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上部座佛教和大乘佛教产生的佛教术语和哲学概念(四)

(2010-01-15 16:16:42)
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But we are jumping ahead of ourselves. Let us return to the extracts from the sutra given above. We shall start with the Tibetan version of the parable of the concealed elixir-producing tree. The first thing which we need to note regarding the “elixir-producing tree” is that its home is in the Himalayas: this symbolises the fact that the Buddha-dhatu is exalted and difficult of access. Yet it is not completely impossible to attain -  not like the summit of some Everestian peak seemingly beyond human reach (Mount Everest had not been climbed at the time of the Buddha -  as far as one knows!): the elixir tree is native to the forest areas of the mountains (i.e. not at their summit), so it can be reached, albeit with difficulty. Crucially, the tree itself produces a special elixir known as “bees’ nectar”. Nectar is, of course, the sweet fluid from which bees make honey – their sustaining food. Likewise, the Buddha-dhatu is the sweet, sustaining nutriment of all beings’ Awakening (bodhi), that which gives true life to all beings. And like nectar, it has an attractive fragrance which draws beings to it -  even though it finds itself concealed within masses of entangled foliage. These tangled thickets represent the negative mental states or kleshas (e.g. greed, hatred, delusion, arrogance, stinginess, scepticism about Dharma, lack of conscience, indolence ) which block the Buddha-dhatu from view. Yet it is there all the while. And its inner presence calls us through the sweet scent of its promise. 

     但是我们跳到了我们前面。让我们回到上述的佛经的摘要。我们要以藏文版的隐蔽的妙药树的寓言故事开始。第一个事我们需要注明的是关于妙药树是它在喜玛拉雅山的家:这象征这样的事实就是佛性是高贵的和困难的入口。当然它不是完全不可能去达到-不象某些Everestian山峰的定点超越了人的极限(Everest山在佛陀时代还没有人攀登-就象我们知道的一样!)这个妙药树是山区的森林土生土长的(即不在他们的顶点),因此它可以被达到,尽管有困难。关键的,这个树产生了一种特别的妙药叫做蜜蜂花蜜。花蜜,当然,蜜蜂酿造的蜜糖甜液-它们依赖的食品。同样地,佛性是甜的,维持众生的营养品。觉醒(菩提),他给予众生真正的生命。就象花蜜,它有吸引人的芳香这吸引人靠近它-尽管如此它发现它自己隐藏了大量的纠缠的树叶。这些纠缠的树丛代表负面的精神状态或烦恼(即,贪婪,仇恨,妄想,傲慢,吝啬,怀疑大法,缺乏良知,懒惰)这阻挠了看到佛性。但是它在那里全是白色的。它内在的存在是通过美好的承诺来召唤我们的。

 

      The parable makes clear that it is only a person of immense virtue -  a veritable emperor of righteousness (a chakravartin) – who is enabled to attain the apian nectar of the Buddha-dhatu. All other types of person -  even though they climb up into the mountain forests in quest of that spiritual elixir, digging here and there to get it  – do not possess the power to secure it. They are “sterile in virtue” (as the Dharmakshema version of our text has it). This is important for the practitioner to realise: simply practising meditation, watching the mind, even working hard at such practices is not sufficient to disclose the Buddha-dhatu. It requires the cultivation of virtue if we are to succeed. What virtue? Compassion, lack of selfishness, and elimination of ego-centred desire. Above all, kindliness and friendliness ( “maitri”, which is uniquely presented by the Nirvana Sutra as the supreme Buddhist virtue) are indispensable prerequisites. It also requires abstention from the harming (“ahimsa”) of any creature (including deliberately harming ants and insects). Equally, it demands non-attachment to “me and mine” - to the ego, the false self, and its manifold cravings. Paradoxically, it is seeing what is “not the Self” (anatman) which constitutes one of the gateways to Self (atman). All of these virtues spring from the cutting away of the entangling kleshas in the forest of our mind. 

寓言表明他是一个有着伟大道德的独特的人-一个名符其实的正义的皇帝(一个转轮圣王)-他能够得到佛性的蜂蜜。其它的人-他们爬上山上的森林以寻求精神的妙药,这里挖一点那里挖一点以获得它-不具有获得它的能力。他们在道德上是贫瘠的(我们文本的Dharmakshema 版本中有它)。这对于实践者来说是很重要的:仅仅实践冥想,观心,或者在这个实践上非常努力的工作是不能够发现佛性的。它要求实修我们继承的道德。什么道德?慈悲,不自私,去除自我中心的欲望。首先,善良而友好(弥勒,他是涅磐经中提到的唯一有佛的最高道德的人)是必不可少的先决条件。它同样要求(不杀生)免除对任何生命的伤害(包括故意伤害蚂蚁和昆虫)。同样的,它要求对我和我们没有执著-对本我,错误的自我,和它的多种渴望。不可思议的是,似乎没有自我(无我)恰好是到达自我(自性)之门。所有这些道德是源自于去除在我们心灵的树林之中纠缠的烦恼。

      But there is further important metaphysical matter in this parable, too. We learn that as long as the elixir remains in its home, the tree, it has solely one flavour to it. It is only when it is coaxed out of its resting-place and channelled down differently positioned tubes that it appears to take on a variety of flavours. This represents the straying of beings from their inherent pristine constitution -  the quiescent Buddha-dhatu -  and the tarnishing of their inner “flavour” through karmically unwholesome actions. This causes them to reincarnate as males, females, hermaphrodites, birds, animals, etc., and to appear as separate individuals who each “taste” differently. Their bodily forms are indeed like the different “tastes” of the elixir, having been influenced by the diverse channels of karmic action down which they have flowed from one life to the next. Yet in essence, these beings possess the same core taste, which is the tathagatagarbha, the inner transformative potency of Buddhahood. Their essence (svabhava / prakrti) is universally. 

       更近一步讲从形而上学来讲这是一个很重要的比喻。我们知道只要妙药仍然在家里,树上,它就有独特的味道。只有当他是从它源住之地流淌出来进入不同位置的管道时它才表现为不同的味道。这代表了生命从他们内在的原始状态已经偏离了-静态的佛性-从他们内在的不健康状态这表现出了生命的偏离。这使得他们转化为男性,女性,两性人,鸟,动物,等等。这就象表现为独立的个体。他们的身体形式确实象不同的妙药的滋味,这已经受到不同的业力行为的影响他们从一个生命流到另一个。然而,本质上,这些生命拥有同样的核心滋味,这就是如来藏,进入佛界的内在的动力。他们的本质(svabhava / prakrti)是普遍的。

      This Buddha-potency of the tathagatagarbha is, we learn, present everywhere, yet hidden by negative mental proclivities, and is the life-force which animates each being. One can kill the “outer” being -  the assemblage of skandhas – but one cannot annihilate or kill the indwelling, animating and nurturing Buddha-dhatu. That is indestructible. So we see that in these ultimate teachings, the Buddha reveals that the being is not just the five elements of the ordinary body and mind (the five skandhas) – indeed, that these things are epiphenomena, not the core reality -  but that what the being truly is at heart is the Buddha-power of the tathagatagarbha. As the Buddha says in the Dharmakshema version of the Nirvana Sutra, “the being is the Buddha-dhatu and the Buddha-dhatu is the being”. 

        如来藏的佛的能力是:我们学习,无处不在,隐藏着负面心里功能,其生命力使得众生繁荣。一个人可以杀掉外在的生命-五蕴的集结-但是一个人不能消灭和杀死内在的,有启发性的培养佛性。这些事情是表明现象,而不是真正的实相。正如在Dharmakshema版本的涅磐经中,生命是佛性而佛性是生命。

      It is important to remember this in the face of the claims made by some Buddhists that all there is to the being is the five skandhas and nothing else beyond that. The Buddha indicates otherwise. True, the essential Self of each being -  the tathagatagarbha or Buddha-dhatu, with its shared savour of Buddha-potency -  is not like some tangible, measurable little man sitting within the being, the size of a grain of rice or of one’s thumb (as taught in the Katha Upanishad: "A person the size of the thumb in the Atman always resides within the hearts of men.”). But that is not to say that there is no immortal core whatsoever to the being. There is such an irreducible and indestruct      Tathagatagarbha Buddhism likes to emphasise what it terms “authentic Dharma” or “true Dharma” (sad-dharma). And it is with such True Dharma that we shall conclude this paper.

很重要要记住的是面对佛教徒的声明所有的众生是五蕴而没有任何东西会超越它。佛对其他人说。真实的,每个生命真实的自我-如来藏或佛性,共享佛的能力的滋味-这不象某些有形的,可测量的小人和生命在一起,谷类的种子或者一个人的拇指(正如Katha的奥义书之中:一个自我拇指的大小总是在人们的心内)。但是这不是说这里没有永恒的核心对任何人来讲。这是一个不能减少和不能破坏的。如来的佛教徒喜欢强调“真法”或“实法”的术语(sad-dharma 悲伤)。这就是那个真实的佛法我们将要在本文结束。

 

      The “authentic Dharma”, like the Buddha-dhatu and the Buddha himself, is, in the end, Mystery. That Dharma (in the sense of the sustaining Law of all beings) is beyond all worldly comparisons. It can only be approximated through language and hinted at through parables and similes. But it is emphatically not simply and merely identical to ever-changing samsara or the Dependent Origination which makes up the misery and suffering of samsara. Such a claim is the epitome of nonsense and the final heresy from the perspective of Tathagatagarbha Buddhism. Instead, the Buddha-dhatu is a Reality which is pointed to and brought within the range of our perception by the use of skilful means and efficacious stratagems. It is thus the pointing out of the way to full vision of the Buddha-dhatu which is the “upaya” - not the Buddha-dhatu itself. A careful reading of the central Tathagatagarbha sutras will confirm that the Dhatu itself is not at all a “device” - but that various devices and methods are employed to bring us, erring and blinded mankind that we are, to a perfect vision of it.

        那个“真法”,就象佛性和佛陀他自己,就是,事实上,神秘的。这个法(在这个意义上维持了所有生命之法)是超越于所有的世俗的比较的。这可以被寓言和微笑的语言和暗示近似的表达。但是这明显的是不简单的和仅仅完全相同的对不断变化的轮回或单独的发源这构成苦难和轮回的痛苦。这样一个声明就是无聊的缩影和从佛教的观点来看这就是完全的邪说。事实上,已经指出佛性是一个真实,这是在我们感知范围内通过有效的方法和计谋获得的。因此可以指出这个道路全视野的佛性就是方便-而不是佛性它自己。对如来藏的核心佛经的仔细的阅读将证明佛性它自己不是一个装置-但是不同的装置和方法是利用来带给我,我们是错误的和盲眼的人,完全盲眼的。

 

      There now follows a selection of affirmative statements on the reality of the Buddha-dhatu- Tathagatagarbha from the key Tathagatagarbha sutras themselves, which show beyond reasonable doubt, I think (except perhaps to those persons with a penchant for sophistry and distortionism), that there truly does exist (in an ultimately supra-samsaric modus) an immanent and transcendental Buddhic Principle within all beings and creatures which nothing can destroy and which no one should deny, without grave consequences being attendant upon such denial. We shall start with the Mahaparinirvana Sutra itself. There we read the Buddha’s words on how cream of ghee is always present within all forms and modifications of milk, but is undetectable until it has been purified of its obscuring elements. The Tathagatagarbha is likewise:

        从如来藏他们自己的佛经来说,这里伴随肯定的声明即佛性如来藏的真实性,这表明超越理性的怀疑,我认为(除非对那些爱好诡辩术和扭曲真相的人),他们真正的存在(在最后的超越轮回的方式)一个天生的和先验的佛教原则所有的生命和生物没有东西可以被毁坏和没有人可以否认,没有严重的后果伴随这个否认。我们将从大般若涅磐经它自己开始。那里我们读到佛经的文字如何酥油的精华表现为所有的形式和牛奶的改变,但是它是无法察觉的直到它已经给从它遮蔽的元素之中纯化了。如来藏象这样的:

      Ghee arising from the cow does not arise from something else and does indeed exist in all inherently (prakṛti), nevertheless it is not apparent because it is obscured by defects and subsists mixed mutually with (the milk) as I have just taught previously, the tathâgata-garbha indeed has an intrinsic nature like the cream of ghee, but it appears as something else due to the defects associated with the kleshas.

           酥油是牛产生的而不是从别的什么东西来的而且确实存在于所有的本性((prakṛti),尽管如此这不是表面的因为它是从弱点产生的由于模糊缺陷的存在(牛奶)我已经在前面讲了,如来藏事实上有一个内在的本性就象是奶油的乳脂,但是它表现为是另外的某些东西是由于与烦恼联系的缺陷。

                                                                                            

      The Buddha clearly teaches here that the Tathagatagarbha is the inherent nature of the being, its prakrti  or svabhava -  not merely a clever little verbal ploy “pour encourager les autres” (those alleged unfortunates unable or unwilling to face the stark Madhyamaka truth of no permanency and no abiding core reality to anything, anywhere, anywhen). The Garbha is always present, no matter what mutations and incarnations all beings may pass through during their sojourn in samsara. But the Garbha strikes human, unawakened perception as being not the Essence, since the seeing of that Essence is clouded by obscuring and distorting factors – the moral contaminants called the kleshas.

        佛陀清楚的教导说如来藏是生命内在的本性,它的本性prakrti  or svabhava-不是一个聪明的小玩意“pour encourager les autres”   (这些所谓的不幸不能或不愿意面对赤裸的中观理论由于没有永恒性和没有持久的核心的现实对任何事,哪里,任何时间)。胎藏总是表现出来,无论什么突变和化身所有的生命都将在轮回之中穿过经历他们的小屋。但是胎藏阻止了人们,没有未清醒的观念而不是核心,因此看到这个核心是由遮蔽和扭曲的因素构成-  这种道德的染污叫做烦恼。

 

 

      In a chapter on the fundamental dicta of Tathagatagarbha Buddhism called “The Letters”, the Mahaparinirvana Sutra reiterates the Buddha’s previously intimated point (one encountered earlier in this paper) that to deny or reject the Tathagatagarbha is tantamount to committing spiritual suicide. Now the Buddha spells this out unequivocally.

         在佛教的如来藏的基本格言的篇章之中叫做“字母”,大乘佛教的涅磐经重申了佛教以前的亲密之点(一个人在这篇之中遭遇它的早期)这就是否认和拒绝了如来藏相当于从事精神的自杀。现在佛陀毫不含糊的把它拼出来了。

 

      Like a cow’s udder (ûdas).  For example, just as cow’s milk is delicious, the taste of this sûtra too is similar to that.  Those who abandon the teaching given in this sûtra concerning the tathâgata-garbha are just like cattle.  For example, just as people who intend to commit suicide will cause themselves extreme misery, similarly you should know that those ungrateful people who reject the tathâgata-garbha and teach non-Self cause themselves extreme misery.”

        就像牛的乳房(ûdas)。举例来说,就像牛奶是美味的,佛经也与之相同。在佛经之中那些放下所持的教育的人认为如来藏就像是牛。比如,就象人们要自杀这会让他们极端痛苦,类似的你应该知道那些忘恩负义的家伙他们拒绝了如来藏并且教导无我由于他们极端的慈悲。

 

      Far from using the Tathagatagarbha as a mere crutch for, or concession to, the spiritually backward and deficient, the Buddha here makes it clear that acceptance of the reality of the Tathagatagarbha is comparable to the drinking-in of a life-giving and life-sustaining mother’s milk. To reject such vital nutriment is both to display ingratitude to the Buddha and, furthermore, to evince sure signs of spiritual obtuseness (hence the image of the cattle). More importantly, the teaching of non-Self without promulgating the counterbalancing revelation of the Tathagatagarbha is an act which will generate the most severe suffering. The whole raison d’etre of Buddhism is to eliminate suffering -  so to assert, as the Buddha does here, that it is the unqualified non-Self doctrine (not the Tathagatagarbha) which will generate such misery must be taken very seriously indeed.

      远非使用如来藏作为一个仅有的拐杖,或者允许承认,这一精神性是向后的和有缺点的,佛陀因此清楚的表明了接受如来藏的现实是相对来说喝酒或给予生命提神和维持生命的母亲的乳汁。为了拒绝这个生命的营养完全对佛显示了忘恩负义,更进一步,显示对感觉迟钝的征兆(因此是牛的形象)。更重要的,无我的教育没有颁布如来藏的平衡关系这是一个行动这将产生非常严重的痛苦。整个佛教存在的目的是消除这种痛苦-因此断言,如果佛陀那样做了,它是不合格的无我的教义(不是如来藏)这会产生这样的痛苦事实上是非常严肃的。

      When we turn to the parable of the king's wrestler and his lost jewel, we encounter some very interesting facts. Firstly, the wrestler's jewel (as with the poor man's treasure in the preceding parable) is said to be "precious". It is salutary to remember this when scholars -  as some do -  attempt to "rubbish" the doctrine of the Tathagata-garbha or play down its importance. Moreover, the wrestler's jewel is a panacea -  it can eliminate all infections.

        当我们谈到国王的摔跤手和他失去的宝石时,我们遇到了一些非常有趣的事实。首先,这个摔跤手的宝石(在前面的寓言中由于穷人的宝石)被叫做“前面的”。记住这些是有益的,当学者-如某些人所做-试图去除如来藏的教义时或者淡化它的重要性。更重要的是,这个摔跤手的珍宝是一个万灵药-它可以去除所有的感染。

        

This refers to the poisonings which beings inflict upon themselves through indulgence in the kleshas (especially desire, hatred, delusion, and pride of self). The jewel that is the Buddha-dhatu can purge these poisons, these infectious diseases, from the being's system. Next we note that the jewel gets displaced through acts of violence: it is during a bout with a rival that the wrestler's gem gets dislodged from his head and penetrates into his flesh. This is clearly symbolic: we lose contact with our true nature when we give way to acts of aggression, anger and harmfulness. Such emotions cover over our pristine essence, and submerge it in the "flesh" -  the desires and drives of the body.

这是指毒药就是人们放纵自己在烦恼之中(特别是欲望,仇恨,妄想,和傲慢)带来的痛苦。这个宝石就是佛性可以净化这些毒药,这些传染性的疾病,从人类的体系之中。接着,我们注意到这个宝石由于暴力的行为而流失了:由于一个回合的较量摔跤手的宝石从他的头上落下来并且掉到肉体里。这是明显象征性的:我们失去了和我们本性联系的机会并且我们让位给侵略,愤怒和伤害。这个情绪覆盖了我的原始本质,并且淹没在肉体中-这个欲望和身体的驱动。

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