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上部座佛教和大乘佛教产生的佛教术语和哲学概念(九)

(2010-02-04 15:45:36)
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      So-called "Emptiness", which is an absolutely key concept of Mahayana Buddhism, reveals itself here to be only empty of what is changing, afflicted and worldly - not of the changeless and positive attributes of total Bliss, Joy, Imperturbability and Eternity. The "Emptiness" of nirvanic Liberation is something that was never constructed or put together and so can never die. And it is integrally linked to a knowing being - the Buddha himself. That Buddha, we learn later in Dharmakshema's version of the sutra, is far from empty nothingness: he is, we are told, "the boundless Dharmadhatu (unbounded Realm of Truth- the totality of all things).

       所谓的虚空,这就是绝对的大乘佛教的观念,揭示了仅仅是虚空的这是变化的,痛苦的和世俗的-永恒不变和对终极祝福的正面态度,喜悦,沉着和永恒。这个本质解脱的虚空是某些东西从来不建造过或密不可分因此永远不会死。这是完全与知识的生命相连-佛他自己。那个佛,我们以后知道佛经的Dharmakshema版本,是远离虚空虚无的:他是,我们说:无限的Dharmadhatu(无限的真实境界-所有事情的总和)

      Thus, we should never conceive of shunyata as something depressing or negative when applied to Great Nirvana and the Buddha. It is the very opposite of that. It is the open and spacious perfection of all good qualities - the ungraspable (yet ever-present) sphere of unending highest happiness.

         因此,我们永远不要想象虚空是某些东西被压抑了或者消极的运用到大涅磐和佛。这是非常对立的。这是开放的和非常完美的有良好的素质-不可捉摸(但是始终存在)是无止境最高的幸福领域。

    

What is  the Self or soul (Atman)  in Mahaparinirvana Sutra.

在大般若涅磐经中什么是自我或灵魂(自性)

      In the Nirvana Sutra, the Buddha upholds his earlier teaching that what the ordinary person regards as his or her "self" is in fact "not the Self" (anatman). That is to say, the five skandhas (constituent elements) which make up our "mundane ego" are not the essence of what we are. What are these skandhas? They are: (i) form- matter;  (ii) feeling;  (iii) ideation - perception;  (iv) intention-related impulses;  (v) consciousness. None of these, whether taken singly or together, constitutes our Self (atman).

       在涅磐经中,佛陀持有早期的教义就是普通人把他或她自己当做普通的人事实上不是自我(anatman)。这就是说:五蕴(构成的元素)这让我们的普通的自我不是我们是的本质。这些蕴是什么?他们是(i) (ii)   (iii)   (iv) (v) . 没有这些, 无论是由单个或共同, 构成了我们的自我 (自性).

 

      However, according to the Buddha's final Mahayana teachings, as embodied in this Mahaparinirvana Sutra, there does exist a "true Self". This is equated with the Buddhic Element (Buddha-dhatu) which resides deep within all beings, beneath the coverings of negative states of mind and character which have, since beginning less time, concealed this Supramundane essence from view.

       不过,根据佛陀的最后大乘佛教教义,在大般若涅磐经中,这里存在者一个“真我”。这是确实存在的佛的因素(佛性)这深刻的留住在众生深处,在精神的负面状态之下掩盖着并且有这样的特点,自从很短的时间开始以来,隐瞒了这最普通的本质

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