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上座部佛教和大乘佛教般若涅磐经的韵诗或颂偈 (二)

(2010-01-11 09:42:17)
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We come across the following two verses in the fourth chapter.

I. Righteousness, earnest thought, wisdom, and freedom sublime -These are the truths realized by Gotama, far renowned.

II. Knowing them, he, the knower, proclaimed the truth to the brethren. The master with eye divine, the quencher of griefs, is

at peace(12).

我们要浏览第四章的这两个经文。  
一,正直,认真思考,智慧, 崇高的自由,这是乔达摩认识到的真理,声名远播。
二。知道他们,他,知者, 对兄弟们宣讲真理。有天眼的大师,熄灭了悲哀,在和平之中。 (12)。

      Though they are in the third person singular, the commentary takes them to be of the Buddha. The word Parinibbuto which appears in the pali verse, is taken to mean the destruction of passions. In regard to the context in which they occur, evidently the interpretation is meaningful; but when taken independently they create a different atmosphere. Further, contrary to the most popular division of the three steps: Sãla, Samàdhi and Pannà, it adds a fourth called Vimutti. In the Anguttara Nikaya (13) these two verses have been quoted in reference to a teacher named Sunetta. This ancient teacher, though enjoying long life, could not overcome birth, decay and death as he was not endowed with noble morality, concentration, wisdom and liberation. These stanzas have been quoted in the Kathavatthu in connection with the destruction of cankers by worldings.

      虽然他们是用第三人称单数,这个评注把它当作是佛陀的。单词Parinibbuto出现在巴利文的诗句中间,意思是要消除激情。考虑到他们发生的背景,这种解释是明显有意义的,但当他们单独出现时他们创造了不同的氛围。此外,与大多数普遍的相反要划分三个步骤:戒律Sãla, 三摩地Samàdhi 和智慧 Pannà,它添加了第四段叫做为解脱Vimutti 。在增支部(13)这两个经文已被引用为一个叫 Sunetta的教师。这个古老的老师,虽然拥有很长的寿命,但无法克服出生,老化,死亡原因是他不具有高尚的道德情操,专注,智慧和解脱。这些韵诗在Kathavatthu中引用并且与凡夫的腐化破坏有关。

      The discrepancy of the context has been recognized by Rhys Davids, for he says: The stanzas– when spoken by the Buddha of another teacher are quite appropriate. On the other hand put as the Digha puts them, into the mouth of the Buddha as spoken of himself, they are not in the best of taste, and sound forced. Furthermore he pointed out conclusively, that there could be no doubt  that they had applied originally to Sunetta the teacher and later to the Buddha Himself.

          里斯戴维斯已经认识到了上下文的差异,他说:诗歌-当被另一位佛的老师讲述时是非常合适的。另一方面就象迪卡把自己放到嘴里一样,放在了佛的嘴里就像对他自己说一样,他们不是是最好的味道,而是强迫的是声音。他进一步指出得出结论,这里没有疑问就是Sunetta适于当教师,随后是佛陀他自己。

      The following verses;

I. When he had eaten Chundas food, - The copper-smiths  thus have I heard

He bore with fortitude the pain, - The sharp pain even unto death!

II. When he had eaten, from the truffles in the food, - There fell upon the teacher sickness dire,

Then after nature was relieved the Exalted One, - announced and said:

I now am going to Kusinara(14). These two stanzas are said to have been kept by the theras of the recital(15).

下面的诗句;
一,当他吃了纯陀的食品, -我已经听到了铜匠。
二他承担的痛苦的毅力, - 甚至死后的痛苦!
二。当他吃了,从食物中的块中, - 由于严重的疾病老师跌倒了。

当尊者减轻了以后尊者宣布说:
我现在我会去Kusinara(14)。这两段韵诗已经被长老保存在颂文中 。(15) 。

I. The pairs of robes of cloth of gold, - All burnished, Pukkusa had brought,

Clad on with them the Master then, - Shone forth in colour like to gold(16). This stanza is also said to have been kept at the recital.

这一对黄金长袍  - 全部抛光过的,由Pukkusa 带来的,
大师穿上了它- 颜色就象黄金一样(16)。这首韵诗已经保存在颂文之中。
 

I. The Buddha to Kakutthas river came, - Whose clear and pleasant waters limpid flow,

He plunged beneath the stream wearied and worn, - The Buddha without equal in the world!

II. When he had bathed and drunk, the teacher then, - Crossed over the brethren thronging round his steps;

The Blessed Master, preaching the while the truth, - The Mighty Sage came to the Mango Grove.

III. There spake he to the brother Chundaka: - Spread me the fourfold robe out as a couch.

Urged by the Holy One, he quickly spread - The fourfold robe in order on the ground,

The Master laid him down, wearied and worn; - And there, before him, Chunda took his seat (17).

一,           佛陀来到Kakutthas的河  - 河水清澈而愉快的流淌着,
他很疲倦又劳累投入了河中, - 佛在世界上是不平等的!
二。当他洗澡,喝了水, 老师, -穿越了兄弟们的脚步 ;
神圣的主,开始宣讲真理 – 伟大的圣人来到了芒果树丛之中。
三。在那里他对他的兄弟Chundaka说: -把长袍四折铺开作我的沙发。

二,     在圣灵的催促下,他很快的展开了-长袍整整齐齐的折好在地上。
大师坐了下来,疲倦又劳累-在那里,在他之前,纯陀坐在他的位置上。 (17)。

These three stanzas are also said to have been added by the reciters.

这三段韵诗中据说也已补充到诵文中。

      These verses actually point to the fact that there were different ballads of popular character composed on the life and deeds of the Buddha. The verses do not furnish us with fresh information but deal with what is found in the foregoing prose passages. When the Mahaparinibbana Sutta was being compiled, all those verses which deal with the last few days of the Masters career were   inserted into the narrative.

      这些经文实际上指出了这样一个事实就是有不同风格的诗歌来描述佛陀的生活和事迹。这个诗篇并没有提供新的信息但是与在前面的散文诗是相匹配的。当大般若涅磐经已经编好了时,所有关于大师最后几天的论述都加入到叙事之中。

The next stanza;

To him who gives shall virtue be increased; - In him who curbs himself, no anger can arise;

The righteous man casts off all evil ways, - And by the rooting out of lust, and bitterness,

And all infatuation, is at peace! (18).

第二个韵诗

对他来说他增加了美德-他限制在他之中,没有愤怒能够产生。

正义的人抛除了所有的邪恶之道-由于根除了贪欲,和痛苦,还有所有的迷恋,在和平之中!

is regarded by both the text and the commentary as a paean of joy uttered by the Buddha Himself.

这被文本和评注当作佛陀所作的狂喜之歌。

The fifth chapter has only one stanza.

But twenty-nine was I when I renounced, - The world, Subhadda, seeking after Good.

For fifty years and one year more, Subhadda, - Since I went out, a pilgrim have I been

Though the wide realm of System and of Law - Outside of that no victory can be won! (19).

第五章只有一节韵诗。

但是我弃世时才29岁 ,陀罗,寻找善良。

由于50年或者多1年,陀罗, - 此后我外出了,成为一名朝圣者。

通过法律和体系的广泛领域  - 除此之外没有人能获胜!

The stanza is a versification of the prose preceding it. The

commentary, though, does not speak of it, yet silently

admits it to be of the Buddha. Sometimes it may be that

the prose must have been written in explanation of the

stanza taken from a different source.

这节诗是前述的韵诗。这个评论,当然,没有谈到这一点,仍然默默把它当作佛陀所说。

也许它是那个已经写好的韵诗。有时侯它也许是这样一篇散文用来从不同的角度解释韵诗。

The four stanzas which are said to have been uttered immediately after the demise of the Buddha by Brahma Sahampati, Sakra, Anuruddha and Ananda respectively and found in the sixth chapter are quite interesting.

这四个段落在佛逝世后很快被婆罗门Sahampati, Sakra, Anuruddha和阿难尊者提到并且在第六章被发现这是很有趣的。

Brahma Sahampati:

大梵天

I.They all, all beings that have life, shall lay, Aside their complex form  that aggregation, Of mental and material qualities,

That gives them, or in heaven or on earth, - Their fleeting individuality! - Even as the teacher  being such a one,

Unequalled among all the men that are, - Successor of the prophets of old time,

Mighty by wisdom, and in insight clear - Hath died!

他们所有的,众生都有生命,要安置,从他们的复杂的聚集形式之外 ,精神的和物质的,
这给他们,或在天上或在地上, -他们个人的疾驰! - 即便是老师也这样 ,
所有的人都是不平等的  - 旧时代先知的接替者,
有强大的智慧,和深刻的洞察力 –已经死了!

Sakka:

II.Theyre transient all, each beings parts and powers, - Growth is their very nature, and decay.

They are produced, they are dissolved again: - To bring them all into subjection  that is bliss.

Sakka:


II.他们是短暂的,每一个人的部分和能力-增长是他们每个性质和衰退。

他们是生产的,他们是分散的-为了让他们进入臣服这是幸福的。

Thera Anuruddha:

III.When he who from all craving want was free, - Who to Nirvanas tranquil state had reached,

When the great sage finished his span of life, - No grasping struggle vexed that steadfast heart!

IV.All resolute, and with unshaken mind, - He calmly triumphed over the pain of death,

Een as a bright flame dies away, so was - The last emancipation of his heart.

长老Anuruddha:
III.当他从所有的渴望之中解脱时, - 已经达到了涅磐的平静,
当大圣人完成了他的生命钟时, - 没有烦恼干扰他稳定的心!
IV.所有的坚定,毫不动摇的头脑, - 他平静地战胜死亡的痛苦,
作为一个光明的火焰消失了,所以是 – 他心中最后的解脱。

Thera Ananda:

阿难长老

V.Then was there terror! - Then stood the hair on end!

 When he endowed with every grace, - The supreme Buddha  died!(20)

然后那里有恐怖!- 然后站在头发上!
  他非常优雅的撒手  - 在最高的佛死了!

      Chinese translation not less than eighteen people are said to have uttered stanzas on the Buddhas demise. Rhys Davids has shown how the Chinese translation of the verse said to have been uttered by Sakka has lost its point due to the mistranslation of the clauses. Pande as well as Prazilaski regard these verses as belonging to the earliest strata of the Sutta(21). In the Maha- sudassana Sutta(22). the verse of Sakka is spoken by King Maha Sudassana to his queen and the verse uttered by Ananda comes before Anuruddhas in the  Samyutta Nikaya(23).

          在汉译著作中不少于18人已经谈到了佛陀逝世后的诗歌。里斯戴维斯充分提到了Sakka由于错误翻译了这个从句已经失去了它的要点。Pande和 Prazilaski认为这种属于早期的经典 (21)在Maha- sudassana的佛经。Sakka的韵文是由Maha Sudassana国王告知他的王后的而且阿难说到的经文是在杂阿含经之中的Anuruddhas之前。

      It is rather convincing how the early compilers of the canon have selected four personalities to express their feelings just after the demise of the Blessed One. Brahma Sahampati represents the Brahma World while Sakka, the king of Gods, the Deva Realm. Thera Anuruddha, being an Arahant, was indifferent and unmoved and says how the Sage died (kàlaü akari muni) with pains subdued, triumphant and resolute. He represents the community of the monks. To Ananda who is still a trainee on the path, the decease of the Buddha was an occasion of terror and awe which caused his hair to stand on end. He obviously represents the common run of men who have not yet destroyed their passions. Ananda was very much attached to the Buddha and hence he was greatly affected by the incident.

这是相当有说服力的早期的经典编辑选来四个个性不同的人来表达他们在佛陀逝世后的感觉。  Sahampati梵天代表了梵天,而Sakka,神的王,天神的世界。Anuruddha长老,作为阿罗汉,是不同的和无动于衷的并且说圣人是如何死的(kàlaü akari muni)在压抑了痛苦,欢欣和坚强。他告诉僧众。阿难仍然是一个路上的学员,对他来讲佛的逝世是一个突然的错误而且令人惊讶的是他的头发是树立起的。他明显的表达了人的一般运行方式他没有破坏他们的情绪。阿难对佛陀非常专注而且因此他非常受这件事情的影响。

Prazilaski had good reasons to believe that these verses are fairly old, but their order is different, not only in the Samyutta Nikaya but also in the Chinese versions. The following two verses are ascribed to the Brahmin Drona who was entrusted to divide the remains of the Exalted One equally into eight parts.

Prazilaski有充分理由相信这些经文相当老了,但它们的顺序是不同的,不仅在杂阿含经中而且在中文版本中。下面的两个经文是得益于受到信任的婆罗门他将圣尊的遗物分为八部分。

I.Hear, gracious sirs, one single word from me.- Forbearance was our Buddha want to teach.

Unseemly is it that over the division, - Of the remains of him who was the best of beings

Strife should arise, and wounds, and war!

I谛听 ,有礼貌的先生,一个从我那里的单独的词-忍耐是我们佛陀想要教导的。

 分裂被认为是不适合的  - 在他仍然是最好的人
冲突应该出现,还有创伤,和战争!

II.Let us all, sirs with one accord unite, - In friendly harmony to make eight portions.

Wide spread let cairns spring up in every land - That in the Light of the World mankind may trust!(24)

II.让我们大家,执行一项团结协议, - 制造八个部分在其中在友好和谐之中。
让凯恩斯在每块土地广泛传播-   世界的人类是可以信任的!(24 )

The Mahaparinibbana Sutta is concluded with the following four stanzas and they are, according to Buddhaghosa, kept

by the theras of Tambapanni (i.e. the Theras of Sri Lanka).

大般若涅般经是根据以下四首韵诗而得出的结论,根据觉音的说法,保留在Tambapanni的经文之中(就是斯里兰卡的经文)

I.Eight measures of relics there were of him of the far-seeing eye, - Of the best of the best of men. - In India seven are worshipped,

And one measure in Ramagama, by the kings of the - serpent race.

I 遗物的八个珍宝他们有天眼-是圣人之中的圣人-在印度7是受崇拜的,

而且在罗摩伽的一个尺度,由于国王-蛇类 的

II.One tooth, too, is honoured in heaven, and one in Gandharas city, - One in the Kalinga realm, and one more by the Naga race.

II.一个牙齿,也是在天堂很荣幸 ,一个在Gandharas的城市之 , - 一个在卡林加Kalinga的领域,而一个更多的是由于Naga族。

III.Through their glory the bountiful earth is made bright, - with offering painless

For with such are the Great Teachers relics best, - honoured by those who are honoured,

III.由于他们的光荣和丰富地球有了光明- 带来无痛苦 。

对于这个原因这是伟大教师的最好的遗物对于  - 受到那些尊者的尊敬。

IV.By gods and by Nagas and kings, yea, thus by the noblest of humans, -

Bow down with clasped hands! Hard, hard is a Buddha - to meet with through hundreds of ages! (25).

IV.由于神和纳迦和国王,yea,是人类最受尊重者。 因此, -
和掌跪拜吧 !难,佛是难的 – 是与数百个人相遇!

Though Buddhaghosa asserted that these stanzas are of Sri Lanka origin, it is more plausible to think that they were not composed but inserted into the Sutta by them as they are found in the Tibetan version, too(26).

 虽然觉音宣称这些韵诗是斯里兰卡裔的,更有必要相信他们没有组成但是由于他们加入了佛经,他们也在西藏的版本之中发现了。

      Both Buddhaghosa and Dhammapala further say that there were some additions made to the Sutra even as late as the third council, which is a separate question. The stanzas that have been composed on the memorable events of the life of the Buddha must have been selected and have been inserted in the course of its development. The stanzas referred to as Udanagatha by the commentary also fall into this category. These stanzas of unknown authorship must have been added from time to time. These additions must have been carried on until the canon was committed to writing by the Theras in Sri Lanka in the first century B.C.

        既觉音及Dhammapala进一步说佛经之中加入了一些东西甚至象晚后的第三委员会,这是一个分开的问题。这些韵诗包括了佛陀一生之中的大事因而必须被选择并且插入了它的发展过程。这些韵诗关于Udanagatha的韵诗必须称为Udanagatha通过评论进入了这一类。这些没有权威的韵诗必须一次一次增加。这些增加的必须举行直到经典被公元一世纪以前的斯里兰卡的叙事是写好的。

In this way prose passages also must have been The last verse which says that forty teeth and all hair and hair of the body

were taken away by the respective deities of the world circles found in the Sinhala edition has not been translated by Rhys Davids. interpolated. Sometimes explanatory prose passages must have been added in elucidation of the verses interpolated earlier on. Hence in the course of time, the Mahaparinibbana Sutta grew into a veritable mosaic and the Theras in Sri Lanka, when writing down the canon in the first century B.C. gave the final touch to conclude the canon once or for all. Possibly as we have seen, interpolations have been inserted even as it became the  Mahaparinibbana Sutta in contrast to the Parinibbana Sutta found in the

Samyutta Nikaya.

   以这种方式散文诗也许是最后的版本,它是关于四十颗牙齿和所有的头发和身体的头发被分散的世界各地装龛供奉,这在里斯戴维斯的翻译的僧伽罗版本之中有相关的内容。某些时候这些解释的散文段落必须加入早期说明的经文。因此在这段时间内,大般若涅磐经变成了名符其实的马赛克和斯里兰卡的诗文。当在公元一世纪前写完这部经典时要提供最后的接触机会以便决定这部经典是一次性的或永久。也许我们已经看到,已经插补了这些它变成了大般若涅磐经相比在杂阿含经之中发现的涅磐经。

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