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让佛陀最后的遗教重新照亮和复兴人类的生活(三)

(2010-01-09 13:59:59)
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In Mahayana sutra also emphasis His Last Sermon as a doctrine legacy.

在大乘佛教的佛经之中也强调他的最后的布道是一个遗教

     

      Upasakas [lay followers of Buddha], They had accorded with the five precepts, and their deportment was perfect. These were such upasakas as Untainted-Virtue-King, Highly-Virtuous and others, who headed their number. They deeply cherished the thought of combating such opposites as: sorrow versus bliss, eternal versus non-eternal, pure versus non-pure, self versus non-self, real versus not-real, taking refuge versus not taking refuge, beings versus non-beings, always versus not-always, peace versus non-peace, created versus non-created, disruption versus non-disruption, Nirvana versus non-Nirvana, augmentation versus non-augmentation, and they always thought of combating such opposites of the Dharma elements as stated above(11).

Upasakas [佛的俗家信士],他们信守佛制定的五戒,他们的举止是完美的。这些 upasakas 是纯洁,有德,王,有高贵的品质还有其它的,他们标榜了他们的数字。他们非常珍视打破这些对立的思想如:悲伤与幸福,永恒与非永恒,纯粹与非纯粹,自我与非自我,真实的与非真实的,采取回避与不采取避难,人与非人,经常与非经常,和平与非和平,创造性与非创造性,分裂与非分裂,涅磐与非涅磐,增强与非增强,他们总是思考打破如上所述的对立思想。

       The Tathagata is like all things"or "he is not so." One should only reproach one's own self and think: "I am but ignorant; I do not have the eye of Wisdom." The Tathagata's Wonderful Dharma cannot at all be conceived. Because of this, it is not fitting for us to say that the Tathagata is truly a thing definitely made, or a thing which is not made. What it is right to say is: "The Tathagata is definitely an Uncreate [that which was not made]. Because [of this] good arises for us beings and out of the compassionate heart. This is as in the case of the poor woman who, out of love for her child, sacrificed her own self. O good man! With the Bodhisattva who guards Dharma, it is thus. One might well sacrifice one's own self, but one cannot say that the Tathagata is equal to the created. One must say that the Tathagata is an Uncreate. By saying that the Tathagata is an Uncreate, one gains unsurpassed Enlightenment.

如来喜欢所有的事情或者他不是这样的。人们应该只责备自己并且想:”我很无知,我没有智慧之眼睛。“如来的奇妙佛法不能够完全被思考。正因为如此,它不是适合我们说如来是明确制造的事物,或者不是一个制造的事物。这正好说:“如来明确不是一个创造物(它不是制造的)因为如此从我们生命之中升起了善良,心中拥有慈悲。这就是有如贫穷的妇人,为了爱孩子,牺牲了他自己。哦,善男子!菩萨护卫着佛法,这就是这样。一个人也许能牺牲他自己,但是一个人不能说如来是平等创造的。他必须说如来是非创造的。由于说如来是非创造的,一个人获得了无上觉悟。

      This is as in the case of the woman born in Brahma's heaven. Why? Through protecting Dharma. What do we mean by protecting Dharma? That is, saying that the Tathagata is an Uncreate. Such a one does not seek emancipation, yet it comes of itself. It is as in the case of the poor woman who does not seek to be born in Brahma's heaven, and yet Brahma responds. It is like this. A person may be going on a long journey. On the way, he becomes very tired and puts up at another person's house. While he is asleep, a great fire breaks out. At once he gets up and thinks: "I shall now surely die." As he repents, he puts on his clothing. He dies and gets reborn in Trayastrimsa Heaven. Then, after 80 lives, he becomes Great Brahma. After 100 thousand lives, he gets reborn as a man and becomes a chakravartin [world's greatest monarch]. This person does not gain life in the three unfortunate realms. Life is repeated, and he is born in places where peace always reigns. This is how things go. Because of this, one possessing repentance should, meditate on the Buddha, but not regard him as the same as that which is created. The bhiksu who upholds the precepts should not think that the Tathagata is a created existence. Should one say that the Tathagata is one created, this is nothing but a false statement. After death, such a person will fall into hell, as surely as one is in one's own house. The Tathagata is truly an Uncreate. One must not say that he is a created being. You should henceforth in this life of birth and death abandon ignorance and take to right Wisdom. Know well that the Tathagata is an Uncreate. One who meditates well on the Tathagata will be perfect in the 32 signs of perfection and will attain unsurpassed Enlightenment(12).

这和梵天出生的女子的例子一样。为什么?通过保护佛法。什么叫做保卫佛法?这就是,说如来是非创造的。如此一个人不能够寻求解脱,它就是它自身。这就像是贫穷的妇人的例子他不去想在梵天之中出生,但是梵天给予回应。它就象是这样。一个人也许会继续一个长途旅行。在路上,他变得非常累并且住在另一个人的房子里。当他睡觉后,一场大火发生了。他立刻起床并且想:“我现在确实要死亡。”当他忏悔后,他穿上了衣服。他死了并且在梵天之中重生。(世界上最伟大的宫殿)这个人没有在三恶道之中转生。生命是重复的,他在利天宫死亡和重生。接着,在80生以后,他成为大梵天主。这个人没有转生到三恶道之中。生命是重复的,他出生在永久的和平之域。事情就是这样进行的。因为这样呢,一个人必须忏悔,在10万生以后,他转生为一个男子并且成为了一个转轮圣王(世界上最强大的统治者)。这个人没有在三恶道之中转生。生命是重复的,他出生在永久和平之域。事情就是这样进行的。因此,一个人应该忏悔,对佛冥想,不要把他当作与受创造之物相同。一个人是否应该说如来是被创造的呢,这什么也不是只是一个错误的声明。在死后,这个人将要堕入地狱,就像一个人在自己家里一样。如来确实是非创造物。一个人不能说他是一个造物主。你从今以后在生死之中要放弃无知并且采取正确的智慧。我们知道如来不是一个创造者。一个人对佛观想得很好的人将拥有32相好庄严并且获得无上正等正觉。  (12)。

      How is one a precept-breaking mixed-up priest? A bhiksu may be upholding the precepts, but for profit he sits, stands up, goes and comes with precept-breaking people and is on friendly terms with them and does things together with them. This is precept-breaking, hence, "mixed-up".

如何是一个人破坏戒律的混杂教士?一位比丘可以坚持戒律,而是为了获取利润,他坐,站起来,去和破戒之人来往和他们一起共事。这就是破坏戒律,因此,是混杂。

      Why do we call a priest ignorant? A bhiksu may be living in a quiet place, but all his sense-organs are not proper [controlled], his mind is dark and slow at working. He desires little and begs alms. On the day of admonition and freedom [pravarana], he does not teach pure confession to all the people; seeing many people breaking the precepts, he does not teach them pure confession. Yet he sits with others, talks about the precepts and seeks to be free. Such a one is an ignorant priest.

       为什么我们说教士是无知的呢?一个比丘应住在寂静之地,但是他的感觉并不对(控制的),他的心灵是黑暗的并且工作的很慢。他的欲望很少并且乞求施舍。在自由而训导的日子里[pravarana],他不对人教授纯粹的教义;看到许多人破坏戒律,他不教给别人纯粹的教义。他与别人同坐,谈论戒律并且寻求破戒的自由。这样的一个人是一个无知的教士。

       Who is the pure priest? There is a bhiksu, a priest whom 100 thousand-billion Maras cannot break. Now, this Bodhisattva is pure in his nature and can train the two types of priest referred to above and make them live among those who are pure. He is the unsurpassed great teacher, who protects Dharma well, who well upholds the precepts. He knows well what is light or grave in the keeping of the precepts and adjusts and benefits people. He does not know anything that is not [characterised by] upholding the precepts; what he knows is what concerns the precepts.

        谁是纯粹的教士?有一个比丘,10万魔鬼都不能破坏他。现在,这位菩萨的本性是纯洁的。他是一个无比伟大的教师,他非常好的保护了佛法,他很好的持守戒律。他很清楚在持守戒律上什么是轻或重并且持有的戒律并且调整和利益人民。他不知道除了持守戒律外还有什么;他所知道的就是关注戒律。

       What does he do to adjust beings? For example, in order to adjust people, the Bodhisattva always enters a village any time and visits the places where widows and prostitutes live. He lives there for many years. This is what sravakas cannot do. This is what is called adjusting and benefiting beings.

他所做的就是调教众生?比如,为了调教人民,菩萨总是到村子里来并且拜访寡妇和妓女的住地。他在那里呆了很多年。这就是俗人所做不到的?这就是所谓的调教,造福人类。

"How does he know what is grave? Now, if one sees that the Tathagata admonishes and prohibits something, one should not do it thereafter. Things such as the four grave offences [killing, stealing, committing sexual misconduct, telling lies] are what the priest must not do. If, contrary to this, he purposely does [such things], this indicates that such a person is no longer a bhiksu, no son of the Shakya [Buddha]. This is what is "grave".

“他怎么知道是什么严重的?现在,如果人们看到的如来告诫和禁止的东西,就不应该再做了。就如四种重罪一样(杀戮,偷盗,性行为不端,说谎)是教士所完全不能做的。如果,与此相反,他故意不做(这些事情),这说明这个人就不再是比丘了,不是释迦佛的孩子。这就是所谓的重罪。

      What is "light"? A person commits light ill deeds and is thrice admonished. Then, he stops doing such again. This is "light". We say "non-vinaya which is not proved". A person praises and says that one may receive and take impure things, and says that one accords with the word, and one does not stop doing [this].

           什么是轻的?一个人做了轻微邪恶的事并且三次警告。接着,他停止做这些事了。这就是轻的。我们说没有律例是不被证明的。一个人赞扬并且说一个人也许会接受和采取不纯的事,然后说一个人与这个词相符,一个人不能停止做(这些)。

"We say "right vinaya which is rightly responded [observed]." This is correctly learning the vinaya [rules of monastic discipline], not drawing near to what is contrary to the vinaya, and spiritually sharing pleasure. Thus one ensures that the vinaya is observed. Thus one well understands what one ought to do as a Buddhist and one expounds it well. This is what the vinaya refers to as well understanding the one letter [i.e. the Chinese written character for vinaya]. The same applies to upholding the sutras. The Buddha-Dharma is incalculable and hard to fathom The same is also the case with the Tathagata. He is beyond knowing." Bodhisattva Kasyapa said to the Buddha: It is so, it is so. It is as you, the Holy One, say. Unbounded and incomprehensible is Buddha-Dharma. Thus, too, is the Tathagata. All stands beyond comprehension; so too the Tathagata. Thus, I know now that the Tathagata is eternal and indestructible and that there is no change with him. I shall now study well and expound it widely to people."

        “”我们说“权利律是正确的反应[观察]。”这是正确的学习律[寺院纪律规则],而不是靠近什么是违反戒律,精神上分享愉悦。因此一个人要确保遵守戒律。因此一个人要很好的理解做为一个佛教徒应做的并且很好的阐明。这就是戒律所指很好的理解每一个字(中文对戒律的字符)。这同样适用于持守佛经。佛法是无量的实在难以理解如来的情况。他超越于知道。“菩萨迦叶对佛说:它是如此,就这样。它就象你,圣人,说。无量的和不可理解的是佛法。因此,也就是如来。所有的都超越了理解;所以对如来也是这样。因此,我知道如来是永恒的,牢不可破的并且在他没有变化。我现在要好好学习并且广泛阐述给别人。

      Then the Buddha praised Bodhisattva Kasyapa and said: "Well said, well said! The body of the Tathagata is adamantine and indestructible. You, Bodhisattva, now have the right view and right understanding. If you see clearly thus, you will see the adamantine and indestructible body of the Tathagata just as you see things reflected in a mirror (13).

             然后佛赞赏迦叶佛并且说:“说得好,说得好!如来的身体是金刚体,牢不可破。你,菩萨,现在有正确的见解和正确的理解。如果你很清楚地看这些,你就可以很清楚的看到如来的金刚不坏之体就象你在镜子之中看到的反映。

       Then the Tathagata spoke again to Kasyapa: You should now uphold all the words, chapters, clauses and all the virtues thereof of this sutra. Any good man or woman who hears the name of this sutra will never get born into the four realms [of hell, hungry ghost, animal, and asura]. Why not? I shall now expound to you all the virtues of this sutra and all that is practiced by innumerable boundless Buddhas(14).

然后如来再次对迦叶说:你现在应该坚持所有的这部经中的言语,章节,条款和所有的美德。任何听到这部经的名字的人都永不会转生到四恶道之中[地域,饿鬼,动物和阿修罗]。为什么不呢?我现在向你阐述这一经典所有的美德而且有无量的佛实践了它。(14)

The same with this sutra. Of all the samadhis of the sutras, that of this sutra is the best. Of all the tillings of the field, that done in autumn is best. The same with this sutra. It is the best of all sutras. It is like sarpirmanda, which is the best of all medicines. It thoroughly cures the feverish worries and madding minds of beings. This Great Nirvana is the foremost of all. It is like sweet butter which contains the eight tastes. The same also applies to this sutra. It contains the eight tastes. What are the eight? These are: (i) it is eternal,  (ii) it always is,  (iii) it is peaceful,  (iv) it is pure and cool,  (v) it does not grow old,  (vi) it does not die,  (vii) it is taintless and (viii) it is pleasing and happy. These are the eight tastes. It possesses these eight tastes. This is why we say "Mahaparinirvana". Now, all Bodhisattva-mahasattvas peacefully abide in this and manifest Nirvana in all places. That is why we say "Mahaparinirvna". All good men and women who desire to enter Nirvana by this Mahaparinirvana must study well the fact that the Tathagata is eternal and that the Dharma and Sangha are eternal."

这与这部经是相同的。所有的经中的禅定,这部经是最好的。所有耕作过的土地,在秋天的收成是最好的。这与佛经不是相同的。它是所有佛经之中最好的。它像醍醐,它是所有药之中最好的。它彻底的治愈了发烧的烦恼和人们的疯狂症。大涅磐是所有之中最重要的。它就象甜奶酪一样包括了八种味道。这同样适用于佛经。它包含有八种味道。是哪八种味道呢?他们是(i)它是永恒的,(ii)它永远都是(iii)它是和平的iv) 它是纯洁的和冷酷的,(v) 它不会变老,(vi)它不会死亡,(vii)它是无污染的,并且(viii)它是令人愉快和幸福的。这些是八个味道。它拥有这八种味道。这就是为什么我们说是大乘涅磐经。所有的好男人和女人都有欲望通过大乘涅磐经进入涅磐就必须很好的学习这样的事实,就是如来是永恒的而法和僧是永恒的。

      Bodhisattva Kasyapa said to the Buddha: "All is wonderful, We cannot conceive of the Tathagata's depths of virtue. The same is the case with the virtues of Dharma and Sangha. This Mahaparinirvana is also inconceivable. One who studies this sutra will gain the right eye of Dharma and become a good doctor. Anybody who has not studied this sutra, we should know, is [like] a blind person, not possessing the eye of Wisdom and overshadowed by ignorance(15).

        菩萨迦叶告诉佛说:“一切都是美好的,我们不能想象如来深奥的美德。这同样适用于法和僧的美德的例子。大般若涅磐经也是不可思议的。如果一个人研读这部经将获得法眼并且成为一个好医生。任何一个人没有研读此经的,我们将知道,就像一个盲人,没有智慧之眼并且被无知所蒙蔽。

       Now, should uphold [this sutra] and think: "If beings are perfect in innumerable virtues, they will indeed believe in this Mahayana sutra and, having faith in it, will uphold it. There may also be other beings apart from these who may feel joy in Dharma, and if this sutra is widely expounded to such persons they will, after listening to it, well make away with all the sins amassed during past innumerable (asamkhyas) of kalpas. Those who do not believe in this sutra will, in this life, get attacked by innumerable illnesses and will be spoken ill of by all people. After [death], they will be disparaged by others. [In life] they will look ill and their finances will not go well. Or they may gain a little, but that will be very coarse and of bad quality. They will be poor and of low social rank, all their life long. They may gain life [get reborn] in families where slandering and evil relations obtain(16). Any such person might be my disciple, but he is unable to believe in this sutra. If, at such a juncture, there should be any person who believes in this sutra, or in even half a line [of it], know that such a person is truly my disciple. With such faith, one will see the Buddha-Nature and enter Nirvana (17).

       现在,应该持守本经并且这样想:“如果人类有无数完美的美德,他们将确实相信这部大乘佛经,并且对他有信心,将要持守它。他们也许会成为其它的生命并且离开那些在正法之中获得喜悦的,这部经将在他们愿意的人之中广泛的传播,当听到这部经后,我们将远离无量劫累积而来的所有罪业。那些不相信这部佛经的人将在他的这一生之中被无数病所袭击,他们将被其它人贬低。死后,他们将被其它人贬低,他们将变得贫穷在社会地位上很低,所有他们漫长的生命之中。他们也许会得到生命(出生)在诽谤的家庭和获得邪恶的关系。这样的人也许会成为我的弟子,但是他不能相信这部佛经。如果,在这样一个关键时刻,应该有一些信仰这部佛经的其它人,甚至半个人。(它的),知道这样一个人真正是我的弟子。由于这种信仰,一个人将看到佛性并且进入涅磐。

 

      What is a progressive analogy? It is as when I say in the sutras, for example, heaven sends down great rain, and all the ditches become full. As they are full, small holes get full. As small holes get filled, the great holes too become full. As the great holes become full, small springs become full. As small springs become full, great springs become full. As great springs become full, small ponds become full. As small ponds become full, big ponds become full. When big ponds are full, small rivers become full. When small rivers become full, big rivers become full. When big rivers become full, the great seas become full. The same is the case with the rain of Dharma of the Tathagata.

什么是不断进步的比喻呢?它就是当我们在佛经之中说的,比如,天上下大雨,所有的沟都满了。当他们满了,小洞也满了。当小洞满了,大洞也会变满。当大洞满了,小溪也变满了。当小溪变满时,大溪也变满了。当大溪变满了,小塘也变满了。当小塘变满了,大塘也变满了。当大塘变满了,小河也变满了。当小河变满了,大河也变满了。当大河变满了,大海也变满了。这正如佛法之雨的例子一样。

      The silas [moral behaviour] of beings become full [i.e. perfect]. As the silas are full, the non-repenting mind becomes full. As the non-repenting mind becomes full, there arises joy. As joy arises, segregation [from attachment to the skandhas] comes about. As segregation becomes full, there comes about peace. As peace becomes full, samadhi becomes full. As samadhi becomes full, right seeing-and-knowing becomes full. As right seeing-and-knowing becomes full, renunciation becomes full. As renunciation becomes full, the reproach [i.e. aversion to worldly life] becomes full. As reproaching becomes full, Emancipation becomes full. As Emancipation becomes full, Nirvana becomes full. This is a progressive analogy(18).

当赛拉斯(道德的行为)的人充满了(即,完美)。当赛拉斯充满以后,不忏悔的心灵变满了。这里产生了喜悦。当喜悦生起后,分离(从五蕴的执着之中)产生了。当分离充满了,和平就充满了。当和平充满了,禅定就充满了。当禅定充满了,正知正见就充满了,当正知正见充满了,放弃就充满了。当放弃充满了,厌离(即对世俗生活的厌倦就充满了。当厌离充满了,解脱就充满了。当解脱充满了,涅磐就充满了。这是一步一步的比喻(18)。

       There is a man who upholds the prohibitions and precepts, but [does so] for the happiness that he can gain for his own self and for humans and gods, and not to save all beings, not for guarding unsurpassed Wonderful Dharma, but for profit and out of fear of the three unfortunate realms, for life, lust, power, safety, oratory, out of fear of state laws, evil fame, for fear of dirty names, and for worldly works. Such guarding and upholding of the precepts cannot be called practising the precepts. What is true upholding of sila? When one upholds sila, the object must be to pass beings to the other shore, to protect Wonderful Dharma, to save the unsaved, to enlighten the unenlightened, to enable those who have not yet taken refuge to take it, to enable those who have not yet attained Nirvana to attain it. Practising thus, a person does not see sila, how it is actually upheld, the person who upholds sila, the results to be attained [therefrom], whether the person has sinned or not. If one acts thus, this is the upholding of sila.

这里有一个持有戒禁和戒律的人,但是(当这样做时)他自己所能获得的为人和神的幸福,而不去拯救所有的众生,而不会保护无上伟大的佛法,但是对利益和脱离三恶道的恐惧,为生命,欲望,能力,安全,口才,担心刑律的惩罚,恶名声,担心肮脏的名字,世俗的工作。这种护卫和持有戒律不能被叫做实践戒律。什么是真正的持戒?当一个人持戒后,这个目标是让生命到达彼岸,为了保护大法,拯救没有拯救的,照亮没有照亮的,让那些没有避难所的持有它,让那些没有达到涅磐的人达到它。实践于此,一个人没有看到戒,他怎样实际持有,一个持戒的人,达到的结果(从那里),无论那个人已经犯了罪或没有。一个人这样行,这就是持有戒律。

   

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