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上部座佛教和大乘佛教产生的佛教术语和哲学概念(十一

(2010-02-04 15:49:49)
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It is sometimes claimed by scholars who comment on the doctrine of the Self in the Nirvāṇa Sūtra that when the Buddha speaks of the ātman, he is only doing so in a concessionary manner, in a provisional, tactical manoeuvre for those of his students who are not yet ready to face up to the frightening enormity of the non-Self and Emptiness doctrines, and that what he really wishes to say is that there actually exists no Self at all. We shall come back to the question of whether this text views itself as provisional or ultimate in its doctrines a little later, but for now, it needs to be emphasised that for the Buddha to assert something to be satya and tattva (both adjectives appear alongside one another) is tantamount to his insisting that it truly is Real -  not just seemingly real or deceptively authentic. The term, tattva, embedded in such a metaphysical verbal environment as the present context -  where rectification of a misapprehended non-Self doctrine is centre-stage of discussion - really does betoken ultimate Reality itself, rather than some provisional, metaphorical notion or accommodating make-shift simile of Truth.

     

 在某些时候学者宣称谁声明涅磐经之中自我的教义当佛陀谈到自性是,他仅仅是在做一个减价的方法,临时的,战术演习对那些他的学生没有准备面对巨大恐吓的无我和空虚的教义,但是他真正希望的是说这里确实存在这无我。我们回到这个问题就是否这个文本的观点自身是暂时的或在它的教义之中最后的。但是现在,他需要强调佛来补充某些东西对atya 和 tattva(这个形容词并列在一旁)是等于他坚持这是真的-不仅仅看起来是真的或迷惑的真实。这个术语,tattva,加入了这些形而上学的词语环境就象是当前的内容-那里纠正了错误无我的教义是讨论的中心阶段-他们真实的预示最终的现实自己,而不是某些暂时的,形而上学的观念或乐于助人的真实的微笑。

         

 

      A number of the other epithets applied to the True Self in the passage just quoted. Firstly and perhaps most importantly - for this is arguably the core concern and dominant assertion of the entire Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra in its earliest extant manifestation – is the notion of the “eternity” or “permanence” of the Buddha (who is, we must remember, the True Self, according to this scripture). The Sanskrit term, nitya, is usually translated by Buddhist scholars as “permanent”, but I feel that this fails to do justice to the sense of never-endingness or ever-enduringness that the words in the Nirvāṇa Sūtra. The English adjective “permanent” is usually applied to something that lasts indefinitely, yes -  but not forever. For example, a person may be given a “permanent post” in the company for which he or she works. But that particular situation will of course only last for as long as the company survives. No one expects that the company will last forever. And nor will it: being part of Samsāra, it will eventually decline, collapse and die – as will that employee him or herself. But when the Buddha applies the epithet, nitya, to himself or Nirvāṇa, he wishes to express very forcefully the idea of eternal continuance and perpetual persistence throughout all time and beyond. The Self that is nitya is not just real for a million years or even a million kalpas (aeons). It is real and lasting forever.

      其它的词语运用到真我的只是引述的。首先和也许最重要的-这可以说是核心的关心和完全的大涅磐经的占统治地位的在他早期的现存的显示-佛的这个永恒的观念或无常(他是,我们必须记住,那个真我,根据这个经文)。这个梵文的术语,nitya,是经常被佛教徒学者翻译为永恒,但是我感到这跌入了正义对永不停止的感觉和曾经经历的词隐含在涅磐经中。这个英语的形容词永恒是经常用来指某些东西在无限期的持续。但是不是永远。比如,一个人也许给予了“永久的邮递”在他或她工作的公司。但是这个特殊的环境将当然持续下去只要这个公司存在。没有人希望那个公司能永远持续。并且没有他,远离轮回,它明显下降,倒塌和死亡了-就象雇佣了他或她自己。但是当佛陀运用这个词语,nitya,来指他自己或涅磐,他希望所有的时间和超越很有力的表达永恒的持续和永久的持续。这个自我就是nitya不是真的为100万年或一百万劫(漫长)。这是真的和永久的存在的。

 

      So central is this concept of the nityatā or eternal continuance of the Buddha in the Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra that the Buddha at one point refers to this scripture as “the great sūtra of the Buddha’s eternity” (nityatā). Perpetual Buddhic Reality would seem to lie at the heart of the message which this sūtra seeks to communicate, as an antidote to the prent Buddhist notion of universal change, decay, flux and death. The Buddha actually says so in terms. The Buddha’s physical form will die, that is true; but that nirmāna body (physically manifested body) is in any case deceptive and impermanent, the Buddha insists. He himself, in contrast,  as the True Self will not reach any end or cessation(24).

        因此中心的概念是nityatā或永恒存在的佛陀在大般若涅磐经中这个佛有一点指出这个经文是佛陀永恒的最大的佛经((nityatā)。观念上佛教的实相似乎在这个佛经继续联系这些信息的中心,就象一个永恒的佛教徒观念的普遍的变化,腐烂,不变和死亡。佛陀实际上说在术语中。佛陀的身体形式将要死亡,这是真的;但是那个nirmāna身体(物质表现的身体)在任何情况下是具有虚幻性和非永恒性,佛坚持说,他自己,相反,作为真我不会达到任何结束或停止。

 

      If the Self never mutates or transforms, then it is impossible for it to be killed, since it cannot undergo the transformation inevitably wrought by death. Accordingly of the sūtra, we find the expressive epithet “un-rubbed-out” used of the ātman. The likely Sanskrit term underlying this is aparimardana, which means “not rubbed out”, not obliterated, not broken up or destroyed. We are perhaps reminded here of the colloquial English expression_r_r of “wiping someone out” or “rubbing someone out” to convey the idea of killing them. But unlike what the Buddha calls the “lie” of the worldly ego, made up of its five transforming and transient skandhas, all doomed to death, the true ātman can never be “rubbed out” or erased. It endures, unperishing, forever.   

       如果自我没有变异或转换,这样它就有可能被杀,因为它不能经历转换的不可避免的死亡。因此,这个经,我们发现是表达词语“un-rubbed-out”用的词语是自性。这就象梵文的术语经历了这个aparimardana,这意味这没有干掉或“干掉某人”我们也许想起这里有口语的英语表达“没有杀死”,没有夷为平地或“干掉某人”传达了这个杀掉他们的观念。但是不象佛陀所说的说谎的世俗我,是有五种形式构成的并且是短暂的五蕴,所有的注定要死,这个真我不能被杀死或除去。它持久忍受,没有消灭,永远。

 

       Finally in this section, let us consider an adjective found characterise the Self: “sovereign” or “autonomous” (aiśvarya in Sanskrit). Not only do we encounter the term in the present passage, but also scattered across as a whole. For example, we read that  “… on the morning of Buddhahood, he (the Bodhisattva) obtains the sovereign Self” (chapter entitled “On Pure Actions”), and on the all-pervasive presence of the Buddha, who cannot truly be seen and yet can cause all to see him, the Buddha comments that  “Such sovereignty is termed ‘the Great Self’ (mahātman)” (chapter entitled “Bodhisattva Highly Virtuous King”). This word, aiśvarya, is important for three reasons: first, it attests the complete self-mastery, independence and freedom of the Self -  it is not subject to the tyranny of unwanted internal or external forces (unlike the mundane ego comprised of the unstable, conditioned and labile skandhas); second, it hints at a controlling, regulating intelligence: a knowing and utterly free mind (the “transcendental knowing” which the Buddha elsewhere in the sūtra links to the Self); and thirdly, it is of course linguistically related to the Sanskrit noun, Isvara, which in the Brahmanical environment in which Buddhism had its roots denoted God (more particularly the god, Shiva). This attendant sense of the divine and the numinous would not, I am sure, have been lost on the transmitters and auditors of the Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra. 

       最后在这一节中,让我们考虑一个形容词发现了他自己的特点。“主权”或“自主”(梵语之中的aiśvarya)。不仅我么遇到了这个术语在当前的页,但是也分散到了各处。比如,我们读到“一天早上佛,他(菩萨)获得了庄严的自我(这一章冠以高贵王菩萨)这个词,aiśvarya,是很重要的有三个原因:第一,它证实了完全的自我控制,独立和自我的自由-这不是不必要的内部或外部力量的暴政的目标。第二,它暗示了一个控制,调节,通常的智慧;一个知道和完全自由的心理(这个先验的知道佛在佛经之中的另外地方与自我联系,而第三,它当然是与梵语的名词相关的,自在,在婆罗门的环境之中佛教有它的根符号的神(更普遍的神,湿婆)。这个伴随的神的意义和神圣不会,我确信,已经失去了转化和大般若涅磐经的审计。

 

      Moreover, just as a castor-oil shrub (eranda) does not have a core, likewise this body does not have a self (atman), a being (sattva), a life-essence (jiva), an individual (pudgala), manava, nara or an acting agent (kartr). In that way, we repeatedly cultivate the idea that a self does not exist. For example, just as it is pointless to plant even ten million (koti) dry husks, likewise is this body, which is devoid of a Self. For example, just as the flowers of wheat (valla-puspa) have no fragrance, likewise this body is devoid of a Self. In that manner do we cultivate repeatedly the idea that this body is devoid of a Self. 

       此外,正如一个蓖麻油灌木(eranda)没有一个核心,象这个身体没有一个自我(自性),一个生命(sattva),一个生命的本质(jiva),一个个人的pudgala,儒童manava,南传nara或这一个行为的代理(kartr).在那个道上,我们不断地修炼这个观念就是自我并不存在。比如,就象它指出的种植千万(koti)干的皮,就象在这个身体,这是缺乏自我。比如,就象小麦的花一样(valla-puspa)没有香味,就象在它的身体里缺乏一个我。以这种方式,我们反复培养这个观念身体是缺乏自我的。

      The Blessed One has instructed us [in this way]: ‘Monks, all phenomena [dharma] are devoid of a Self. Practise thus! Those who practise thus will eliminate clinging to self (atma-graha). When clinging to self has been utterly eliminated, Nirvana will be attained.’ Blessed One, since all phenomena are thus devoid of a Self, we repeatedly cultivate the idea that a Self does not exist. Moreover, just as a bird leaves no tracks in the sky, so we shall detach ourselves from all types of [false] views when we have cultivated the idea that there is no Self.” 

        圣尊指导我们说(以这种方式):和尚,所有的现象(大法)是缺乏自我。实践于此:那些实践于此的人将要消除对自我的执著(atma-graha)。当执著自我已经被彻底的消除了,涅磐将要达到。圣尊,因为所有的现象是缺乏自我,我们不断地培养这个观念就是自我是不存在的。更多的,就像一个鸟飞向空中而没有痕迹,我们不断地从各种错误的观念之中走出来当我么培养这个观念这里没有自我。”

      The Blessed One asked, “Do you know how to cultivate that kind of meditation. The monks replied, “Blessed One, if we were to cultivate anything contrary to the idea of suffering, impermanence and non-Self, we would be like a staggering drunk who sees the heavens, mountain peaks, the ground, the sun, the moon, trees and hills whirling around, though they are not moving; for those worldly beings who do not cultivate the idea of suffering, impermanence, and non-Self are just like drunks. [For this reason], Blessed One, we have cultivated it properly.”

        圣尊这样问:“你知道如何培养那种冥想。那些僧侣回答,圣尊,如果我们培养了相反的观念就象痛苦,无常和无我,我们将象一个令人吃惊的醉汉看着天空,山峰,地面,太阳,月亮,树木和山丘环绕,尽管他们是不动的;由于这些世俗的生命不会训练这样的观念关于痛苦,无常,和无我就象是酒鬼。(由于这个原因),圣尊,我们已经正确的培养了。”

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