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让佛陀最后的遗教重新照亮和复兴人类的生活(二)

(2010-01-09 13:57:36)
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‘These, O brethren, are the truth which, when I had perceived, I made known to you, which, when you have mastered it behaves you to practice, meditate upon, and spread abroad, in order that pure religion may last long and be perpetuated, in order that it may continue to be for the good and the happiness of the great multitudes, out of pity for the world, to the good and the gain and the weal of gods and men!’

          '这些,哦同胞们,这是真理当然,当我们感知到时,我让你知道,这,当你已经掌握了这一点时这让你去实践,冥想,和广泛的传播,为此这个纯洁的信仰也许会持续很长的时间并且延续,为此它将继续为更多的大众来谋求善和幸福,出于对世界的怜悯,由于善和收获,神和人的福利。

 

      And the Blessed One exhorted the brethren, and said: 

      ‘Behold now, O brethren, I exhort you, saying, “All component things must grow old.  Work our your salvation with diligence.  The final extinction of the Tathagata will take place before long.  At the end of three months from this time the Tathagata will die!(05)

        圣尊告诫他的兄弟们,然后说:

'瞧现在,澳,兄弟们,我告诫你,说:“所有构成的事物都会衰老。用智慧勤奋工作。如来不久以后会圆寂。在此后三个月的时间里如来就要圆寂了。

 

        There the Blessed One addressed the brethren, and said: 'It is through not understanding and grasping four truths. O brethren, that we have had to run so long, to wander so long in this weary path of transmigration--both you and I.'

在这里圣尊安置了他的兄弟们,然后说:“如果不是理解和把握四个真理。哦,兄弟们,我们不得不跑这么久,留恋在这个令人厌倦的轮回之路上-你和我。

'And what are these four? The noble conduct of life, the noble earnestness in meditation, the noble kind of wisdom, and the noble salvation of freedom. But when noble conduct is realized and known, when noble meditation is realized and known, when noble wisdom is realized and known, when noble freedom is realized and known--then is the craving for existence rooted out, that which leads to renewed existence is destroyed, and there is no more birth.'

这四个是什么?生命的高尚行为,高尚而专注的冥想,高尚的智慧,崇高而智慧的拯救。但是当高尚行为是实现和已知的,高尚的冥想被认识和知道时,当崇高的智慧被认识和知道时,当崇高的自由被认识和知道时-对存在的渴望已经被拔除,这导致了更新的存在的毁灭,而这不再转生。

3. Thus spake the Blessed One; and when the Happy One had thus spoken, then again the teacher said. Righteousness, earnest thought, wisdom, and freedom sublime, These are the truths realised by Buddha, far-renowned. Knowing them, he, the knower, proclaimed the truth to the brethren. The master with eye divine, the quencher of griefs, must die!' 

因此圣尊这样说,当这个幸福的人因此而说话时,老师接着说。正义,思想的渴望,崇高的自由,这些是佛陀认识到的真理,很难知道。当知道他们时,他,智者,对他的兄弟们宣讲了真理。有着神眼的大师,熄灭了悲伤,必须死!

      Blessed One held that comprehensive religious discourse with the brethren on the nature of upright conduct, and of earnest contemplation, and of intelligence. 'Great is the fruit, great the advantage of earnest contemplation when set round with upright conduct. Great is the fruit, great the advantage of intellect when set round with earnest contemplation (07).

圣尊和他的兄弟们举行了一个广泛的宗教讨论,对正义行为的性质,专注冥想,和智慧。伟大是果实,以正确姿势的专注冥想带来的伟大的利益。伟大是果实,专注冥想的禅坐带来伟大的智慧。

Four Great References

四大法印

      The Four Great References found in the Mahaparinibbana Sutra is of special importance to the students of Buddhist religious thought. Presumably, it takes one to a period when the compilers of the canon were very ardently canvassing for ‘safety measures’ to be adopted for the smooth functioning of the order.  In order to safeguard and perpetuate the word of the Master an effective methodology had to be evolved which would ensure the unity of the teaching as well as the concord among fellow monks.  Disruptive and dissenting elements had to be kept at bay for the maintenance of peace and solidarity among the community of monks.

           在大乘佛教大般若涅磐经之中的四大法印是佛的弟子的宗教思想中特别重要的部分。据推测,这一时期由于翻译经典的需要非常渴望有安全检测方法以便用来使功能顺利的的进行。这是为了维护和延长大师的语言所采用的有效方法,这将使得教团和僧众之间一样和谐。 破坏性和不同的因素都必须成为 维持和平和僧人的团结的港湾 。

      The Buddha is said to have expounded these four great authorities at the end of His last journey and are found in the fifth recital or chapter of the Mahaparinibbana Sutra. When critically examined this particular teaching can easily be recognized as a some what later stratum of the discourse, which evidently has been introduced in a subsequent stage of the uation of the Sutra to guarantee the authoritativeness of the scriptures rehearsed at the first council.

据说佛陀在他这趟最后的旅程之中阐述了他最后的四大理论这可以在第五论述或大般若涅磐经的章节之中发现。当仔细研究这一特定的教学后某些文字可以在较晚的著述之众被确认,显然介绍的下一阶段的评估是为了保证听到的第一次讲法的权威性。     It one were to say that he heard it (i) from the mouth of the Buddha or (ii) from the mouth of a company of monks or (iii) from the mouth of many disciples  or (iv) from a learned  disciples era ‘deeply read’ holding the faith as handed down by tradition versed in the truth ,versed in the discipline of the order and versed in the summaries of the doctrine and the law, the word of that monk neither should be received with praise nor should be treated with scorn.  The Sutra further states:  “His every word and syllable should be carefully understood and then put beside the sutras and compared with the discipline.  If when so compared they do not harmonies with the sutras and do not fit in with the rules of the order, then those views should be rejected and if they harmonise should be accepted as the word of the Teacher.”  Nevertheless, on an occasion, correcting the wrong view held by Sati, the Buddha stated that in case the could not understand the meaning of what the Buddha had said, he could question the Buddha about it or else those who were experienced monks (08).

一个人也许会说他已经听到了这一点(i)从佛的嘴里或者(ii)从许多和尚的嘴里或者(iii)从他的许多弟子的嘴里或者从(iv)从那个时代经过传统的训练和传承的有学问的,精通戒律和精通教义和律法的和尚 的嘴里,那些和尚的语言既不会赞扬也不会鄙视。佛经进一步声明:他的每一个字和音节都应该被仔细的理解然后放在佛经旁边并且与戒律做比较,如果当比较时他们不与佛经协调一致,那么这些观点应被拒绝而且如果是协调一致的那么它将被当作是导师的语言。然而,在一个偶然的机会,通过纠正 Sati持有的错误观点,佛陀以此表明他们不能理解佛所说的意义,他能够向佛提出相关的问题或者那些遇到的僧侣

Four Places of Pilgrimage

朝圣的四个地方

 

      There are four places, Ananda, that a pious person should visit and look upon with feelings of reverence. What are the four?

          这里有四个地方,阿难,一个虔诚的人应该拜访并且以尊敬之情来仰慕。是哪四个?

(i). Here the Tathagata was born! This, Ananda, is a place that a pious person should visit and look upon with feelings of reverence.

如来出生之地。这,阿难,是一个虔诚的人应该朝拜的地方并且以尊敬之情来仰慕。

(ii) Here the Tathagata became fully enlightened in unsurpassed, supreme Enlightenment! This, Ananda, is a place that a pious person should visit and look upon with feelings of reverence.

 如来获得完全无上正等正觉之地,最高的觉悟!这里,阿难,是一个虔诚的人应该朝拜的地方并且以尊敬之情来仰慕。

 

(iii) Here the Tathagata set rolling the unexcelled Wheel of the Dhamma! This, Ananda, is a place that a pious person should visit and look upon with feelings of reverence.

    这里如来转动无上法轮之地!这里,阿难,是一个虔诚的人应该朝拜的地方并且以尊敬之情来仰慕。

 

 

(iv)Here the Tathagata passed away into the state of Nibbana in which no element of clinging remains!' This, Ananda, is a place that a pious person should visit and look upon with feelings of reverence.

    如来离世进入那里没有任何执着的涅磐之地 !这,阿难,是一个虔诚的人应该朝拜的地方并且以尊敬之情来仰慕。

 

      These, Ananda, are the four places that a pious person should visit and look upon with feelings of reverence. And truly there will come to these places, Ananda, pious monks and female monks, laymen and laywomen, reflecting: 'Here the Tathagata was born! Here the Tathagata became fully enlightened in unsurpassed, supreme Enlightenment! Here the Tathagata set rolling the unexcelled Wheel of the Dhamma! Here the Tathagata passed away into the state of Nibbana in which no element of clinging remains. And whoever, Ananda, should die on such a pilgrimage with his heart established in faith, at the breaking up of the body, after death, will be reborn in a realm of heavenly happiness (09).

       这里,阿难,是一个虔诚的人应该朝拜的地方并且以尊敬之情来仰慕。他们将真正来到这里,阿难,虔诚的和尚和女僧人,在家男人和在家女人,沉思说:“这里如来出生了!这里如来获得了完全的觉悟,最高的觉悟!这里如来转动了无上法轮!这里如来进入了没有任何执着涅磐状态!而且,阿难,由于建立在信仰之上的朝拜,他死时 ,在身体毁坏后,死亡之后,将在幸福的天堂里重生。

 

        'These men, Ânanda, worthy of a dâgaba (A solid mound or tumulus, in the midst of which the bones and ashes are to be placed. The dome of St. Paul's as seen from the Thames Embankment gives a very good idea of one of the later Buddhist dâgabas ) are four in number. Which are the four?

           这些人,阿难,值得为之建塔dâgaba(一个固体的土堆或坟墓,其中放着骨灰和骨头。在泰晤士河岸的圣保罗圆顶对后期佛教徒的墓塔dâgabas以一个非常好的观点。 )在数字上是4。是哪四个呢?

      A Tathâgata, or Arahat-Buddha, is worthy of a pagoda. A Pakkeka-Buddha is worthy of a pagoda.(A Pakkeka-Buddha, who has attained to the supreme and perfect insight; but dies without proclaiming the truth to the world). A true hearer of the Tathâgata is worthy of a pagoda. A king of kings is worthy of a pagoda.'And on account of what circumstance, Ânanda, is a Tathâgata, an Arahat-Buddha, worthy of a pagoda?

    一个如来,或者阿罗汉-佛,是值得建立宝塔的。 Pakkeka 佛是值得建佛塔的。( Pakkeka佛,已经达到最高的觉悟并且有完美的觉悟,但是死的时候并没有对世界宣讲真理)。一个真正听闻佛法的人是值得为之建佛塔的。王中之王是值得建佛塔的。说明在何种情况下,阿难,是如来,一个阿罗汉-佛,值得建佛塔的?

          

      At the thought, Ânanda, "This is the pagoda of that Blessed One, of that Arahat-Buddha," the hearts of many shall be made calm and happy; and since they there had calmed and satisfied their hearts they will be reborn after death, when the body has dissolved, in the happy realms of heaven. It is on account of this circumstance, Ânanda, that a Tathâgata, an Arahat-Buddha, is worthy of a pagoda. 'And on account of what circumstance, Ânanda, is a Pakkeka-Buddha worthy of a pagoda?

         在思想方面,阿难,“这是圣尊的宝塔,是阿罗汉-佛的, ”许多人的心变得平静和幸福;因此他们平静并且心意满足他们将在死后重生,当身体分解时,在幸福的天堂之域。正是在这种情况下,阿难,如来,阿罗汉-佛,是值得建宝塔的。这说明在何种情况下,阿难,Pakkeka佛值得建宝塔。

      At the thought, Ânanda, "This is the pagoda of that Blessed One, of that Pakkeka-Buddha," the hearts of many shall be made calm and happy; and since they there had calmed and satisfied their hearts they will be reborn after death, when the body has dissolved, in the happy realms of heaven. It is on account of this circumstance, Ânanda, that a Pakkeka-Buddha is worthy of a pagoda. And on account of what circumstance, Ânanda, is a true hearer of the Blessed One, the Arahat-Buddha, worthy of a pagoda?

在思想方面,阿难,“这是圣人所建的宝塔,是Pakkeka-Buddha的”,许多人的心将变得平静和幸福;由于他们已经平静而且心意满足他们将在死后重生,当身体分解时,到幸福的天堂之域。正是在这种情况下,阿难,如来,阿罗汉-佛,许多应以冷静,快乐的心,而由于他们出现了平静而且心意满足他们将在死后重生,当身体已经解体,在天堂里的幸福境界。Pakkeka-佛是值得建宝塔的。正是在这种情况下,阿难,是圣尊的亲自听法者,阿难-佛,是值得建立宝塔的?

      At the thought, Ânanda, "This is the pagoda of that true hearer of the Blessed Arahat-Buddha," the hearts of many shall be made calm and happy; and since they there had calmed and satisfied their hearts they will be reborn after death, when the body has dissolved, in the happy realms of heaven. It is on account of this circumstance, Ânanda, that a true hearer of the Blessed One, the Arahat-Buddha, is worthy of a pagoda.

             在思想方面,阿难,“这是尊敬的阿难佛的亲传者的宝塔。许多人的心都要变得平静和幸福。由于他们已经平静而且心意满足他将在死后重生,当身体分解时,到幸福的天堂之域。正是在这种情况下,一个Pakkeka-Buddha是值得建宝塔的。正是在这种情况下,阿难,圣尊的亲自听法者,阿难-佛,是值得建宝塔的?

       'And on account of what circumstance, Ânanda, is a king of kings worthy of a pagoda? 'At the thought, Ânanda, "This is the pagoda of that righteous king who ruled in righteousness," the hearts of many shall be made calm and happy; and since they there had calmed and satisfied their hearts they will be reborn after death, when the body has dissolved, in the happy realms of heaven. It is on account of this circumstance, Ânanda, that a king of kings is worthy of a pagoda.’ These four, Ânanda, are the persons worthy of a pagoda(10).

正是在这种情况下,阿难,王中之王是值得建宝塔的?在思想方面,阿难,这是正义之王他掌管正义的人的宝塔,许多人的心将会变得平静而且心意满足;因此他们将在死后获得重生,当他们的身体被分解时,在天堂的幸福的境界。正是在这种情况下,阿难,圣尊的亲自听法者,阿难-佛,是值得建宝塔的。

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