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上部座佛教和大乘佛教关于涅槃的论述(译文3 )

(2009-10-13 10:02:57)


‘If I focus this purified and cleansed equanimity on the Sphere of Infinite Space and develop a mind conforming thereto, that is a mental creation (samkhatam). If I focus this purified and cleansed equanimity on the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness…on the Sphere of Nothingness…or on the Sphere of Neither-perception nor Non-perception and develop a mind conforming thereto, that is a mental creation.’  Then he neither mentally creates nor wills continuity and becoming (bhava) or annihilation (vibhava).1  As he does not construct or does not will continuity and becoming or annihilation, he does not cling to anything in the world; as he does not cling, he is not anxious; as he is not anxious, he is completely calmed within (fully blown out within, paccattam yeva parinibbayati).  And he knows : ‘Finished is birth, lived is pure life, what should be done is done, nothing more is left to be done.’2 


“如果我在无限的空间领域专注于这种纯粹的纯净的平静,并产生一种要达到那里的心理,这是一种精神的创造(事业)。如果我在无限的意识之中专注于这种纯粹的和纯净的平静。。。。在虚无的领域。。。。或在知觉或无知觉的领域,并产生一种要达到那里的心理,这是一种精神创造。”而他既不想建立也不想保持和成为(轮回)或消灭(无轮回).1因为他不建立或也不想维持, 成为或消灭,他不依附在世界上任何东西,因为他不依附,他不会焦虑,因为他不焦虑,他是完全平静的(内在完全清空,独觉)。他知道:“死就是生,生活是纯粹的生活,应该做的就做,没有更多的要留下来做”2


      Now, when he experiences a pleasant, unpleasant or neutral sensation, he knows that it is impermanent, that it does not bind him, that it is not experienced with passion.  Whatever may be the sensation, he experiences it without being bound to it (visamyutta).  He knows that all those sensations will be pacified with the dissolution of the body, just as the flame of a lamp goes out when oil and wick give out.




      ‘Therefore, O bhikkhu, a person so endowed is endowed with the absolute wisdom, for the knowledge of the extinction of all dukkha is the absolute noble wisdom.

      ‘This his deliverance, founded on Truth, is unshakable, O bhikkhu, that which is unreality (mosadhamma) is false; that which is reality (amosadhamma), Nibbana, is Truth (Sacca).  Therefore, O bhikkhu, a person so endowed is endowed with this Absolute Truth.  For, the Absolute Noble Truth (paramam ariyasaccam) is Nibbana, which is Reality.’

      Elsewhere the Buddha unequivocally uses the word Truth in place of Nibbana :  ‘I will teach you the Truth and the  Path leading to the Truth.’(19)  Here Truth definitely means Nirvana.


    在其他的地方佛明确用实相这个词来代替涅槃:'我会教你实相,通向实相的道路。'(19)在这里,实相明确地表示涅槃 。


      Now, what is Absolute Truth?  According to Buddhism, the Absolute Truth is that there is nothing absolute in the world, that everything is relative, conditioned and impermanent, and that there is no unchanging, everlasting, absolute substance like Self, Soul or Atman within or without.  This is the Absolute Truth.  Truth is never negative, though there is a popular expression_r as negative truth.  The realization of this Truth, i.e., to see things as they are (yathabhutam) without illusion or ignorance (avijja), (20) is the extinction of craving ‘thirst’ (Tanhakkhaya), and the cessation (Nirodha) of dukkha, which is Nirvana.  It is interesting and useful to remember here the Mahayana view of Nirvana as not being different from Samsara. (21)  The same things is Samsara or Nirvana according to the way you look at it-subjectively or objectively.  This Mahayana view was probably developed out of the ideas found in the original Theravada Pali texts, to which we have just referred in our brief discussion.



      It is incorrect to think that Nirvana is the natural result of the extinction of craving.  Nirvana is not the result of anything.  If it would be a result, then it would be an effect produced by a cause.  It would be samkhata ‘produced’ and ‘conditioned’.  Nirvana is neither cause nor effect.  It is beyond cause and effect.  Truth is not a result nor an effect.  It is not produced like a mystic, spiritual, mental state, such as dhyana or samahdhi.  TRUTH IS. NIRVANA IS.  The only thing you can do is to see it, to realize it.  There is a path leading to the realization of Nirvana.  But Nirvana is not the result of this path.  You may get to the mountain along a path, but the mountain is not the result, not an effect of the path.  You may see a light, but the light is not the result of your eyesight.





      People often ask :  What is there after Nirvana?  This question cannot arise, because Nirvana is the Ultimate Truth.  If it is Ultimate, there can be nothing after it.  If there is anything after Nirvana, then that will be the Ultimate Truth and not Nirvana.  A monk named Radha put this question to the Buddha in a different form :  ‘For what purpose (or end) is Nirvana?’  This question presupposes something after Nirvana, when it postulates some purpose or end for it.  So the Buddha answered:  ‘O Radha, this question could not catch its limit (i.e., it is beside the point).  One lives the holy life with Nirvana as its final plunge (into the Absolute Truth), as its goal, as its ultimate end.’(22)

       人们经常会问:涅槃后面是什么?这个问题可能不会出现,因为涅槃是终极真理。如果这是最后的,后面就没有任何事物。如果涅槃后面有什么,那将是终极实相,而不是涅槃。一个名叫Radha的和尚以一种不同的形式向佛问了这个问题:“涅槃的目的 (或最后的涅槃)是什么?这预先假定了它的某种目标或最后的涅槃 。因此,佛陀回答:噢,Radha,这个问题不能达到它的极限。(也就是说,它离题了)。一个在涅槃中过着圣洁的生活的人他的最终趋向是(进入绝对的实相),作为它的目标,和它的最终结果。(22)


      Some popular inaccurately phrased expression_rs like ‘The Buddha entered into Nirvana or Parinirvana after his death’ have given rise to many imaginary speculations about Nirvana.  The moment you hear the phrase that ‘the Buddha entered into Nirvana or Parinirvana’, you take Nirvana to be a state, or a realm, or a position in which there is some sort of existence, and try to imagine it in terms of the senses of the word ‘existence’ as it is known to you.  This popular expression_r ‘entered into Nirvana’ has no equivalent in the original texts.  There is no such things as ‘entering into Nirvana after death’.  There is a word parinibbuto used to denote the death of the Buddha or an Arahant who has realized Nirvana, but it does not mean ‘entering into Nirvana’.  Parinibbuto simply means ‘fully passed away’, ‘fully blown out’ or ‘fully extinct’, because the Buddha or an Arahant has no re-existence after his death.

一些流行的不准确的措辞像“佛陀进入涅槃表达或他去世后进入涅槃”'已引起许多关于涅槃的猜想。当你听到这句话的'佛进入涅槃或入涅槃'时,你把涅槃当做是一个国家,或一个领域,或一个地位,在那里有其中有一些类型的存在,并尝试想像进入你所知道的“存在”的感觉。'进入涅盘'这种流行的在原文中没有相同的方式。根本就没有“死后进入涅槃”这样的事情。有一个词parinibbuto用来表示佛或已认识到涅槃的阿罗汉的死亡,但这并不意味着'进入涅盘'。 Parinibbuto仅仅意味着'完全逝去','完全消失',完全离开,因为佛陀或阿罗汉死后没有再存在。


      Now another question arises:  What happens to the Buddha or an Arahant after his death, parinirvana?  This comes under the category of unanswered questions (avyakata).(23)  Even when the Buddha spoke about this, he indicated that no words in  our vocabulary could express what happens to an Arahant after his death.  In reply to a Parivrajaka named Vaccha, the Buddha said that terms like ‘born’ or ‘not born’ do not apply in the case of an Arahant, because those things-matter, sensation, perception, mental activities, consciousness-with which the terms like ‘born’ and ‘not born’ are associated, are completely destroyed and uprooted, never to rise again after his death.(24)

现在,另一个问题产生了:佛或阿罗汉死后发生了什么,涅槃?这是属于那种无法回答的问题(avyakata)。(23)即便当佛陀谈到这个问题时,他指出我们的词汇中没有词语能描述阿罗汉死后发生了什么。在回答名叫Vaccha 的一个Parivrajaka的问题时,佛表示例如:'生'或'不生'并不适用于描述阿罗汉的情况,因为这些事情,感觉,知觉,心理活动,意识与生或不生的术语是相联系的,那是完全毁坏和根除的,在他死后就不会再死而复生(24)



      An Arahant after his death is often compared to a fire gone out when the supply of wood is over, or to the flame of a lamp gone out when the wick and oil are finished.(25)  Here it should be clearly and distinctly understood, without any confusion, that what is compared to a flame or a fire gone out is not Nirvana, but the ‘being’ composed of the Five Aggregates who realized Nirvana.  This point has to be emphasized because many people, even some great scholars, have misunderstood and misinterpreted this simile as referring to Nirvana.  Nirvana is never compared to a fire or a lamp gone out.




      There is another popular question:  If there is not self, no Atman, who realizes Nirvana?  Before we go on to Nirvana, let us ask the question:  Who thinks now, it there is not Self?  We have seen earlier that it is the thought that thinks, that there is no thinker behind the thought.  In the same way , it is wisdom (panna), realization, that realizes.  There is no other self behind the realization.  In the discussion of the origin of dukkha we saw that whatever it may be-whether being, or thing, or system-if it is of the nature of arising, it has within itself the nature, the germ, of its cessation, its destruction.  Now dukkha, samsara, the cycle of continuity, is of the nature of arising ;  it must also be of the nature of cessation.  Dukkha arises because of ‘thirst’ (tanha), and it ceases because of wisdom (panna).  ‘Thirst’ and wisdom are both within the Five Aggregates, as we saw earlier.

还有另外一个普遍的问题:如果没有自我,没有本性,谁来认识涅槃?在我们达到涅槃之前,让我们问一个问题:现在谁认为,现在没有自我?我们以前已经看到过这种思路,这不是思想家的思路。以同样的方式,它是智慧(安娜),认识,去认识。在认识后面没有其它的自我。在讨论苦受的根源时,我们看到,不管它可能是,是生命,或物件,或系统,如果是产生的本性,它都是在自身的本性里面,萌芽,中止,坏灭。现在苦受,轮回,不断循环,是产生的根源。它也必须是中止的性质。苦受产生于欲望(贪),它因智慧而终止(tanha) 。  欲望和智慧都在五蕴里面,正如我们早期看到的。



      Thus, the germ of their arising as well as that of their cessation are both within the Five Aggregates.  This is the real meaning of the Buddha’s well-known statement: ‘Within this fathom-long sentient body itself, I postulate the world, the arising of the world, the cessation of the world, and the path leading to the cessation of the world.  This means that all the Four Noble Truths are found within the Five Aggregates, i.e., within ourselves.  (Here the word ‘world’ (loka) is used in place of dukkha).  This also means that there is no external power that produces the arising and the cessation of dukkha.


      When wisdom is developed and cultivated according to the Fourth Noble Truth (the next to be taken up), it sees the secret of life, the reality of things as they are.  When the secret is discovered, when the Truth is seen, all the forces which feverishly produce the continuity of samsara in illusion become calm and incapable of producing any more karma-formations, because there is no more illusion, no more ‘thirst’ for continuity.  It is like a mental disease, which is cured when the cause or the secret of the malady is discovered and seen by the patient.


In almost all religions, the summum bonum can be attained only after death.  But Nirvana can be realized in this very life; it is not necessary to wait till you die to ‘attain’ it.




      He who has realized the Truth, Nirvana, is the happiest being in the world.  He is free from all ‘complexes’ and obsessions, the worries and troubles that torment others.  His mental health is perfect.  He does not repent the past, nor does he brood over the future.  He lives fully in the present.(26)  Therefore he appreciates and enjoys things in the purest sense without self-projections.  He is joyful, exultant, enjoying the pure life, his faculties pleased, free from anxiety, serene and peaceful.(27)  As he is free from selfish desire, hatred, ignorance, conceit, pride, and all such ‘defilements’,  he is pure and gentle, full of universal love, compassion, kindness, sympathy, understanding and tolerance.  His service to others is of the purest, for he has no thought of self.  He gains nothing, accumulate nothing, not even anything spiritual, because he is free from the illusion of Self, and the ‘thirst’ for becoming.



      Nirvana is beyond all terms of duality and relatively.  It is therefore beyond our conceptions of good and evil, right and wrong, existence and non-existence.  Even the word ‘happiness’ (sukha) which is used to describe Nirvana has an entirely different sense here.  Sariputta once said :  ‘O friend, Nirvana is happiness!  Nirvana is happiness!’  Then Ydayi asked : ‘But, friend Sariputta, what happiness can it be if there is no sensation?’  Sariputta’s reply was highly philosophical and beyond ordinary comprehension : ‘That there is no sensation itself is happiness’.

涅槃是超越二元性和相对性的。因此它超越于我们善与恶,是与非,存在和不存在的观念。 甚至“幸福” (sukha)这个词来描述涅槃也有完全不同的意义。舍利弗曾经说:'朋友,涅磐是幸福!涅盘是幸福!'然后Ydayi问:'但是, 舍利弗朋友,什么才能幸福,如果你没有感觉?'舍利弗的答复是高度哲学的和超越了一般的理解:“幸福是感觉不到的”。


       Nirvana is beyond logic and reasoning (atakkavacara).  However much we may engage,,,, often as a vain intellectual pastime, in highly speculative discussions regarding Nirvana or Ultimate Truth or Reality, we shall never understand it that way.  A child in the kindergarten should not quarrel about the theory of relativity.  Instead, if follows his studies patiently and diligently, one day he may understand it.  Nirvana is ‘to be realized by the wise within themselves’ (paccattam veditabbo vinnub).  If we follow the Path patiently and with diligence, train and purify ourselves one day realize it within ourselves-without taxing ourselves with puzzling and high-sounding words.    

涅槃是超越逻辑和推理(atakkavacara)。无论我们怎样忙碌。。。。。在关于涅槃或终极真理或实相中高智慧的讨论常常是徒劳的智力消遣,我们决不会理解它。一个幼儿园的孩子不应该争吵相对论。相反,如果耐心勤奋地遵循他的研究,有一天他会明白的。涅槃是用聪明才智来理解他自己(paccattam veditabbo vinnub)。如果我们耐心而勤奋地追随这条道路,训练和净化自己,也许有一天会在我们自我之中找到它,而不必用困惑和高调的词汇来指责自己。  


      An important development in the Mahayana that it came to separate nirvana from bodhi ('awakening' to the truth, Enlightenment), and to put a lower value on the former  Originally nirvana and bodhi refer to the same thing; they merely use different metaphors for the experience. But the Mahayana tradition separated them and considered that nirvana referred only to the extinction of craving (passion and hatred), with the resultant escape from the cycle of rebirth. This interpretation ignores the third fire, delusion: the extinction of delusion is of course in the early texts identical with what can be positively expressed as gnosis, Enlightenment.



      Therefore, according to Mahayana Buddhism, the arahant has attained only nirvana, thus still being subject to delusion, while the bodhisattva not only achieves nirvana but full liberation from delusion as well. He thus attains bodhi and becomes a Buddha. In Theravada Buddhism, bodhi and nirvana carry the same meaning, that of being freed from greed, hate and delusion.



      In Theravada doctrine, a person may awaken from the "sleep of ignorance" by directly realizing the true nature of reality; such people are called arahants and occasionally Buddha’s. After numerous lifetimes of spiritual striving, they have reached the end of the cycle of rebirth, no longer reincarnating as human, animal, ghost, or other being. The commentaries to the Pali Canon classify these awakened beings into three types:





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