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让佛陀最后的遗教重新照亮和复兴人类的生活(四)

(2010-01-09 14:02:05)
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How does one practise samadhi? If, when practising samadhi, one does it to enlighten one's own self, for profit, not for the sake of all beings, not for the practising of Dharma, but out of greed, for defiled food, for sexual reasons, because of the impurities of the nine holes, for disputes, for beating, and for killing others, anybody who practises samadhi thus is not one who practises samadhi.

       一个人应该怎样修行禅定?如果,当修行禅定时,一个人修行是为了启迪自己的真我,为利益,为了所有众生的缘故,不是为了实践大法,而是去除贪婪,为了食品的污染,为了性的原因,由于九个洞的杂质,由于纠纷,由于鞭打,由于杀害其它人,那些修习禅定的人不是一个修行禅定的人。  

       What is the true practice of samadhi? One practises it for the sake of all beings, to plant in the mind of beings the all-equal mind, unretrogressive Dharma, the holy mind, to enable beings to attain Mahayana, to guard unsurpassed Dharma, for beings not to retrogress from Enlightenment, for them to gain the Suramgama, the vajra-samadhi, dharanis [i.e. long mantras or magic spells], to enable beings to gain the four unhinderednesses, to enable beings to see the Buddha-Nature; and when practising thus, one sees no samadhi, no form of samadhi, nor a person practising this, nor any result to be arrived at. If things indeed proceed thus, we say that this person is practising samadhi.

       什么是真正的禅定修为呢?一个人修习它是为了所有的生命,在所有人中间种植平等的精神,不退堕的法,神圣的精神,使人达到大乘,保护无上的佛法,使生命不要从觉悟之中退堕,他们获得的楞严定,三摩地,陀罗尼[即长咒语或神咒],使人们获得了四个无碍,使人能看到佛性,当修行这个时,一个人没有看见禅定,没有禅定的形式,也没有一个人修行他,也没有任何要得到的结果。如果情况确实如此,我们说这个人是在修行禅定。

      How does one practise Wisdom? One who practises Wisdom thinks: "If I practise such Wisdom, I shall attain Emancipation and save those in the three unfortunate realms. Who is it that indeed benefits all beings, passing them to the other shore beyond birth and death? It is difficult [to be present when] the Buddha appears in this world. It is as rare an event as one's coming across the flowering of the udumbara. I shall now thoroughly cut away the bonds of all defilements. I shall gain the fruition of Emancipation. On this account, I shall now learn to practise Wisdom and sever the bond of defilement and attain Emancipation." Any person who practises the Way thus is the (not) one who practises Wisdom.

         一个人怎样才能修行智慧?一个人修行智慧的人这样想:“如果我实践这样的智慧,我将要达到解脱并且拯救那些在三恶道之中的人。谁事实上利益了所有众生,把他们送到生与死的彼岸?佛陀要出现在世界上是非常困难的(在场的时候)。这是一个非常珍惜的事情就象优昙婆罗花那样珍贵和稀少。我现在将要完全去除一切烦恼的束缚。我将要获得解脱的果实。正因为如此,我将会学习实践智慧和切断烦恼的束缚并且获得解脱。任何修行此道的人是实践智慧之人。

      How does a person truly practise Wisdom? The wise person meditates on the sorrows of birth, age, and death. All beings are overshadowed by ignorance and do not know how to practise the unsurpassed right path. He prays: "I pray that this body of mine will suffer great sorrows in lieu of all beings. Let all poverty, degredation, the mind of transgressing the precepts, all the actions of greed, anger and ignorance of all beings gather upon me. I pray that all beings will not gain a mind of greed, will not be bound up in body-and-mind. I pray that all beings will soon cross the sea of birth and death, so that I may not now need to face it and not feel the worry. I pray that all will gain unsurpassed Enlightenment." When a person practises the Way thus, he sees no Wisdom, no form of Wisdom, no one practising WIsdom, and no fruition to be arrived at. This is practising Wisdom.

      一个人如何真正实践的智慧?智慧的人冥想到出生,变老,和死亡。所有的人都被无知所覆盖而并不知道如何实践无上正确之道。他祈求说:“我祈祷我的这个身体将为众生遭受巨大的痛苦。让所有的贫穷之人,堕落之人,破戒的心灵,所有贪婪的行为,所有的愤怒和无知都聚向我。我祈祷说所有的生命都要获得贪婪,都不会受缚于身体和心灵。我祈祷所有的生命要很快的穿越生死之海,因此我现在也不会面对它并且不会感到担心。我祈祷所有的生命获得无上正等正觉。当一个人如此实践道时,他没有看见智慧,没有智慧的形式,没有人实践智慧,没有要达到的成果。这就是修行智慧。

      One who thus practises sila, samadhi, and Wisdom is a Bodhisattva; one who cannot thus practise sila, samadhi, and Wisdom is a sravaka.

            一个 修行戒,定和慧的人就是菩萨;一个不能因此修行戒律,禅定和智慧的人是声闻乘。

How does one practise sila [morality]? All sin by committing the 16 evil acts. What are the 16? They are: (i) keeping, feeding, and fattening sheep for profit, and seeling them, (ii) buying and killing sheep for profit,  (iii) raising, fattening and selling pigs for profit, (iv) buying and killing them for profit,  (v) raising and selling calves for profit when fattened,  (vi) buying and killing them for profit,  (vii) raising hens for profit and, when they are grown up, selling them,  (viii) buying [them] for profit and killing them,  (ix) fishing,  (x) hunting,  (xi) plundering,  (xii) selling fish,  (xiii) catching birds with nets,  (xiv) [having a] double-tongue,  (xv) [being a] jailer, and  (xvi) charming snakes [“nagas”]. One [should] thoroughly segregate one's self eternally from such evil deeds. This is practising sila [morality] (19). Person who practice and cultivate in this sutra he gets lot of advantages.

一个人怎样修戒(道德)?由于造做16种邪恶行为的罪过。是那16种呢?他们是:(i)保持喂养,为获利而养肥羊,蒙上他们的眼睛, (ii)为获利而买羊和杀羊(iii)喂养,育肥出售猪以获得利润。(vii)养母鸡为了获利,当他们长大以后,卖掉他们。(viii)为了利益而购买他们并且杀害他们。(ix)钓鱼(x)打猎(xi)掠夺(xii)出售鱼(xiii)用网捕捉鸟(xiv)两舌(xv)当看守,并且(xvi)妩媚蛇行(nagas]?。一个人应该彻底从这类邪恶的行为之中分离出来。这是修行戒(道德
)。 一个[应]彻底分开,一个人的自我永远这种恶行。这是修行戒律 [德](19)。一个人在实践和修行这部经的人会获得很多好处。

04-02. Buddha’s specimen as a religious leader.

佛陀作为一个宗教领袖的范例

 

Lord Buddha is a special religious leader among the other because of He had good wisdom, great morality and great compassion. 

与其它人相比佛陀是一个非常杰出的领袖因为他有很好的智慧,伟大的道德和伟大的慈悲

Among the good qualities, these are special. Here emphasize few opportunities from sutras.

在很多良好的品质中间,这些是非常突出的。这里从佛经之中举出一些例子。

 

      Sariputta said  I have not the knowledge of the hearts of the Arahat Buddhas that have been, and are to come, and now are.  I only know the lineage of the faith.  Just, Lord, as a kind might have a border city, strong in its foundations, strong in its ramparts and toranas, and with one gate alone; and the kind might have a watchman there, clever, expert and wise, to stop all strangers and admit only friends.  And he, on going over the approaches all round the city, might not so observe all the joints and crevices in the ramparts of that city as to know where even a cat could get out.  That might well be.  Yet all living things of larger size that entered or left the city, would have to do so by that gate.  Thus only is it, Lord, that I know the lineage of the faith.  I know that the Arahat Buddhas of the past, putting away all lust, ill will, sloth, pride, and doubt; knowing all those mental faults which make men weak; training their minds I the four kinds of mental activity; thoroughly exercising themselves in the sevenfold higher wisdom, received the full fruition of Enlightenment.  And I know that the Arahat Buddhas of the times to come will do the same.  And I know that the Blessed One, the Arahat Buddha of today, has done so now(20).’

舍利弗说我没有阿罗汉佛的心的知识,将来的,现在是。我知道他的信仰的传承。只是,主阿,就如一个国亡拥有边界的城市,巩固它的基础,强化他的城墙和门楣,仅仅只有一个门,国王也许有城市的边界,聪明,专业和智慧,阻止所有的陌生人而只接受朋友。而他,不断的围绕城墙而转,也许可以发现所有的连接和城市城墙的裂缝并且知道甚至一只猫的进出。因此仅只于此,主阿,我知道信仰的边界。我知道过去的阿罗汉,去除了所有的欲望,恶意,懒惰,骄傲,狐疑,知道所有使人变得虚弱的精神错误;训练他们的心理四种心理活动,以七倍的智慧锻炼他们自己,获得圆满的觉悟。我知道阿罗汉佛的时代也将这样。我知道圣尊,今天的阿罗汉佛,现在已经做到。

      There is the Pavarika mango grove the Blessed One held that comprehensive religious talk with the brethren on the nature of upright conduct, and of earnest contemplation, and of intelligence.  ‘Great is the fruit, great the advantage of earnest contemplation when set round with upright conduct.  Great is the fruit, great the advantage of intellect when set round with earnest contemplation.  The mind set round with intelligence is freed from the great evils, that is to say, from sensuality, from individuality, from delusion and from ignorance.’

       在Pavarika的芒果林中圣尊召开了一个宗教会议和兄弟们讨论正义行为的本性,专注冥想,智慧。伟大是果实,坐在那里专注冥想时的好处,以及智慧。伟大是果实,专注冥想和正义的行为在一起就是有很大的利益。心灵充满智慧就将从罪恶之中解脱出来,这就是说,从感性,从个性,从妄想和无知之中。

      That place the Blessed One addressed the brethren, and said:  ‘It is through not understanding and grasping four Noble Truths, that we have had to run so long, to wander so long I this weary path of transmigration, both you and I.

          在那个地方圣尊安置了他的兄弟们,然后说:“这不是通过理解和掌握来把握四谛,我们已经跑了很久,在这个令人厌倦的轮回之路上流浪,包括我和你。

      ‘And what are these four? The Noble Truth about sorrow; the Noble truth about the cause of sorrow; the Noble Truth about the cessation of sorrow; and the Noble Truth about the path that leads to that cessation.  But when these Noble truths are grasped and known the craving for existence is rooted out, that which leads to renewed existence is destroyed, and then there is no more birth!(21)

      这四个是什么?关于苦的真理,关于苦的原因的真理,关于制止苦难的真理,关于停止苦难的方法的真谛。当这些真谛被掌握以后,对存在的渴望被连根拔出,这导致新的存在被破坏,接着这里不再有出生。

      There too, while staying at Kotigama, the Blessed One held that comprehensive religious discourse with the brethren on the nature of upright conduct, and of earnest contemplation, and of intelligence.  ‘Great is the fruit, great the advantage of earnest contemplation when set round with upright conduct.  Great is the fruit, great the advantage of intellect when set round with earnest contemplation.  The mind set round with intelligence is freed from the great evils,- that is to say, from sensuality, from individuality, from delusion, and from ignorance.’

        在那里,当呆在 Kotigam,圣尊和他的兄弟就正义行为的性质和他的兄弟们进行了一场复杂的讨论,由于专注的冥想,由于智慧。伟大是果实,以正确的姿势专注冥想是有很大利益的。伟大是果实,当围坐于专注冥想时有很多智力上的益处。用智慧的心理围绕能从大的罪恶之中解脱出来-这就是说,从感觉,从个性,从妄想,从无知。

      ‘What then, Ananda, is this Mirror of Truth?  It is the consciousness that the elect disciple is in this world possessed of faith in the Buddha- believing the Blessed One to be the Holy One, the Fully-enlightened One, Wise, Upright, Happy, World-knowing, Supreme, the Bridler of men’s wayward hearts, the Teacher of gods and men, the Blessed Buddha.  And that he the disciple is possessed of faith in the Truth-believing the truth to have been proclaimed by the Blessed One, of advantage in this world, passing not always, welcoming all, leading to salvations and to be attained to by the wise, each one for himself.  And that he, the disciple, is possessed of faith in the Order-believing the multitude of the disciples of the Blessed One who are walking in the four stages of the noble eightfold path, the righteous, the upright, the just, the law-abiding-believing this church of the Budda to be worthy of honour, of hospitality, of gifts, and of reverence; to be the supreme sowing ground of merit for the world; to be possessed of the virtues beloved by the good, virtues unbroken, intact, unspotted, unblemished virtues which make men truly free, virtue which are praised by the wise, are untarnished by the desire of future life or by the belief in the efficacy of outward acts, and are conducive to high and holy thought(22). '

那么,阿难,这是真理的镜子吗?在选择的弟子的意识之中的佛陀-相信是至圣至灵的人,完全的觉悟者,智慧,正确,幸福,举世闻名,至高,勒住了使人骄傲刚愎的心,是天人之师,是至圣的佛。而他的弟子拥有真理的信仰并且被圣尊所宣扬,对世界的利益,穿过但不是总是,被所有的人欢迎,导致挽救并被获得智慧。而他,弟子,相信拥有为无量弟子的信仰秩序他走在八正道的四个阶段,正义,正直,公正,守法并且知道佛陀是值得让人尊敬的,热情好客,有礼貌,对世界有最高的悲闵和慈悲,拥有被智慧的人所赞叹的美德,对未来生活纯净的欲望,对外在行为的功效的信念,这有利于崇高和神圣的思想。

 

      ‘This, Ananda, is the way, the mirror of truth, which if an elect disciple posses he may himself predict of himself:  “Hell is destroyed for me; and rebirth as an animal, or a ghost, or in any place of woe.  I am converted; I am no longer liable to be reborn in a state of suffering, and am assured of final salvation.

'这,阿难,是道路,真理的镜子,一个被选择的弟子如果拥有它他也许会自己预测自己:“地狱为之而毁灭,转生为一个动物,或鬼魂,或者任何苦的地方。我转变了,我不在可能转生到一个痛苦的地方,而且确信我将被振救。

      And the Blessed One addressed the venerable Ananda, and said:  ‘Now it may happen, Ananda, that some one should stir up remorse in Chunda the smith, by saying.  “This is evil to thee, Chunda, and loss to thee in that when the Tathagata had eaten his last meal from thy provision, then he died.”  Any such remorse, Ananda, in Chunda the smith should be checked by saying, “This is good to thee, Chunda, and gain to thee, in that when the Tathagata had eaten his last meal from thy provision, then he died.  From the very mouth of the Blessed One, Chunda, have I heard, from his own mouth have I received this saying, ‘These two offerings of food are of equal fruit, and of equal profit, and of much greater fruit and much greater profit than any other- and which are the two?  The offering of food which, when a Tathagata has eaten, he attains to supreme and perfect insight; and the offering of food which, when a Tathagata has eaten, he passes away by that utter passing away in which nothing whatever remains behind- these two offering of food are of equal fruit and of equal profit, and of much greater fruit and much greater profit than any others.

        圣尊安置了尊者阿难,然后说:“也许这将发生,阿难,一些人要挑起对铁匠纯陀的悔恨,这样说 。 “这对你是邪恶的,纯陀,是你的损失,当如来吃掉他最后的供养的时候,接着他死了。任何这样的悔恨,阿难,在纯陀铁匠要被检查,是这样说的”这对你是好的,纯陀,给你,在那里如来吃掉了他供养的最后的晚餐,接着就死了。从圣尊的每一个嘴里,纯陀,我听说,从他亲口述说之中我听到了这样的说法,这两样食物的供养是同样的结果,同样的利益,而更大的结果和比其它更多的利益。他们是哪两者?食物的供养,当如来吃掉后,他达到了最高和完美的洞察,由于提供了食品,当如来已经吃掉后,他已经离开了并且身后没有留下任何东西,当这两样提供的食品是平等的果实同样的利益,比其它有更多的果实和更多的利益。

      Now at that time the twin Sala trees were all one mass of bloom with flowers out of season; and all over the body of the Tathagata these dropped and sprinkled and scattered themselves, out of reverence for the successor of the Buddhas of old.  And heavenly Mandarava flowers, too, and heavenly sandal-wood powder came falling from the sky, and all over the body of the Tathagata they descended and sprinkled and scattered themselves, out of reverence for the successor of the Buddhas of old.  And heavenly music was sounded in the sky, out of reverence for the successor of the Buddhas of old.  And heavenly songs came wafted from the skies, out of reverence for the successor of the Buddhas of old!

  在那时连体萨拉树反季节的盛开着鲜花 。纷纷落下飘洒在如来的身体周围,出于对佛陀的尊重和敬礼。 天上的曼陀罗花,檀香木的花粉从空中降下,铺满了如来的身体,他们下降散落分散,出于对佛陀的继承者的尊重。天空响着天乐,出于对佛的继承者的尊重。天上天乐鸣空,出于对佛的继承者的尊重。

      Then the Blessed One addressed the venerable Ananda, and said:  “The twin Sala trees are all one mass of bloom with flowers out of season; all over the body of the Tathagata these drop and sprinkle and scatter themselves, out of reverence for the successor of the Buddhas of old.  And heavenly Mandarava flowers, too, and heavenly sandalwood powder come falling from the sky, and all over the body of the Tathaga they descend and sprinkle and scatter themselves, out of reverence for the successor of the Buddhas of old.  And heavenly music sounds in the sky, out of reverence for the successor of the Buddhas of old.  And heavenly songs come wafted from the skies, out of reverence for the successor of the Buddhas of old.

        接着圣尊安置了尊者阿难,然后说:”,并说:“连体萨拉树反季节的盛开着鲜花,这些香粉末,花瓣铺满了佛陀的身体,出于对佛陀的尊重和敬意。天上天乐鸣空,出于对佛陀的继承人的尊重。天上的歌曲飘来,出于对佛陀的继承人的尊重和敬意。

      ‘Now it is not thus, Ananda, that the Tathagata is rightly honoured, reverenced, venerated, held sacred or revered.  But the brother or the sister, the devout man or the devout woman, who continually fulfills all the greter and the lesser duties, who is correct in life, walking according to the precepts sacred, and reverse the Tathagata with the worthiest homage.  Therefore, O Ananda, be ye constant in the fulfillment of the greater and of the lesser duties, and be ye correct in life, walking according to the precepts; and thus, Ananda, should it be taught.

     现在不是这样,阿难,如来确实是值得尊敬的,尊崇的,崇拜的,拥有神圣或崇敬。但是弟弟或妹妹呢,虔诚的男人或虔诚的女子,谁能够履行或大或小的职责呢,谁在生活之中是正确的,根据稀有的道德戒律来行走,给如来以最有价值的尊敬。因此,哦,阿难,不断履行或大或小的责任,在生命之中保持正确,根据戒律来行走,因此,阿难,这是该被教育的。

      And the Blessed one speak:  ‘In whatsoever doctrine and discipline, Subhadda, the noble eightfold path is not found, neither in it is there found a man of true saintliness if the first or of the second or of the third or of the fourth degrees.  And in whatsoever doctrine and discipline, Subhadda, the noble eightfold path is found, is found the man of true saintliness of the first and the second and the third and the fourth degree.  Now in this doctrine and discipline, Subhadda, is found the noble eightfold path, and in it alone, Subhadda, is the man of true saints.  And in this one, Subhadda, may the brethren live the Life that’s Right, so that the world be not bereft of Arahats.

       接着圣尊说:“在什么教义和戒律之下,须婆陀,八圣道没有被发现,也没有发现一个人完全没有污点如果第一个或第二个或第三个或第四个程度。无论在什么教义和戒律下,须婆陀,八圣道被发现了,发现了人的真正的无染和第一个,第二个第三个第四个程度。现在在教义和戒律中,Subhadda,兄弟们只有在正确的生活之中生活,因此世界不是被阿罗汉剥夺了。

     

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