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大乘佛教大涅槃经体现的教义(五)

(2009-12-03 20:23:12)
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Bodhisattva accomplish

      How does the Bodhisattva accomplish six things? These six things refer to six thinkings. What are the six? They are:  (i) thinking of the Buddha,  (ii) thinking of Dharma,  (iii) thinking of the Sangha, (iv) thinking of heaven,  (v) thinking of giving,  and (vi) thinking of the moral precepts. These are the six things which the Bodhisattva accomplishes.

 

      How does the Bodhisattva practise five things? These are the five samadhis, namely: (i) samadhi of knowledge,  (ii) samadhi of silence,  (iii) samadhis of the pleasantness of body and mind,  (iv) samadhi of non-bliss,  and  (v) surangama samadhi. If one practises these five samadhis, one draws near to Mahaparinirvana. Hence, the Bodhisattva practises with a full mind(42).

菩萨的完成
如何是菩萨完成6件事?这六个东西是指六个想法。哪六个呢?他们是:(一)念佛 ,(二)念法,(三)念僧伽,(四)念天堂,(五)念施舍,(六)念戒律。这是菩萨完成的六件事 。

如何是菩萨完成的五件事?有五个三摩地,即:(i)知识的三摩地 ,(二)沉默的三摩地,(三)身体和心灵愉快的三摩地(四)不幸福的三摩地(五)楞严经三摩地。如果一个人实践这五个三摩地 ,他就靠近大般若。因此,菩萨要全心全意实践(42)。

Void

      One cannot [in such circumstances] practise prajnaparamita and gain Mahaparinirvana. For this reason, the Bodhisattva sees that all things are characterised by having nothing that can be possessed.

 

      It is not only the case that the Bodhisattva, by seeing this samadhi, sees the Void. He sees that prajnaparamita is Void, dhyanaparamita is Void, viriyaparamita is Void, ksantiparamita is Void, silaparamita is Void, danaparamita is Void, matter is Void, the eye is Void, consciousness, too, is Void, the Tathagata is Void, and Mahaparinirvana is Void. Thus, the Bodhisattva sees things as Void(43).

 虚空

         一个人不能(在这样的条件下)实践般若波罗密多并且获得大般若涅槃经。由于这个原因,菩萨看所有的事物都无一物可以执取。

        不仅如此菩萨视三摩地,视虚空也是如此。他看般若波罗密是虚空的,毘梨耶波羅蜜是虚空的,达哈亚波罗蜜是虚空的,维瑞亚波罗蜜是虚空的,卡萨提波罗蜜是虚空的,达纳波罗蜜是虚空的,物质是虚空的,眼睛是虚空的,意识也是虚空的,如来是虚空的,大般若涅槃是虚空的。因此,菩萨看这些事情是虚空的。

 

Suramgama Samadhi

The Suramgama Samadhi has five names, which are:  (i) suramgama samadhi,  (ii) prajnaparamita [transcendent Wisdom],  (iii) diamond samadhi,  (iv) lion's roar samadhi,  (v) Buddha-Nature. According to the part it takes, it has various names. Just as a single samadhi gains various names, such as in [connection with] dhyana we say "four dhyanas" [“catvari-dhyanani”], in element "samadhi element", in power "samadhi power", in element "samadhi element" [sic], in rightness "right meditation", and in the eight awakened minds of a great man "right meditation". So does it obtain with the Suramgama Samadhi (44).

首楞严三摩地

首楞严三摩地有五个名字,他们是:(一)首楞严三摩地,(二)般若波罗蜜[超然的智慧],(三)钻石三摩地,(四)狮子的吼叫三摩地,(五)佛性。根据需要的部分,它有多种名称。正如一个三摩地有多种名称,比禅那[与之相关我们说四禅”[“四念处禅”]是构成三摩地的元素,在三摩地力量的力量,在三摩地元素的元素“[原文如此],在正确的打坐的正确,八种唤醒伟人的精神的正确的禅定。因此,它得到首楞严三摩地(44)。

Interdependence

       All beings have, all-equally, the 12 links of interdependence. These are the cases of the interior and the exterior. What are the 12? (i)"Defilement from the past is called ignorance [“avidya”]. (ii)"Karma from the past is called mental formation [“samskara” - i.e. mental volitions and impulses]. (iii)"In this present life, we first gain life in the womb. This is consciousness [“vijnana”]. (iv)After entering the womb, the five parts [i.e. the five limbs or the five parts of the human body, made up of two hands, two feet, and one head] and the four roots [i.e. the four sense-organs of the eye, ear, nose, and mouth] are not yet perfectly formed. This state is called mind-and-body [“nama-rupa”]. (v)"When one has the four roots and when one is not yet in the stage of touch [“sparsa”], this stage is called the six spheres [“sadayatana”]. (vi) When no feeling of suffering or joy has as yet arisen, this stage is called that of touch. (Vii) When one gets attached to a single love, this stage is called feeling [“vedana”].(viii) When one learns and befriends the five desires, this is craving [“trsihna”].(ix) When one looks in and out, and has cleaving [i.e. attachment], this is cleaving [“upadana” - clinging].(x) When one raises actions in and out in the three categories of body, mouth and mind, this is existence [“bhava”].(xi) The consciousness that one has in this life is [one's] birth for the days to come [i.e. one's worldly consciousness provides the basis for one's future rebirth], and the body-and-mind, the six spheres, touch, and feeling are the old age, illness, and death of the future. These are the 12 links of interdependence(45).

相互依赖

         所有的人都是完全平等的,有12个相互依赖的关系。这些都是内部和外部的例子。哪12个例子呢?(一)“来自于过去的玷污被称为无知[”无明“]。(二)来自过去的业力被称为心理的构成。 [行“samskara” - 即精神的意志和冲动]。 (三)在目前的生活中,我们第一个在子宫内获得生命。这就是意识,[识“vijnana”] (四),进入子宫后,这五个部分[即5个肢或人体的五个部分,由两个手里,两只脚和一个头组成]和4根[即四感官眼睛,耳朵,鼻子和嘴巴]尚未完全形成。这种状态被称为心和身体[“名色”]。(五)“当一个人有4根,当一个人是不是在接触阶段,[触],这个阶段被称为六个领域[”六尘“sadayatana”]。(六)当痛苦和快乐还没有出现时,这一阶段被称为是接触。(七)当一个人获得单独的爱时,这个阶段被称为感觉[感受[“vedana””]。(八)当一个人学习并和五欲结为好友的时候,这是渴望[“trsihna”]。(九)当一个人通过身体,嘴和精神这三部分采取行为时,这是存在[“bhava”]。(十)当一个人在生命之中有意识时是出生后才有的(一个人世俗的意识为未来的出生提供了基础),身体和心灵的,这六个领域,触摸,感觉到老年,疾病,和未来的死亡。这就是十二类因缘。

Bodhisattva accomplishes

      If the Bodhisattva accomplishes 10 things, he will be able to see the Buddha-Nature, and yet to a lesser degree. What are the 10? They are:  (i) desiring little,  (ii) feeling satisfied,  (iii) quietude,  (iv) effort,  (v) right remembrance,  (vi) right samadhi,  (vii) right Wisdom, (viii) emancipation, (ix) praising emancipation,  (x) succouring beings with Great Nirvana(46).

菩萨的成就

        如果菩萨成就十事,他就将能够见到佛性,当然要低一点的程度。这10类是什么呢?他们是(i) 少欲   (ii)知足   (iii) 宁静,  (iv) 精进 (v) 正念,  (vi) 正定  (vii) 正智, (viii)解脱, (ix) 赞扬解脱, (x) 帮助生命获得大涅槃

 (46)

 

Bodhisattva has 13 things

      Bodhisattva-mahasattva has 13 things, there is retrogression. What are these 13? They are:  (i) the mind does not believe,  (ii) the mind will no do,  (iii) the doubting mind,  (iv) being niggardly in bodily actions and with wealth,  (v) entertaining great fear towards Nirvana, doubting whether one could eternally part from worldly existence,  (vi) having no mental forbearance [patience, endurance],  (vii) the mind will not adjust and soften itself,  (viii) apprehension and worry,  (ix) lack of bliss,  (x) indolence,  (xi) belittling one's own self,  (xii) deeming that there is no means to excise defilement, and  (xiii) not desiring Enlightenment. O good man! These 13 are the things that cause the Bodhisattva to retrogress from Enlightenment.

菩萨有13件事

         菩萨有13件事,这是倒退。哪13件事呢?他们是

(一)思想不相信,(二)心不相应,(三)怀疑态度,(四)对财富和身体行为过于吝啬,(五)害怕进入涅槃,恐惧怀疑一个人是否可以永远脱离世俗。(六)有没有忍耐精神(耐心,坚韧),(七)心灵不会调整和软化 ,(八)不安和担心,(九)缺乏幸福感,(十)懒散,(十一)自我贬低,(十二)假设这里没有办法除去污秽(十三)不愿觉悟。 善男子!这13样东西会导致菩萨从觉悟中倒退。

       Further, there are six things which destroy the Bodhi Mind. What are they? They are: (i) parsimony,  (ii) entertaining an evil mind towards all beings,  (iii) making friends with evil people,  (iv) non-effort,  (v) arrogance, and  (vi) carrying on worldly business. These six things destroy the Bodhi Mind.

       此外,有6件事破坏了菩提心。它们是什么?它们是:(一)吝啬(二)以娱乐邪恶的思想对所有的众生 (三)与恶人交朋友,(四)不精进,(五)无知,(六)经营世俗的事物。这六个东西会破坏菩提心。

      There are also five things that distance one from the Bodhi Mind. What are the five? They are: (i) desiring to get ordained under a tirthika [non-Buddhist],  (ii) not practising the Great Mind of Loving-Kindness, (iii) especially seeking to find fault with a priest,  (iv) always seeking to live in between birth and death,  (v) not holding a good feeling towards upholding, reciting, copying and expounding the 12 types of sutra. These are the five things that pull one away from the Bodhi Mind.

      这里也有五件事使人远离菩提心。是哪五件呢?他们是:(一)希望获得外道[非佛教],(二)不实践大慈悲,(三)总是找法师的错误,(四)留恋生死之间,(五)不意乐持戒,背诵,抄写和讲述12类佛经。这是五件事使人出离菩提心。

      Also, there are two things that pull one away from the Bodhi Mind. What are the two? They are: (i) to be greedy for the five desires,  (ii) not respecting and honouring the Three Treasures. "All such various causal relations carry one away from the Bodhi Mind [i.e. are causes of retrogression] (47).

         另外,有两件事使人离开菩提心。是哪两件事呢?他们是:(一)对五欲的贪婪,(二)不尊敬和恭敬三宝  “所有这些不同的因果关系使一个人远离菩提心[即是倒退的原因](47)。

Six causal relations

       The icchantika has six causal relations. He falls into the three unfortunate realms and cannot get out of them. What are the six? They are:  (i) his evil mind burns,  (ii) he does not see the after-life,  (iii) he takes pleasure in seeking defilement,  (iv) he walks away from good,  (v) evil actions hinder his way, and  (vi) he associates with an evil teacher of the Way.

 六个因果关系

         一提阐人有六个因果关系。他落入三恶道之中而不能从中出离。这六个是什么呢?他们是

(i)他的邪恶的心灵在燃烧,(ii)他没有看到以后的生活,(三)他为寻找染污的事而高兴,(四)离开善良,(五)恶行妨碍了他的路,(六)与邪恶的老师交往

      This again possesses five things, by which the person falls into the three unfortunate realms. What are the five? They are:  (i) he always says that there can be no karmic results to come about in regard to good or bad actions,  (ii) he kills a person who has aspired to Bodhi, (iii) he takes pleasure in speaking about the evils committed by priests, (iv) he says that what is right is not right and what transgresses Dharma is lawful, and  (v) he gives ear to Dharma just to pick up what goes against [i.e. to find fault].

       这导致了五件事,这个人掉入了不幸的三恶道。是哪五件呢?他们是:(i)他经常说无论做好做坏都没有业果(ii)他杀害证道之人,(三)他乐于说法师的罪过,(四)他说正确的东西是不正确的并且违背佛法是合法的,(五)他听佛法只是拾人牙慧去找漏子 [即挑刺]。

      Also, there are three things by which the person falls into the three unfortunate realms. What are the three? These are saying that: (i) the Tathagata is non-eternal, and goes away eternally,  (ii) Wonderful Dharma is non-eternal and changes, and  (iii) the Sangha Jewel gets destroyed. For this reason, he always sinks into the three unfortunate realms(48).

        另外,还有三件事让人掉入三恶道之中。是哪三件呢?他们是这样说的:(一)如来不是永恒的,永远消失了,(二)神圣的佛法不是永恒的而是可以改变的,(三)僧宝也被毁坏。为此,他总是落入三恶道。

Inconceivable

       It is the same with the Great Nirvana Sutra, which is inconceivable. For example, this is as with the eight things which are inconceivable. What are the eight? They are: (i) by degrees the deepness increases;  (ii) it is deep and the bottom is difficult to gain;  (iii) sameness obtains as in the case of the salty taste [of the ocean, which is everywhere salty];  (iv) the tide does not exceed the boundary line;  (v) there are various storehouses of treasure;  (vi) a great-bodied being lives therein;  (vii) no dead bodies are to be found there;  (viii) all rivers and great rains flow in, but the volume of water neither increases nor decreases.

 

       We say that the deepness gradually increases. Here, there are three things, namely: (i) the power of beings' wealth;  (ii) the fair wind which carries things well, and  (iii) the river water enters, and there are three kinds of non-increase and non-decrease(49).

不可思议

这与大涅槃经一样,是不可思议的。例如,有八件事是不可思议的。是哪八件呢?他们是:(i)深度一点点增加(二)它是深刻的因而很难到底;(三)就象是盐的滋味(在海洋里,到处都是咸的)  (四)潮流不会超过边界线;(五)有不同的知识宝库(六)一个伟大的生命在其中(七)那里没有发现尸体;(八)所有的河流和大雨流入,但是水的容量既没有增加也没有减少。

我们说,深度在逐步增加。这里有三件事,即:(一)个人对财富权力;(二)公正的作风会使事情变好,(三)河水进入,这三类没有增加也没有减少(49)。

Footnotes

脚注

(01). (i) Narada, Rev, 1998,

      The Buddha and His Teachings, page 234.

      (ii) Dighanikaya, vol ii, Sinhala translation, page 113.

      (iii)The Dighanikaya, vol ii, PTS, page 73.

(02). Narada, Rev, 1998,

        The Buddha and His Teachings, page 235.

      (ii) Dighanikaya, vol ii, Sinhala translation, page 113.

      (iii)The Dighanikaya, vol ii, PTS, page 73.

 

(03).   Narada, Rev, 1998,

         The Buddha and His Teachings, page 236.

      (ii) Dighanikaya, vol ii, Sinhala translation, page 120-122.

      (iii)The Dighanikaya, vol ii, PTS, page 78.

 

(04).   (i) Dighanikaya, vol ii, Sinhala translation, page 122-124.

      (ii)The Dighanikaya, vol ii, PTS, page 83-84.

 

(05).  (i) Dighanikaya, vol ii, Sinhala translation, page 134.

      (ii)The Dighanikaya, vol ii, PTS, page 85.

 

(06).  (i) Dighanikaya, vol ii, Sinhala translation, page 192-194.

      (ii)The Dighanikaya, vol ii, PTS, page.123-124.

 

(07) (i) Dighanikaya, vol ii, Sinhala translation, page 166-168.

      (ii)The Dighanikaya, vol ii, PTS, page. 107-108

 

(08).  (i) Dighanikaya, vol ii, Sinhala translation, page 170.

      (ii)The Dighanikaya, vol ii, PTS, page.109.

 

(09).  (i) Dighanikaya, vol ii, Sinhala translation, page 172-173.

      (ii)The Dighanikaya, vol ii, PTS, page.110-111.

 

(10).  (i) Dighanikaya, vol ii, Sinhala translation, page 174.

      (ii)The Dighanikaya, vol ii, PTS, page.111-112.

 

(11). 《大般涅磐经》page 21,(一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(12). 《大般涅磐经》page 65,(一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(13). 《大般涅磐经》page 66,(一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(14). 《大般涅磐经》page 67, (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(18). 《大般涅磐经》page 177, (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(15). 《大般涅磐经》page 89, (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(16). 《大般涅磐经》page 95, (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(17). 《大般涅磐经》page 135-136-137, (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(18). 《大般涅磐经》page 177, (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(19). 《大般涅磐经》page 284, (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(20). 《大般涅磐经》page 446 , (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(21). 《大般涅磐经》page 501-502 , (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(22). 《大般涅磐经》page 504 , (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(23). 《大般涅磐经》page 508, (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(24). 《大般涅磐经》page 524-525-526-527-528, (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(25). 《大般涅磐经》page 556 , (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(26). 《大般涅磐经》page 560, (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(27). 《大般涅磐经》page 563, (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(28). 《大般涅磐经》page 576, (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(29). 《大般涅磐经》page 580 , (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(30). 《大般涅磐经》page 585 , (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(31). 《大般涅磐经》page 614, (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(32). 《大般涅磐经》page 644, (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(33). 《大般涅磐经》page 654, (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(34). 《大般涅磐经》page 755  , (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(35). 《大般涅磐经》page 817  , (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(36). 《大般涅磐经》page 819 , (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(37). 《大般涅磐经》page 820 , (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(38). 《大般涅磐经》page 821 , (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(39). 《大般涅磐经》page 881 , (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(40). 《大般涅磐经》page 942  , (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(41). 《大般涅磐经》page 953 , (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(42). 《大般涅磐经》page 1109 , (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(43). 《大般涅磐经》page 1155, (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(44). 《大般涅磐经》page1181 , (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(45). 《大般涅磐经》page 1187 , (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(46). 《大般涅磐经》page 1192, (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(47). 《大般涅磐经》page 1244-1245,(一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(48). 《大般涅磐经》page 1401, (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

(49). 《大般涅磐经》page 1434  , (一二三)2005年,  河北省佛教协会.

 

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