when outwardly a man who reaches it is as good as dead, there being nothing but warmth as a sign of life.  In this state, a level of consciousness (citta) is reached where consciousness is ultimately thrown back on itself, completely void, being devoid of the subject-object relation.  In the same state, a plane of inner experience is reached where there is no longer any longing for this or that object of sense.  This is the highest psychical state where consciousness appears to be face to face with Reality.

        由于神秘主义,由于一个圣徒或学者的区别,涅磐是一种洞察,一个经历,一个感觉,和自我状态的最高形式,最好和他知道的,思想的,或谈到的最真。涅磐的内视开始于意识,通过适当的禅定可以认识到涅磐 。根据佛陀的宣道,这里有九层三摩地,他第一个达到。这是一个出神的状态,当一个人达到这一状态时外面看起来就好象死亡一样,这里没有什么但是有体温的信号表明生命的存在。在这个状态,一个意识的层次(citta)已经达到了那里,意识是最终完全扔掉了,完全空虚,缺乏主客观的关系。在这个同样的状态,内在经验的飞机已经达到了这里,不再有任何渴求或感官的目标。这是最高的心理状态,那里意识表现出对实相的面对面 。

 

      The Mahayanic Interpretation of Nirvana : Nagarjuna (one of Mahayana Philosopher) advocated that Samsara and nirvana are the two relative ideas and as such there is no absolute distinction between the two. Both stand on the same footing in respect of each other as regards their significance.  Even in apposition, there can not be any conception of a relation between the two.  The pratitya-samutpada, viewed and interpreted as a law of sequence of casual antecedents and consequents, explains the essential nature of Samsara.  The same, viewed and interpreted as ‘mere origination’(uppadamatta) without any idea of temporal relation associated with it, expresses the essential nature of nirvana. In other words, the pratitya-Samytpada in its samytpada aspect is Samsara, and the same in its nirodha aspects is nirvana.  The Buddha tried to show that nirvana cannot but be the final term or the last category of thought.  Perception or intuition (dittha), tradition (suta), and inference (muta) cannot exhaust the meaning of Vinnata (knowledge), which is something more than what is comprehended by them jointly or severally.  It ekatta (unity) be the next category to express the essential character of knowledge (Vinnata), another category, nanatta (plurality), is needed to cover the residual of meaning uncovered by ekatta.  To realize the meaning of both ekatta and nanatta another category is needed, namely, Sabba (universality) which is something more in meaning than what is comprehended by ekatta and nanatta.  Sabba or universality is not enough to convey the meaning of the whole or reality, which is constituted not only of cognition, but also of volition and feeling.  To comprehend all, another category is required and it is nirvana (the ideal, ideality).  Nirvana is not an experience that one may identify oneself with it or think that either one is nirvana, or one is in nirvana or one is form nirvana, or nirvana is one’s own.

      大乘佛教对涅磐的解释

       龙树(一位大乘佛教的哲学家)宣称三摩地和涅磐是两个相关的概念而他们二者之间没有绝对的区别。都建立在同样的基础上。关于他们的重要性。即使把它们并列起来,在他们两者之间没有任何关系。缘起,视为和解释为一系列前因和后果的连续的结果,是轮回的实质的本性。同样的,视作和翻译为“仅有的缘起” (uppadamatta)没有任何暂时的观念和他联系,表达为涅磐的本性。在其它的文字,缘起在某方面就是轮回。同样,被视作和解释为“唯一的发源” (uppadamatta)没有任何观念和暂时的关系与之相联,表达了涅磐的本质属性。感知或直觉(dittha),传统(suta),和推理(muta)不能耗尽Vinnata(知识)的意义,这比把它们连起来或单独看所获得的理解要多得多。 它ekatta(一性)是另一类表达知识的主要特点,另一类,nanatta(多元性),有必要覆盖没有被一元性覆盖的意义。认识到一性和多元性的意义另一类就需要了,即,Sabba(普遍的)这是某些事情更多在意义上而不是被一性和共性理解的。Sabba或普遍性是在意义上比一性和多元性更有趣。Sabba或普遍性不是足够传递整个意义或现实的,这是组成的不是认识的,但也是意志和知觉。为了理解所有,另一类形式是有必要的它就是涅磐(那个观念,真实)。涅磐不是一个经验一个人也许认出他自己或想那一个是涅磐,或一个在涅磐或哪一个是形成涅磐,或涅磐是一个人自己。

   

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