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上部座佛教和大乘佛教产生的佛教术语和哲学概念(二)

(2010-01-15 15:59:55)
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When we look at the first and the second replies given by the Buddha the impression we get is that the Buddha wanted the monks to avoid any kind of communication with womenfolk by not seeing them. The third reply given to Anandas inquiry, however, reminds the monks to be mindful when communicating with them. The first and second replies have been worded in such a way as to make us understand that the Buddha’s intention was to avoid any kind of communication whatsoever with women. Yet the third reply tells the monks only to be mindful when communicating with them. It is worthwhile to find out the attitude of the Buddha towards women in general as revealed by the scriptures, and to analyze the above conversation ascribed to the Buddha and Ananda on this evidence. The attitude to be cultivated in perceiving visual and auditory objects is set out in the Indriyabhavana Sutta of the Majjhima Nikaya. Herein the Buddha asks Uttara, the brahmin youth, as to how his teacher, Parasariya, trains his disciples in respect of the development of sense faculties. Replying to the Buddha he says that instructs the disciples to develop their sense faculties by not seeing material shapes with the eye and by not listening to sounds with the ear. Then the Buddha says: If this is so, according

to Parasariya, on account of not seeing and not hearing, the deaf and blind must have their sense faculties developed! The Buddha, then explaining the Buddhist method of training pertaining to sense faculties, says that uatio critical n of sense objects and the maintenance of equanimity are the methods by which incomparable development of the sense faculties can be achieved.

         当我们第一次看到和第二次回答佛陀给予的印象时,我们所得的是佛希望和尚避免任何形式和妇女的交流而且不要看他们。第三次阿难询问的回答,但是,提醒和尚和她们联系时要当心。第一和第二个回答已经回答了这个道以使我们能理解佛的意图是避免和任何类的妇女交流。第三个回答告诉和尚仅仅是当与她们联系时要注意。这是有价值的发现,佛陀对妇女的一般的态度就象经文揭示的一样,去分析佛和阿难上述谈话可以证明。对感官视觉的态度和听觉目标的修行出现在中阿含经Majjhima Nikaya的根修习经Indriyabhavana Sutta。于此佛陀问Uttara,那个婆罗门青年,他的老师,Parasariya,如何训练他的弟子关于感官功能的发展。他回答佛陀说教育他的弟子开发他们的感觉功能是不去用眼睛看物质的形式和不去用耳朵听声音。接着佛陀说:如果是这样,根据Parasariya,由于没有看没有听,聋子和瞎子必须发展他们的感官功能!佛,接着解释了佛教的训练感官功能的方法,说这个方法就是严格限制感官目标和维持平静,这样感官功能可以获得无与伦比的发展。

      The Mahaparinibbana Sutta deals with some important points in respect of the attitude of the Theras towards the Vinaya  which was considered by them the lifeblood of the dispensation. When the Vinaya and the Sutta rehearsals were over, Ananda informed the

assembly that the Buddha had enjoined the Sangha to abrogate the lesser and minor rules if they so desired. The Mahaparinibbana Sutra and the Cullavagga record this incident in two different ways. The Sutra states this in a verb of the imperative mood while the Cullavagga uses an portative, thereby revealing, as it were, Anandas willingness as such, to the abrogation of the rules in question (18).

        大般若涅磐经处理了一些很重要的观点即长老对戒律的观点这被认为是去除了生命。当戒律和经典所揭示的完成后,阿难告诉大家佛陀命令僧伽去除那些细微和较小的规矩如果他们愿意的话。在大般若涅磐经和小品中以两个不同的方式记录这件事。佛经一非常必要的心态用动词说明了这个事。同时小品用一个有吸引力的阿难关于取消戒律的提问,因此揭示,如阿难要的那样。(18)

 

The problematic situation created in the first council with reference to the identity of the lesser and minor rules, clearly

indicates the position taken up by the Theras headed by Mahakassapa who chaired the first council. As recorded in the Cullavagga, altogether five charges were levelled against Ananda when the rehearsal of the Dhamma-vinaya was over.

这个问题的情况是在第一次会议之中关于较好和较坏的规则的说明,很清楚地表明了这个长老提出的观点。作为小品的记录,当阿难听到律法结束后面临五个水平的挑战 。

 

1.Anandas failure to ask the Buddha as to the contents of lesser and minor rules.

2.Sewing the Masters garment used for the rainy season by resting his feet upon it.

3.Permitting women to worship the body of the Master and thereby allowing the body to be defiled by the tears shed by them.

4.Negligence displayed in not requesting the Master to live for an aeon (kappa).

5.Persuading the Buddha to admit womankind into the dispensation by speaking on behalf of them before the Buddha!(19).

 阿难很失败去问佛陀很少和很细的规则的内容。

 缝补了大师为雨季准备的的长袍可以把他的脚放进去。

 允许妇女崇拜大师的身体而且因此允许身体被眼泪污染。

由于疏忽没有请求大师长久住世(业)

劝说佛陀承认妇女在他面前有一半发言权。(19)

 

      But the most striking thing is, according to Rockhill who gives a record of the first council as found in the Tibetan sources, Ananda had been charged before the council proper, which was held for the purpose of rehearsing the word of the Buddha and was sent away being asked to attain sainthood before returning. This very Ananda without whom the rehearsal of the Dhamma could not have been accomplished! Rockhill gives seven charges in all. The fourth and the sixth of his list are not found in the Pali record. However they are not of special significance. The reasons for not providing the Buddha with pure water when He was thirsty have been recorded in the Mahaparinibbana Sutta in detail, which is the fourth charge levelled against Ananda in Rockhills list. The sixth

is the exhibition of the secret parts of the Buddhas body, which the Buddha Himself had done when He was alive, in order to dispel doubts in the mind of a brahmin. What is significant is the fifth charge given in the Rockhills list which is the first in the Theravada list found in the Cullavagga. Notably, the Theravadins gave precedence to a charge that dealt directly with the disciplinary code.The Buddha who enjoined the disciples to regard the Dhammavinaya as the Teacher when He is no more, further asked them to abrogate the lesser and minor rules after His demise if they desired to do so.

         最引人注目的事情是,根据Rockhill提供的在西藏发现的第一次会议的记录,阿难已经在议会那里受到挑战,这是为了再次听到佛的话语以便以便在回归之前达到圣徒的位置。正是阿难如果没有他复述听到的法是不能达到圆满的。Rockhill提出了七项挑战。所列的第四项和第六项没有在巴利文的记录中发现。当然他们不是特别重要。当佛陀口渴时不要给他提供纯净水的原因在大乘涅磐经里面详细记述了,这是Rockhills的清单里对阿难的第四项挑战。第六个是对佛陀身体秘密部分的展览,在佛陀在世的时候他已经这样做了,为了驱除婆罗门头脑中的疑惑。 重要的是Rockhills清单上的第五个挑战 这是第一次出现在Cullavagga发现的小乘佛教的清单。值得注意的,长老给前一个挑战就是直接用纪律章程。佛联系了弟子以确认Dhammavinaya是一个老师,当他不再,进一步要求在他去世后废除或多或少的戒律,如果他们愿意这样做。

 

 

06 - 02.  Some of development Buddhist terms or philosophical concepts in Mahayana Mahaparinibbana sutra.

      在大乘佛教大涅磐经中发展出的某些佛教术语或哲学概念

 

Thatagata or Buddha in Mahayana Mahaparinibbana sutra.

在大乘佛教大般若涅磐经的如来或佛

      The Bodhisattva-mahasattva Manjushri said to the Buddha, The Buddha on the meaning of "real Truth": "What is the meaning of this 'real Truth' that you have mentioned. 

       文殊菩萨对佛说,佛的意思就是真实。什么是你提到的真实的意义。

      The Buddha replied, "Noble son, the real Truth is the true Dharma. Noble son, if the Dharma is not true, then it cannot be called the 'real Truth'. Noble son, the real Truth is devoid of cognitive distortions. That which is devoid of cognitive distortions is called the 'real Truth'. Noble son, the real Truth is free from falsity. If it were not free from falsity, it would not be called the 'real Truth'. Noble son, the real Truth is called the Mahayana. That which is not the Mahayana is not called the 'real Truth'. Noble son, the real Truth is what is spoken by the Buddha and not what is spoken by Mara. If it were spoken by Mara and not the Buddha, it would not be called the 'real Truth'. Noble son, the real Truth is the sole path of purity -  there is no second one. Noble son, that which is endowed with the Eternal, Bliss, the Self and the Pure is said to be the meaning of the 'real Truth'." 

       佛陀回答说:“尊贵的儿子,真正的实相是真正的法。尊贵的儿子,如果法不是真的,它就不能被叫做真的真实。尊贵的儿子,真正的实相是没有扭曲的认识。没有认知的扭曲就是真实。尊贵的儿子,真正的实相被叫做大乘佛法。不是大乘佛法就不叫做真实。尊贵的儿子,真正的实相就是佛所说的而不是魔所说的。如果它是魔所说的而不是佛,它就不能被叫做真正的实相。尊贵的儿子,真正的实相是纯洁的唯一之道-没有第二条。尊贵的儿子,这是被赋予永恒,极乐,自我和纯洁,被叫做真正的实相。

      The Bodhisattva-mahasattva Manjushri said to the Buddha, "Bhagavat, if what is true is deemed to be the 'real Truth', then the true Dharma is the Tathagata, space and the Buddha-dhatu. In that case, there is no difference between the Tathagata, space and the Buddha-dhatu." (20)

       文殊菩萨对佛说:世尊,如果真实的被视为真正的实相那么真正的大法是如来,空间和佛界。在这个例子,没有如来的空间和佛界之间的区别(20)

      The Buddha said to Manjushri, "If there is suffering, then there is the truth and there is the real; if there is the origination of suffering, then there is the truth and there is the real; if there is its cessation, then there is the truth and there is the real; and if there is the Path, then there is the truth and there is the real. Noble son, the Tathagata is not suffering, not a truth but is the real. Space is not suffering, not a truth, but is real. The Buddha-dhatu is not suffering, not a truth, but is real. 

         佛对文殊说:“如果这里有痛苦,这里就是真理而这是真实的,如果这里有痛苦的来源,那么这里就有真理而这是真实的;如果这里有它的终止,那里就是真实那里就是真相;如果这里有道路,这里就是真实而这里就是真相。尊贵的儿子,如来不是受苦,不是真实但是真相。空间不是痛苦,不是真实,但是真相。佛界没有痛苦,没有真实,只有实相。

      Manjushri, 'suffering' is characterised by impermanence and it can be eliminated by its nature, hence it is not a real truth. The intrinsic nature of the Tathagata is not suffering, not impermanence and cannot be eliminated, hence it is real. Space and the Buddha-dhatu are similar to this. 

        文殊,痛苦是暂时无常的而它能够被它的本性消融,因此它不是一个真的。如来的内在本性不是痛苦,没有无常而且不能被去除,因此它是真实的。空间和佛界是与这是类似的。

      Moreover, noble son, the origination of suffering is called 'suffering', 'impermanence' and can be eliminated, because it brings about the conjoining and arising of the five aggregates  (skandhas), hence it is not a real truth. Noble son, the Tathagata is not origination [of suffering] in nature, not a cause of the five aggregates (skandhas) and cannot be eliminated, and hence he is real. Space and the Buddha-dhatu are similar to this. 

       此外,尊贵的儿子,痛苦的源泉叫做痛苦,无常而且能被消除,因为他带来了链接并且产生了无知集结(蕴),因此它不是一个真正的实相。尊贵的儿子,如来不是产生于本性,不是五蕴的原因并且不能被消灭,因此他是真实的。空间和佛界与此相似。

      

      Noble son, 'cessation' is called the cessation of the defilements (kleshas), and is both permanent and impermanent. That which is attained through the two lower Ways (i.e. the shravaka-yana and the pratyekabuddha-yana) is said to be impermanent, while that which is attained by the Buddhas is said to be permanent and it is also said to be the directly realized Dharma (adhigama-dharma), hence it is a real Truth. Noble son, the intrinsice nature of the Tathagata is not said to be cessation nor the cessation of the defilements (kleshas), it is neither permanent nor impermanent; it is not direct realisation, but it abides permanently and immutably, hence it is said to be real. Space and the Buddha-dhatu are similar to this. 

      尊贵的儿子,终止就是染污的终止(kleshas烦恼),而且两者都是永恒的和非永恒的。通过两种低的方法(即声闻乘和辟支佛乘)可以达到永恒,而被佛达到的是叫做永恒的,而这就是说直接的认识大法(adhigama-dharma),因此它是一个真实的实相。尊贵的儿子,如来内在的本性不是叫做终止也不是染污的终止(kleshas),这不是非永恒的也不是永恒的;这不是直接的认识,它住于永久和不变,因此它说是真实的。空间和佛界于此相似。

      Noble son, the Path eliminates the defilements (kleshas), and is both permanent and impermanent. It is a phenomenon which can be cultivated, hence it is not a real Truth. The Tathagata does not constitute a Path through which the defilements (kleshas), can be eliminated; he is neither permanent nor impermanent; he is not a phenomenon which can be cultivated, but abides permanently and immutably, hence he is said to be real. Space and the Buddha-dhatu are similar to this. 

          尊贵的儿子,这条道路消除了污染(kleshas烦恼),并且都是永恒的和无常的。他是一个可以修炼到的现象,因此他不是真实的实相。如来不会构思一条穿越污染的道路,它能被消除;他不是无常也不是常,他不是一个可以修炼的现象,但是安住于永恒和不变,因此他说是真实的。空间和佛界于此类似。

      Moreover, noble son, the Real is the Tathagata, the Tathagata is the Real; the Real is space, space is the Real; and the Real is the Buddha-dhatu, the Buddha-dhatu is the Real. Manjushri, where there is suffering, there is a cause of suffering, a cessation of suffering and an antidote to suffering. The Tathagata is not suffering and so forth down to an antidote to suffering, hence he is real but not a 'truth'. Space and the Buddha-dhatu are similar to this. Suffering is conditioned, tainted and devoid of bliss. The Tathagata is not conditioned and not tainted, but utterly blissful: this is the Real and not a 'truth'.

       更重要的,尊贵的儿子,实相是如来,如来是实相,实相是空间,空间是实相。实相是佛界,佛界是实相。如来没有痛苦而进一步的解除痛苦,因此他是实相但不是真实的。空间和佛界是于此类似的。痛苦是有条件的,污染的和没有祝福的。如来不是条件的没有染污的,但是完全是快乐的。这是实相而不是真理。

     What is the Buddha Dhatu or Tathagatagarbha

      It is the uncreated, unbigoted, utterly pure, unconditioned, inviolate, indestructible, steadfast and unshakeable, eternal Buddhistc Essence (svabhava) of all sentient beings. It is the life-force (jivaka), the nurturing power within the being which sustains him or her and which, when fully seen and known, transforms that being into a Buddha. It is the "True Self" (satyatman) or the "Great Self" (mahatman) of the Buddha himself, and is all-knowing (sarvajna). Even in the Pali suttas, the Buddha never, ever, states that he, the Tathagata, is "non-Self", just as he never, ever, states that Nirvana is non-Self. For those with eyes to see and ears to hear, this is highly significant. The Buddha is Nirvana and is the only Real Self that exists in the cosmos. Another term for this is the 'Buddha-dhatu'. This is nothing less than Reality (not just a metaphor pointing to some potential). It is present within us, right here, right now. And it is not just another way of speaking of "Emptiness" or merely a "skilful means" or clever tactic -  without any existing Reality to it -  as is popularly claimed by secular Buddhist scholars and other nihilistically inclined commentators

什么是佛界或如来界

     这是非创造的,无偏见的,完全纯洁的,无条件的,不受损害的,不能被破坏的,稳定的和不可动摇的,所有有情众生的。永恒的佛教的本质(svabhava)。这是生命的力量(jivaka),生命营养的力量维持他或它,并且,当完全看到和知道,将那个生命转化成佛。这就是真实的自我(satyatman)或者佛陀他自己大的自我(mahatman),这是完全知道的(sarvajna),即使在巴利文的佛经之中,佛陀从不,曾经,声明说他,如来,是无我的,就如他从不,曾经,说涅磐是无我的。那些用眼睛来看耳朵来听,这是很重要的。佛是涅磐而且是唯一真实的自我他存在于宇宙之中。另一个术语就是佛界。除了实相就什么也不是(不是对某个潜在的隐喻)它是我们的出席,就在这里,现在。这也不是另一个叫做空虚的道或仅是有技巧的方法或聪明的方法-它没有存在的实相。-就如它被世俗的佛教学者要求一样而且其它的虚无倾向于评论。

      The Buddha tells of how even the highest-level (10th-level) Bodhisattvas can see the Buddha-dhatu but dimly. It belongs to the perceptual sphere of a perfect Buddha to see the Buddha-dhatu with full clarity. Note that even with the eye of prajna, a non-Buddha cannot see the Buddha-dhatu clearly. This perhaps accounts for why there is so much lack of comprehension of the Buddha-dhatu (even opposition to it) amongst many Buddhists: it is simply not clearly perceivable to those who are not yet Buddhas. Here are the Buddha's words:

佛陀怎样说的最高的水平(第10级)十地菩萨可以看到佛界但是很依稀。它属于一个完美的佛的感官领域以便清楚地看到佛界。注意即便是用般若的慧眼,一个非佛不能清楚地看到佛界。这也许说明了为什么这里缺乏对佛界的理解(即便是强烈反对它)在许多佛教徒之间;这是不清楚的它属于一个完美的佛知觉领域充分地看到明确的佛界。请注意,即使在般若眼,没有成佛的人不能清楚的看到佛界。 这里是佛的语言:

      Noble son, although Bodhisattvas dwelling on the 10th level (bhumi) do perceive the Buddha-dhatu, it is not clear to them. Noble son, you might ask: with what eye do Bodhisattvas dwelling on the 10th level perceive the Buddha-dhatu, though it is not clear to them, with what eye do the Buddha-Bhagavats (Blessed Buddhas) clearly perceive it? Noble son, that seen with the eye of insight (prajna-caksus) is not clear, while that seen with the Buddha-eye is clear. It is not clear while engaging in the practice of a Bodhisattva, but it is clear when no longer engaging in the practice [i.e. when one has completed one's Buddhic training and has reached full Buddhahood). Though they perceive it because they dwell on the 10th level, it is not clear to them, whereas it is clear to those who do not dwell or proceed. What Bodhisattva-mahasattvas perceive with insight (prajna) is not clear, whereas the Buddha-Bhagavats perceive it clearly, because they have cut off causes and effects. All-knowing (sarvajna) is said to be the Buddha-dhatu, whereas 10th-level Bodhisattvas are not said to be all knowing, and so, although the3. The Buddha-dhatu-  Tathagatagarbha 

   尊贵的儿子,尽管菩萨居住到10层(国土报)去感知佛界,这对它们是不清楚的。尊贵的儿子,你也许会问:佛-菩萨(尊贵的佛)的眼睛能够清楚地感觉它呢?尊贵的儿子,这种用洞察力之眼的内视(prajna-caksus)不是清晰的,因为用佛眼看是清晰的。参与菩萨的实践不是清楚的(即当一个人完成了他的佛教训练并且达到了佛)。尽管他们感知它因为他们住在十层,这对他们不是清楚的。当然这是那些不居住或前进的人是清楚的。菩萨摩诃萨用内视感知的(prajna)不是清楚的,于此菩萨摩诃萨Buddha-Bhagavats清楚的感知它,因为他们去掉了原因和结果。所有知道的(sarvajna),据说是在佛界,于此10地菩萨不会说知道所有的,只有三个,佛界如来。

   

      In a conversation with the great Bodhisattva, Mahakasyapa, the Buddha teaches that the Self is the "Tathagatagarbha" or "Tathagata-dhatu". All beings have this Buddha-dhatu ("Buddha-Principle", "Buddha Realm", "Buddha Sphere") inside them, but it is obscured by masses of mental and moral afflictions. These afflictions are called the defilements (kleshas), and include sensuous desire, hatred, delusion, burning worry, jealousy, stinginess, cheating, flattery, not experiencing a sense of shame when wrong has been committed, pride, arrogance, lack of diligence, self-importance, quarrelsomeness, lack of respect, and association with bad friends (those whose life-styles are antipathetic to Dha Another name for this Buddha-dhatu is Tathagata-garbha. The  meaning of this expression_r is "Buddha-Womb" or "Buddha-Embryo". The term implies that it is needful for the Buddhist practitioner to enter into the Buddhic Womb deep inside him/herself in order to be re-born as a new Buddha. And that Buddha-Womb inheres in the very depths of the Buddha's ultimate being itself, in his Dharmakaya (primordial true being). The Buddha is thus seen as the generative and sustaining source of everlasting life. He likens himself to a great lake which gives rise to all the life-streams of the gods and humans and to a great ocean upon which they all converge in the longest-lasting life of all - that of the Buddha himself. 

       在与大菩萨迦叶的谈话之中。佛陀教导自我是“如来”或 如来藏。所有的生命都有佛性(佛的原则,佛的王国,佛的领域)在他们里面,但是它是由于众生精神和道德的痛苦是模糊的。这种痛苦叫做污染(kleshas烦恼),包括感觉的欲望,仇恨,妄想,感到焦虑,妒忌,小气,欺骗,献媚,当犯了错误时没有羞愧的感觉,骄傲,无知,不勤奋,自我中心,争吵,不尊敬,和如来藏。这种表达的字面意思是佛的字宫或佛的胚胎。这个术语意味 佛教的实践者到觉悟的子宫深处是有必要的,他或她为了再次转生成一个新佛。但是佛的子宫这里是非常有深度的佛最后的生命,在他的法身(原始的存在)。佛因此是有创造力的和持续的永恒的生命的源泉。他喜欢他自己到一个大湖里这使他到神和人的所有的生命之泉并且到一个大海他们汇聚于所有最长的生命-是佛他自己。

 

 

    

   

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