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大乘佛教大涅槃经体现的教义(一)

(2009-12-03 20:14:15)
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02. 02.  Embodiment doctrines of Mahaparinirvana sutra in Mahayana school.

              大乘佛教大涅槃经体现的教义

     

      Mahayana Mahaparinirvana sutra also have elementary Buddhist doctrines.

          大乘佛教大涅槃经所有的基本佛教教义

 

 Four kind of minds

 四种心

      Bodhisattvas they always practiced the four limitless minds (i) of loving-kindness,(ii) compassion, (iii)sympathetic joy,(iv) and equanimity, thereby attaining unlimited power and acting well in place of the Buddha (11). (iii

          菩萨要经常实践四无量心(i)慈爱(ii)悲心(iii)同喜(iv)平静,因而获得无量的能力,如佛一般行事。

 

Cunda‘s offering.

      Then the World-Honoured One, the All-Knowledge [“sarvajnana”], the Unsurpassed Trainer, said to Cunda: "This is good, good indeed! I shall now cut off the roots of your poverty and let fall on your field of carnal life the unsurpassed rain of Dharma and call forth the bud of Dharma. You now desire to have from me life, body, power, peace, and unhindered speech. And I shall give to you undying life, body, power, peace, and unhindered speech. Why? O Cunda! In offerings of meals there are two fruits that know of no distinction. What are the two? Firstly, one attains “anuttarasamyaksambodhi” [unsurpassed, complete Enlightenment] when one receives it [a meal-offering]; secondly, one enters Nirvana after receiving it. I will now receive your last offering and let you accomplish perfected giving (12).

纯陀的需求

        接着释尊,全知者(sarvajnana),无与伦比的导师,对纯陀说:“这是好的,非常好的!我将要切断你的贫穷的根源并且让法雨滋润你的肉身成为佛前的花蕾。现在你希望从我这里获得生命,肉体,能力,和平,无碍的辩才。我会给你不死的生命,身体,力量,能力,和平,和无碍的辩才。为什么?哦,纯陀!进餐时这里有两种无差别的水果。这两者是什么?第一,一个人达到无上菩提“anuttarasamyaksambodhi”(无上正等正觉),当一个人得到它时(提供一餐);第二,一个人在达到涅槃时再进入它 。我现在接受你最后的请求并且让你完整的布施。



 

Four categories of alms giving.

      One that receives alms giving in the former category is one with (i) a body supported by various kinds of food,  (ii) a body of illusion,  (iii) a body where there yet remains the result of illusion, and (iv) a non-eternal body. A person who receives alms giving  in the second category has (i) the body of no illusion, (ii) the adamantine body, (iii) the Dharma body (iv) the eternal body,  and (v) the boundless body. How can one say that the results of the   alms giving performed in the two categories are one and do not differ (13).

四类施舍。

一个接受他人施舍的人是(i)由各种食物维持的身体,(ii)一个虚幻的身体,(三)一个仍然是幻觉的身体(四)一个非永恒的身体。一个接受他人施舍的第二种人是(一)对身体不抱任何幻想,(二)金刚体 (三)佛体(四)永恒的身体,(五)无限的身体。我们怎么能说这两类施舍的结果是一而没有什么不同呢。(13)。

Four Maras

      Four Maras (i) Mara of Illusion,(ii) Mara of skandhas, (iii) Mara of death, and (iv)the heavenly Mara (14).

四种魔障
四种魔障 (一)幻 觉魔 障(二)五蕴魔障 (三)死亡 魔障 ,以及(四)天魔障(14)。

 

The great earth shook in six ways

      Of shaking, there are two kinds: one is a shaking and the other a great shaking. The little shaking is a [mere] shaking and the one that shakes greatly is a great shaking. The one that generates a small sound is a shaking, and the one that generates a great sound is a great shaking. The shaking where only the earth shakes is a shaking, and that where the mountains, forests, rivers, seas and everything else shakes is a great shaking. That which shakes in one direction is a shaking, and that which shakes round and round is a great shaking. The type that moves is a shaking, and the type where beings' minds get shaken is a great shaking. The shaking which occurs when the Bodhisattva comes down from Tushita Heaven to Jambudvipa is a great shaking. The shakings when the Bodhisattva takes birth on this earth, when he leaves home, attains unsurpassed Enlightenment, turns the wheel of Dharma, and enters Parinirvana are great shakings. Today the Tathagata was about to enter Nirvana. That is why the earth shook (15).

大地震动的六种方式

震动,有两种:一种是震动,另一种是巨大震动。小震动(仅仅)是动摇而大的震动是大震动。发出小声音的是小震动而发出大声音的是大震动。只有地球摇动的震动是一个震动,在山区,森林,河流,海洋和其他地方的震动是一个大震动。在一个地方震动是一个震动 ,环形的震动是一个大震动。该类型的移动是一个震动, 在人的心灵里引起的动摇是一个大的震动。当震动发生时,菩萨从兜率天(Tushita heaven )降下来南赡部洲是一个大的震动。当菩萨诞生到地球上时会发生震动,当他离开家,获得卓越的证悟 ,转动法轮,进入涅槃会有巨大的震动。今天,当如来即将进入涅盘。这就是为什么会有大地震颤.(15)。

Cohesions

      If you have any doubts, ask now. If you have doubt as to Void versus non-Void, Eternal versus non-Eternal, Suffering versus non-Suffering, dependent versus non-dependent, gone versus not-gone, refuge versus non-refuge, always versus not-always, impermanence versus the Eternal, beings versus non-beings, "is" versus "not-is", the Real versus the not-Real, the True versus the not-True, extinction versus non-extinction, esoteric versus non-esoteric, and the dual versus the non-dual, I shall speak to you accordingly. For your sake, too, I shall first speak of the manna and then enter Nirvana.

 凝聚

如果你有任何疑问,请现在问。如果你困惑于,空与非空,永恒与非永恒,痛苦与非痛苦,独立与非独立,过去与非过去,庇护与非庇护,永远与非永远,无常与恒久,生命与生命,是与不是,真实与非真实,真与非真,灭绝与非灭绝,神秘与非神秘,二元与非二元,我会相应的告诉你。为你着想, 我想先谈谈甘露,然后进入涅盘。

It is hard to encounter the appearance of the Buddha in the world. It is hard to be born human. It is hard, too, to encounter the Buddha and gain faith. It is also hard to hear the unhearable. It is hard again to uphold and be perfect in the prohibitive injunctions and to attain arhatship. (16).

要想在这个世界遇到佛出世是非常困难的。要想出生为人是很困难的。要想遇到佛并产生信仰是很困难的。要想听到无闻之声是很困难的。要想持戒和很好的守戒而达到阿罗汉是很难的。

Samadhi, and Wisdom

      The precepts, samadhi, and Wisdom. This is like the robbers stealing the cows. All common mortals obtain the precepts, samadhi, and Wisdom, but they have no means of working them out [perfecting them, implementing them]. Hence they never gain the eternal precepts, the eternal samadhi, the eternal Wisdom, and emancipation. This is like the robbers' not having the means to work out [bring forth what they want], thus losing the sarpirmanda; or it is like the robbers' adding water when they meant to gain sarpirmanda. The same with common mortals. Referring to emancipation, beings say that Self, being, life, man, Brahma, Isvara, prakriti, the precepts, samadhi, Wisdom, emancipation, or Thoughtless-non-thoughtlessness Heaven [naivasamjnana- samjnayatana] or Nirvana is Nirvana. This, however [i.e. just saying this] does not give one emancipation or Nirvana. This is like the robbers' failing to gain sarpirmanda. Common mortals do small-scale pure actions and make offerings to their parents. Then they gain rebirth in heaven and attain small-scale bliss. This is like the milk to which the robbers added water. And common mortals do not themselves know the fact that one gets born in heaven by small-scale pure actions and making offerings to one's parents.

禅定和智慧

戒律,禅定和智慧。这就好象强盗去偷牛。所有凡夫获得戒律,禅定,智慧,但他们没有办法让他们出来(完善它们,实施它们]。因此,他们从来没有获得永恒的戒律,永恒的三摩地,永恒的智慧,但是他们没有办法实行(完善它们,实施它们)。这就像强盗'没有办法解决[带来他们想要的东西],从而失去了乳酪,或者像强盗加水是为了获得乳酪。与凡人一样。谈到解脱,人们说的自性,生命,人,梵天,主,太初(prakriti),戒律,禅定,智慧,解脱,非想非非处天[naivasamjnana - samjnayatana]或涅盘就是涅槃。不过,这[即只是说这个]并不会给人一个解脱或涅槃。这就像强盗'未能取得奶酪。凡人行小善,供给他们的父母。接着他们在天堂重生并获得小的祝福 。这就好比是强盗用牛奶加水。 凡夫本身并不知道,一个人通过小的善行在天堂里出生并且供给他们的父母双亲。 。

      Also, they do not know the moral precepts, samadhi, Wisdom and taking refuge in the Three Treasures. Not knowing [all this], they talk about Eternity, Bliss, Self, and Purity. Though they talk, they do not know what these are. Hence, after taking birth in this life, the Tathagata talks about Eternity, Bliss, Self, and Purity. A chakravartin [world's greatest, just ruler] appears in the world. By the power of virtue, all the robbers pull back, and there is no loss of any cows. Then the chakravartin entrusts the cows to the hands of a cowherd who knows the way. This person works out the means well and obtains sarpirmanda. Due to the sarpirmanda, there is no illness or pain for any being. It is like this. When the chakravartin of the wheel of Dharma appears in the world, all beings abandon these, because they cannot talk about the precepts, samadhi, and Wisdom. This is like the pulling back of the robbers.

   

此外,他们并不知道道德戒律,禅定,智慧,并在三宝中避难。不知道[这一切],他们对永恒,极乐,自我,和纯洁。虽然他们说,他们不知道这些是什么。因此,当在此生中出生后,如来谈到了永恒,极乐,自我,和纯洁。转轮圣王 [世界上最大的,统治者]在世界上出现。由于道德的力量,所有的强盗悔改,没有任何牛奶的损失。然后转轮圣王将奶牛交到牛仔手中他知道方法,这些人工作得很好并且获得奶酪。由于转轮圣王,这些生命没有疾病和痛苦。就象是这样,当转轮圣王出现于世界时,所有的生命放弃了这些,因为他们不能讨论戒,定,慧。这就象强盗退回了。

      Then the Tathagata indeed speaks of secular and supramundane things. For the benefit of beings, he lets the Bodhisattva talk as the occasion arises. The Bodhisattva-mahasattva, on gaining sarpirmanda, lets all the innumerable beings gain the unsurpassed manna of Dharma. The Eternity, Bliss, Self, and Purity of the Tathagata thus come about [appear, are realised]. The Tathagata is one who is eternal and unchanging. This is not in the manner in which common mortals and the ignorant of the world say that Brahma is eternal.  This eternality is always with the Tathagata and not with whatever else. O Kasyapa! All good men and good women should always carefully practise the Way of the two-lettered Buddha, who is eternal [i.e. in Chinese, “Nyo-rai” - consisting of two syllables or characters - means "Tathagata", "One come from Thusness"]. O Kasyapa! Any good man or good woman who practises the Way of the two-lettered, such a one accords with what I do and gets born where I go. If any person practises the two letters and sees it as extinction, know that the Tathagata enters Parinirvana to [in the eyes of] such a one. O good man! Nirvana is the “Dharmata” [True Essence] of all Buddhas (17).

然后,如来确实谈到了世俗和出世的东西。为了利益人类,他适时让菩萨讲话。菩萨摩诃萨,获得奶酪,让无数的生命获得无与伦比的佛法甘露。 永恒,极乐,自我,以及如来的纯净,都出现了[呈现, 实现了]。如来是一个是永恒不变的。这不是以某种方式凡夫和无知的人说,梵是永恒的。这永恒即是如来而不是其它的。迦叶!所有的善男子和善女子必须时常留意佛陀两个字,谁是永恒的[比如在中国,““Nyo-rai” - 两个音节或字符组成  - 意思是“如来”,“一个来就是即是”]。迦叶,任何善男子或善女子实践了这两个字的道,符合我要求的人将出生在我要去的地方。如果任何人实践了这两个字并且看他是寂灭的,知道如来进入了如此涅槃(在眼中)。善男子,涅槃是“实相”诸佛所有的真谛。

Eternal

"How can the Tathagata be one eternal and unchanging?" One who reproaches me thus commits slander, which is wrong. O Kasyapa! You must not entertain such a notion and say that the nature of the Tathagata perishes. O Kasyapa! We do not place the annihilation of illusion in the category of matter [rupa]. Why not? Because of the fact of the ultimacy of Eternity. Hence, we say Eternal. [Nirvanic] quietude has nothing to supercede it. All phenomenal existences are done away with, with nothing remaining. This indicates what is fresh, clear, eternal, and unretrogressive. That is why we say that Nirvana is eternal. It is the same with the Tathagata. He is eternal, with no change. "Stars sweep". This refers to illusion. Once swept, all is gone and no trace remains of any existence. This indicates that all Tathagatas are those who have done away with illusion and are no longer in the five realms. This means that the Tathagata is one eternal and that there is no change [with him]. Also next, O Kasyapa! It is the Dharma which is the teacher of all Buddhas. Hence, the Tathagata respectfully makes offerings. As the Dharma is eternal, so too are all Buddhas ete

 

永恒

“如来如何才能是永恒和不变的?”一个人这样责备我的人遭到诽谤 ,这是不对的。迦叶!你不能接受这样的观念,如来会随自然变化而消亡。  迦叶!我们不会消除对物质的幻觉[upa]。为什么不呢?由于对永恒的终极事实。因此,我们说永恒。 [Nirvanic]宁静不会取代它。所有现象都会流逝,没有什么剩下的。这表明什么是新鲜的,明确的,永恒的,和倒退。这就是为什么我们说,涅盘是永恒的。它是与如来一样。他是永恒的,没有改变。 “扫帚星”。这是指的幻觉。一旦清扫,一切都过去了,没有留下任何痕迹存在。这表明如来是永恒的并且这里没有变化。[和他]另外,迦叶,法性是诸佛的老师。因此,如来恭敬的供养。因为法性是永恒的,所以所有的佛也是永恒的。

 

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