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上部座佛教和大乘佛教产生的佛教术语和哲学概念(三)

(2010-01-15 16:05:22)
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Although the term, Tathagata-garbha, does include the connotation of "embryo", the Tathagata-garbha should not be viewed as something which is itself growing, developing or maturing into perfection. It is already perfect, pure and replete with all virtuous, inconceivable Buddha-qualities.  One needs to think of the Tathagata-garbha in this connection in association with how the Buddha was in the womb of his own mother, Queen Maya: he entered into her womb radiant, complete, perfect, totally aware, and dwelt there full of light, in the lotus posture dispensing teachings to those who could see him. In that great Lalita Vistara Sutra we read of how the "embryonic" Buddha in his mother's womb was: "luminous, glorious, gracious, beautiful to see, seated with his legs crossed, shone like pure gold. In analogous fashion, the Tathagata-garbha (the immanent Buddha-Self) is perfect, of gold-like radiance and value, and complete within every being -  but is hidden deep inside, removed from worldly sight. What is necessary is simply that the worldly being should inwardly advance ever closer to realisation -  that is, perception - of the inner Tathagata-garbha, by clearing away all the defilements (kleshas), (negative mental states and tendencies, such as greed, anger, ignorance, pride, and jealousy), which conceal it from view. The eradication of such moral and emotional afflictions allows the Buddha-dhatu or Tathagata-garbha to stand revealed in all its shining splendour; but the Tathagata-garbha itself remains forever unchangeable, firm and immovable as the quintessence and cause of Buddhahood.

       尽管是这个术语,如来藏,包括了子宫的隐含意义,如来藏应该被视作某些它自己生长,发育或成长为完美的。它已经是完美的,纯洁的并且充满了所有善良的,不可思议的佛素质。一个人应该思考如来藏与佛在他母亲的子宫里是相联系的,玛雅王后;他进入了他的子宫放热的,完整的,完美的,完全知道的,住在那里充满了光明,以荷花的姿态来教育那些能看到他的人。在那个伟大普曜经中我们读到佛陀在母亲的子宫里是光明的,荣耀的,仁慈的,很美丽的,双腿盘坐,象纯金一样发光。因为相似的时尚,如来藏(固有的佛的自我)是很完美的,是金子一样散光和有价值,对每个生命都完美-但是在里面隐藏了很深,从世俗的视角移开。有必要的就是世俗的生命应该在内部前进以便接近现实。这就是,感觉力,内在的如来藏,通过清理所有的染污(kleshas),负面心情和趋向,比如贪婪,愤怒,无知,骄傲,和妒忌)这从视线隐藏了它。连根拔除这种道德和情感的困扰让如来藏或如来站起来显示了他们所有的耀眼光芒,但是如来藏自己仍然永远是不变的,牢固的和不动的就如佛的精华和原因。

 

      Because of the presence of the sacred Buddha-dhatu within the depths of each being's mind, all beings should be treated with kindness, compassion and an attitude of equality: one should not kill any living person or creature, and one should desist from eating meat, as flesh consumption "destroys great loving-kindness" and causes fear to arise in numerous animals, great and small. The Bodhisattva (trainee Buddha) should never inflict harm on any being and should instead be intent on bestowing "eternal life" upon each person and creature, by leading that being -  through the use of skilful means (kausalya-upaya) - into the sanctuary of Nirvana: highest, everlasting peace and happiness.

由于神圣的佛陀存在于每个生命的心灵深处,所有的人应该被善良的对待,慈悲和平等的态度:一个人不应该杀害任何活人或生命,不应该杀死任何人或动物的生活,一个人应该停止吃肉,肉食的消耗会破坏伟大的慈悲并且引起大量动物产生恐惧,大的或小的。菩萨(见习佛)不会伤害任何众生并且应该代替于希望每一个人和生物的永恒的生命,通过领导那个生命-通过运用有技巧的手段(kausalya-upaya)在佛陀的圣殿:最高的,永久的和平和幸福。

      Should one renounce Nirvana oneself, in order to help others towards it first? According to the Mahaparinirvana Sutra, the answer is "no": one should first attain Awakening (bodhi) and Nirvana for oneself, and then one will best be placed to lead others to it too. Yet while one is seeking Awakening for oneself, one should act for the benefit of others also. The motivation for reaching Awakening should be the dual one of finding enduring happiness for oneself and of pointing the way to such happiness for others as well.

       人应该放弃自己的涅磐,为了首先帮助它人达到它?根据大般若涅磐经,这个答案是“不”:一个人应该首先获得觉醒(菩提)和自己的涅磐,接着一个人最好把他人也带到这一领域。当然一个人正在寻找自己的觉醒,一个人应该为他人的利益。这个动机要达到觉醒应该是二重的一个人为他自己承受幸福并且指出一条道路为他人的幸福。

      What constitutes the Path to Awakening and Nirvana? The chief route advocated by this sutra is the extirpation of the negative mental states and immoral modes of behavior (including selfish desire, hatred, ignorance, avarice, and wrong livelihood -  such as being a soldier or killer of animals), the cultivation of the paramitas (moral perfections, such as generosity, and meditation), the leading of a pure and harmless life, faithful study, practice and veneration of the Mahaparinirvana Sutra, and the constant meditative cultivation of the idea of the Buddha's eternity, unchangeability and indestructibility. The Buddha states: "The Tathagata  will reside in the homes of those who constantly think that the Tathagata is eternal (nitya), unshakeable (dhruva) and everlasting (sasvata)." Worship of, and the making of offerings to, the Nirvana Sutra, are also positive acts which generate wholesome karma and bring one closer to Nirvana.

       什么是构成觉醒和涅磐的道路?这个佛经建议的主要路线是消灭负面的心理状态和不道德的行为模式(包括自私的欲望,仇恨,无知,贪婪,和错误的方式-比如做士兵或猎人),波罗蜜的文化(道德的完善,如慷慨和冥想),过纯粹和无害的生活,忠实的学习,实践和尊敬大般若涅磐经,不断的冥想佛永恒的观念的修炼,不变的和不灭的。佛陀说:“如来会驻留在那些不断思索如来是永恒(nitya),不变的(dhruva)和持久的(sasvata)的人的家里。崇拜,供养,涅磐经,这是积极的正面行为这创造了善业并且使人更容易接近涅磐。

 

      The Buddha-dhatu is truly present within the body-and-mind complex, the being (the kaya), of each individual -  regardless of whether that person be a god, human, animal, ghost, demon, or occupant of Hell. Nevertheless, it is covered over by masses of negative character traits such as those listed above. The Buddha-dhatu is like a cache of hidden gold buried beneath the house of a poverty-stricken person - awaiting discovery. The Buddha is the guide who points out where that treasure-trove is, and how we can reach it. 

       佛性确实表现为身体和精神的情结,这个生命(the kaya),每一个人无论该人是神,人,动物,鬼,或地狱之人。无论如何,它是被大量的负面的性格特征如前述所列那样。佛性就一个隐藏在一个穷人家的黄金-等待着发现。佛陀是一个指出那里有宝藏的人,以及我们怎样找到它。

      In a parable rich in symbolic suggestiveness, the Buddha also speaks of the Tathagatagarbha as being like a distinctive nectar or fragrance emanating from a special tree in the Himalayas. This is what he says: There is an elixir-producing (rasa-dhatu tree in the Himalayas called 'bees' nectar'. Even though it stands entangled with the dense thickets of the forest, it is apparent by its fragrance. Once, a chakravartin (supreme, righteous emperor of the world) inserted pipes from each side to get it, and then sour juice flowed out of the mouths of some of those pipes from that elixir tree; from some there flowed salty juice; from some there flowed sweet juice; from some there flowed pungent juice; from some there flowed bitter juice; and from some there flowed astringent juice. That elixir wafted to the sky in the forest. From the single taste of that elixir, many different tastes emerged, and each one of those tastes did not become mixed together. Moreover, like the disc of the moon, that elixir was ubiquitous. Even though it was present thus, other people went into that forest of dense thickets, but, though they dug with hoes, people with few blessings were unable to get any of it, while, by virtue of his merit, the chakravartin was able to do so. 

     在一个富有象征性的寓言故事之中暗示,佛陀也谈到了如来就如有特殊香味的花蜜或从在喜玛拉雅山上的一颗独特的树散发的香气。这就是他说的:在喜玛拉雅山有一颗能产生长生不老妙药 (rasa-dhatu的树叫做蜜蜂花蜜。尽管它在森林之中树上缠绕着浓密的灌木。它很明显有它的香味。一次,一个转轮圣王(最高的,世界上的正义之王)从每一边插入管子以得到它,接着从那些链接长生不老树的管子里流出了盐水,从那里流出了一些甜水;从那里流出了酸水;从那里流出了苦水,从那里流出了辣水。那个妙香飘浮在森林的空中。从那个妙药的独特的味道,许多不同的味道出现了,每一个这些味道都不会混合。更多一点,就像月亮的圆盘,那个妙药是无处不存在的。尽管它现在是这样,其它的人到森林的浓密的灌木丛,但是,尽管他们挖出洞,没有受到祝福的人是不能从中得到什么,当然,由于他的悲心道德,转轮圣王能够这样做。

 

      In the same way ... the Tathagatagarbha is like the elixir: it remains concealed by the various defilements (kleshas). Even though it has just a single taste - as the cause of becoming a Buddha - it is transformed into many different tastes by the maturation of the karmic actions of people, who then arise as men, women, or hermaphrodites. The Tathagata-dhatu is the intrinsic nature of beings. Therefore, it cannot be killed by having its life severed. If it could be killed, then the life-force (jivaka) could be annihilated; but it is not possible for the life-force to be annihilated. In this instance, the life-force refers to the Tathagatagarbha. That Dhatu (Element, Principle) cannot be destroyed, killed or annihilated; but also it cannot be seen very clearly as long as Buddhahood has not been attained." (Tibetan version). 

       同样。。。。如来藏就象这妙药:它仍然被各种染污覆盖(烦恼kleshas)。尽管如此它有一个独特的味道-成佛的原因-它转变成许多不同的滋味由于人们业力行为的成熟,接着这里产生了男人,女人,或两性人。如来藏是生命内在的本性。因此,它不能被由于生命的离开而杀死。如果它可以被杀死,接着生命力(jivaka) 可以被消灭;在这种情况下,生命力是指如来藏。那个Dhatu(元素,原则)是不能被破坏,杀死或消灭的;但是它不能被很清楚的看见只要没有达到成佛的状态。(藏文版本)

     

      The advanced Bodhisattva, Kasyapa, comments to the Buddha that the Buddha himself possesses the Self or Soul [atman], but asks whether the 25 levels of samsaric existence (this includes the incarnational forms of humans, animal, ghosts, the various types of god …) also have the Self. The Buddha replies: The True Self is the Tathagata-dhatu (emphasis added). You should know that all beings do have it, but it is not apparent, since those beings are enveloped by immeasurable kleshas (mental afflictions). It is, for example, like a cache of precious treasure that exists within an impoverished dwelling, though unknown. Then, somebody who is skilled in the characteristics of treasure said to the poor man, “Do some work for me, and I’ll give you wealth and treasure.” The poor man replied, “I can’t come. Why not? Because there is a cache of treasure within my old home, and I can’t abandon it.” The man said, “You are foolish, for you do not know the location of the treasure. Work for me and I’ll give you the precious treasure, which you will be able to use without its ever becoming exhausted.” After he had said this, that person then removed the precious treasure from that house and  gave it to him. The poor man was delighted and amazed, knowing that that person was truly reliable. All beings are also like that, for each one of them has the Tathagata-dhatu, but they are unaware of that because it is enveloped and submerged beneath immeasurable kleshas. The Tathagata skilfully encourages them and reveals it, causing them to know that the Tathagata-dhatu exists within their bodies and accept this with confidence."

     高级的菩萨,迦叶,向佛说明佛陀他自己拥有本文或灵魂(自性atman),并且问是否25层轮回存在也有本我(这包括人的肉体形式,动物,灵魂,不同类型的神,都有自我。佛陀回复说:真正的自我是如来藏(增加的强调)。你应该知道所有的众生拥有它,但是它不是表面的,因为这些生命是无量的烦恼包裹(心理困惑)。它是,比如,象一个以前的宝物匣子有无量的装饰,尽管不知道。接着,某些人由于珍宝的特点而被杀害。告诉那个穷人“为我做点工作吧,我会给你财富和珍宝”。那个穷人回答说:“我不能来。为什么不呢?因为我的老房子里有一个宝匣,我不能放弃它”那个男人说:你是愚蠢的,你不知道宝藏的位置。为我工作我会给你以前的珍宝,你能够用它不管他曾经变得日益枯竭。当他说完后,那个人再次从房子里拿出那个以前的宝物并且交给他。那个穷人是很高兴并且吃惊的,知道那个人是真正可信赖的。所有的众生也象这样,每个人都有佛性,但是他们不知道那个因为它是包裹的并且隐匿在无量的烦恼中。如来有经验的鼓舞他们揭开它,让他们知道佛性存在于他们的身体并且以信心来接受它。

    All beings are also like this. Each one of them has the Tathagata-dhatu, but, through having recourse to evil acquaintances, they give rise to attachment, hatred and delusion and fall into the three miserable states and so forth, adopting various kinds of bodies throughout the 25 modes of existence. The precious jewel that is the Tathagata-dhatu is buried within the wound of the kleshas of attachment, hatred and delusion, so that they are unaware of its presence there. Engaging in the notion that there is no Self as regards the mundane/ conventional self, they do not understand the skilful words of implicit intent of the Tathagata, who is like the good doctor. They have the notion that there is no Self and are unable to know the True Self. Regarding this, the Tathagata again utilises skilful means: he causes them to extinguish the raging fires of the countless kleshas, revealing and elucidating the Tathagata-dhatu to them. 

     所有的众生也象这个样子。他们每一个人都有佛性,但是,通过求助于邪恶的熟人,他们增加了执著,仇恨和欺骗并且落入了三恶道之类,通过接受25种模式的存在的不同类的身体。这以前的珠宝就是佛性是由执着烦恼覆盖的创伤,仇恨和妄想,所以他们不知道他在那里的表现。从事这样的观念就是没有自我被做为普通的/平凡的自我,他们不能理解如来圆熟的文字的隐含意义,他象一个好的医生。他们有这样的观念就是这里没有自我并且不能知道真我。就此而论,如来再次使用圆熟的方法:他让他们去掉无边烦恼的火焰,向他们揭示和阐明了佛性

 

      Moreover, noble son, it is, for example, like this: there is a very sweet medicinal herb in the Himalayas called ‘superior taste’, which remains hidden and invisible as long as there is no chakravartin [supreme and righteous emperor] in the world. Sick people went to the location of the medicine and, digging into the ground, they buried pipes to draw off the medicinal sap. They obtained sap with a sweet taste, a bitter taste, a pungent taste, a sour taste, a salty taste, or an astringent taste. Though the sick people got these various tastes, they were unable to get the medicine with the true superior taste, because they did not dig the ground deeply enough and because their merits were slight. Because of the power of a chakravartin’s merit, he is able to obtain the medicine with the true superior taste when he appears in the world. Similarly, noble son, the Tathagata-dhatu is hidden by a multitude of different tastes, the countless kleshas (arising from) delusion. Hence, beings are unable to obtain the superior taste of the Tathagata-dhatu, and, engaging in various kinds of actions, they come to be born in different places. 

此外,高贵的儿子,这是,例如,就象这样:在喜玛拉雅山这里有一个非常甜的药材叫做“无上之味”,这仍然隐藏和不可见的,只要在世界上没有转轮圣王[至高和正义的皇帝]。生病的人要到医药点,挖掘到地面,他们抬来管子用来汲引药液。他们获得有甜的味道,苦的味道,辣的味道,酸的味道,咸的味道,或者辛辣的味道。尽管这个病人获得了这些不同的滋味,他们不能够获得无上滋味的药,因为他们没有把地挖够而且因为他们的慈悲是微小的。由于转轮圣王的慈悲之力,他出现在世界上时能够获得真正超级滋味的药。同样的,尊贵的儿子,佛性是由不同的滋味掩藏的,无量的烦恼(产生)于幻觉。因此,生命不能获得佛性的无上之味,而且,参与了各种不同的行动,他们在不同的地方出生。

      The Tathagata-dhatu cannot be killed. Those who die are said to be short-lived, while the Tathagata-dhatu is said to be true life. It cannot be cut off or destroyed, right up to the attainment of Buddhahood. The Tathagata-dhatu can neither be harmed nor killed, but only nurtures/ sustains the person, while those who can be harmed or killed, like those sick people, engage in a mass of perverse actions and encounter various kinds of fruitional recompense as ksatriyas, Brahmins and so forth, being born and dying in the 25 modes of existence, because they cannot obtain the true Tathagata-dhatu. 

       佛性不能被杀死。那样去说是短命的,而佛性被称为真正的生命。它不能被去除或破坏,正好获得佛境界的觉悟。如来既不能被伤害或杀害,也不能培养/维持那个人,当那些不能被伤害或杀害的,象那些病人,加入了大量的保护行为并且遭遇了不同类的果报赔偿就象首陀罗,婆罗门之类的,出生并且以25种模式的存在而死亡,因为他们不能认识真正的佛性。

 

      Furthermore, noble son, it is like a person who digs the earth searching for diamonds. Holding a sharp pickaxe in his hands, he digs into the ground and rocks, able to pulversie them all. Diamonds alone he cannot shatter. The Tathagata-garbha is like this, for it cannot be harmed by the sharp weapons of the gods and demons. It only nurtures/ sustains the person, and anything that can be harmed or damaged is not the Tathagata-dhatu. Hence, you should know that the Tathagata-dhatu cannot be harmed or killed. This means that the vaipulya (extensive) sutras, the Tathagata’s definitive teachings, are both elixir and poison.”

       此外,高贵的儿子,它就象一个人挖地以寻求钻石。持有锋利的鹤嘴锄在手上,他挖掘地面和岩石,能够pulversie他们。单独的钻石是不能粉碎的。如来藏就是这样,它不能被神和魔的尖锐的武器所伤害。它只是培养/维持了那个人,和任何事能够被伤害或杀害的不是如来藏。因此,你应该知道如来藏不能够被伤害或杀死。这就意味着方广经(广泛的),如来明确的教导,是妙药也是毒药。

       

      Firstly, we need to understand what is meant by the Buddha's saying that his long, profound sutras (the vaipulya sutras) are both an elixir and a poison: such sutras as the "prajnaparamita" sutras, which emphasize Emptiness (shunyata -or open paciousness) and the lack of a particularised inherent nature in every phenomenon, can easily be misunderstood as proclaiming a form of nihilism and thus can have a depressing, poisonous effect upon the listener, if the true meaning (that of limitless freedom and innermost stillness and tranquility within each phenomenon) is not grasped. Equally, if sutras such as the Mahaparinirvana Sutra are taken as preaching the existence of a giant, worldly form of Ego, then that too is a poison to one's spirit, leading one to become even more attached to one's personal "self", with all its limitations, sufferings and selfishness: the correct understanding, in contrast, is that the Buddha-dhatu or Tathagata-garbha is the immortal essence of the ego-free Buddha within each being -  there is no craving, grasping or clinging with this Buddha-dhatu. There is only utmost purity, eternity and happiness. That ever-enduring, ego-less, omniscient Awareness or Knowingness is the True Self. 

     首先,我们需要理解佛所说的他的漫长的,深奥的佛经(方广经)即使妙药也是毒药;这样的佛经就如般若经,他强调空性(空或者空空)但是缺乏每个现象具体的内在性质,这很容易被误解为宣扬形式上的虚无主义并且对听者来说有一个令人忧郁的,有毒的效果,如果真实的意义(由于无限的自由和在每个现象的内心的寂静和平静)是不能掌握的。同样的,如果佛经例如大般若涅磐经是被当作对神的存在的布道,自我的世俗形式,这也是对一个人精神的毒药,让一个人变得非常地执著个人的自我,由于它的局限性,痛苦和自私:这个正确的理解,相反,是佛性或如来藏是在每个生命的佛陀的自我解脱-这里没有贪求,占有或执着佛性。这是唯一的最高的纯洁,永恒和幸福。这曾经经历,缺乏自我,无所不知或知道是真实的自我。

  

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