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听力和记忆(四)

(2009-08-14 22:59:14)
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Memorization is the fundamental of Education

 

           Memorization can be defined as a factor that makes one’s educational process and livelihood more feasible.  Memorization literally means to recollect and memorize things into mind.  Memorization has contributed to build up both Eastern and Western philosophical thinking.  People in the past believed the existence of a soul based on the dreams and memory.  Later this concept of soul made a big revolution in the philosophical thinking.  It’s widely believed by many that this “memory” helped people to think further.  Therefore it is discussed here about the importance of memory power and how it can be achieved and developed, because it will be of great importance to both teachers and students.

 

  记忆是最基本的教育

       记忆可以被认为是使一个人的教育过程或生存更具可能性的因素。记忆字面意思是在心理回忆和记住的东西。记忆有助于建立东方的和西方的哲学思考。过去人们认为梦和记忆表明存在着人的灵魂。后来这一灵魂的概念在哲学上有了一个大的变革。许多人普遍认为,这种“记忆”帮助人们进一步思考。因此,这里讨论的记忆能力的重要性,以及如何才能实现和发展,因为这对教师和学生将是非常重要的。

     

Everything a person enjoys sees, hears and feels during his lifetime will be fed into his memory.  To say that a man lives means is to store a series of activities.  In normal life, these activities turn into one’s experiences and concepts.  But it is impossible for man to retain everything that he experiences, in his mind.  But he may be able to commit only some into his memory.

一个人在他生活之中看到,听到和感知到将存储入他的记忆。可以说一个人的活着就是存储一系列的活动。在正常的生活中,这些活动变成一个人的经验和观念。但是人要在心理记住他经历的所有的事这是不可能的。但他也许在记忆之中只能记住一些。

 

      Memory power will be immensely useful for a man to lead a successful life.  In narrating a story or making a statement, some facts have to be stored in one’s mind.  And these facts may be of paramount importance to one’s life.

    记忆能力对一个人拥有一个成功的生命是非常重要的。在叙述一个故事或发表声明时,一些事实是必须存放在一个人的心理的。这些事实可能对一个人的生活是头等重要的。

 

    It has been found long ago that not only man but also animals too have memory power.  Some animals have formed marvelous acts through their memory power.  But man has a very advanced state of memory power than any other being and this state can be different from person to person.

 

     很久以前人们就发现不仅人而且动物也有记忆能力。一些动物通过他们的记忆能力形成了奇妙的行为。但是人比任何其它的生命有更高超的记忆能力,这种记忆能力在人与人之间是不同的。

           Modern scientists have attempted very hard to develop this “memory power” of man into an advanced level.  Plato has found that there are special faculties or cells inside human brains and one’s memory power can be developed through these cells.  It is mentions in Buddhist literature that Buddha possessed 73 special cognitive faculties like divine eyes and telepathy etc.  It was evidently clear that all the cells that could be activated.  Since all cognitive abilities were fully developed to their full fruition he was called Buddha.  Parapsychologists who do research on “Memory Power”  which extends beyond the ambit of the field of study done by modern and western psychologist, who do research on extra-perception, have expressed that memory power is the result of the cycle of birth.

     现代科学家正努力试图让人的记忆能力达到一个非常高的水准。柏拉图认为人的大脑有特殊的细胞或功能,一个人脑的记忆能力可以通过这些细胞发展起来。佛教文献中提到佛拥有73个特殊的认知功能比如天眼和心灵感应等等。很显然的是,所有的这些细胞可以激活。如果人所有的认知能力得到充分开发,他被称为佛陀。做记忆研究的前卫心理学家已将研究范围延伸到超过西方心理学家或现代研究领域的范畴,他们对超感官的研究,已经表明记忆能力是生命轮回的结果。

     Accordingly, parapsychologists indicate that “Memory Power” is coming down from time immemorial even before the origin of man.  Some express that memories of the past birth can be activated by mesmerism.  Many perceptions in one’s lifetime and other conceptions in his past births have been stored in one’s mind.  Activating and recollecting of these memories stored in one’s conscious and subconscious mind where necessary, is considered memorization.

    因此,前卫的心理学家表明 “记忆能力”是从远古而来的甚至在人类的起源之前。有些研究则表明通过催眠可以回忆前世。人一生之中的很多观念和过去生的其他的观念已储存在一个人的心理了。在需要的地方激活并回忆起这些储存在人的意识和潜意识中的记忆,被认为是记忆。

 

           One’s memorization process can be categorized into three stages.

 

                 I.  Feeding into memory

                 II. Retaining or storing up in memory

III.             Recollecting or activating the memory

   

一个人的记忆过程可以分为三个阶段。

            一,提供记忆材料
            二。保留或存储在记忆中
            三。追忆或激活记忆

 

           Many perceptions are fed into the mind though the five aggregates i.e. visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory and tactile means.  Eye always focuses on visuals and establishes memory images in mind.  So do other senses and store thoughts which in turn become “memorization”

    许多感知进入心理是通过五个感官的总集即视觉,听觉,嗅觉,味觉和触觉。眼睛始终专注于视觉并在心理中建立记忆影像。q所以,其他感官也是如此和这些存储的思想反过来又成为“记忆”

           The first and foremost role of the teacher is to transmit this sense-based process to students in such a way that it could be absorbed and borne by them.  The second stage of this process is to store in mind these memory images based on the five senses.  The third stage is to recollect and reactivate these memories where necessary.

    教师的首要职责是以一种学生可以吸收和承担的方式将这种感知过程传递给他们。这一进程的第二阶段是将这些建立在五官基础上记忆图像存储在心理。第三阶段是在必要时重新回忆和激活这些记忆。

 

 

           Modern researches done on “memorization” have attempted to study the course of actions and consolidate and fertilize them and to develop the memorization.  It has been found that memories in subconscious mind are activated during dreams.  Researchers have found three stages in memorization.

 

                 I.   Sensual memorization

                 II.  Short term memorization

III.             Long term memorization

 对记忆的现代研究试图发现记忆行为的过程并巩固和强化它们以发展记忆能力。人们发现潜意识的记忆心理在梦中被激活。

研究者发现了记忆的三个阶段。
一,感官记忆
二。短期记忆
三。长期记忆

 

 

           Sensual memorization means to assimilate something by the conscious mind.  This occurs fast and immediately after something is seen.  These memories remain for a short period and will fade away within one or two days.

          感官记忆就是通过意识心理来吸收一些东西。当某种东西被看到时这很快就发生了。这些回忆仍然会保留短暂的时间并在一两天内消失。

           Later these memories are reactivated for several times and they are deposited firmly in the sub conscious mind.  This process of memorization can take place even after two or three days.  Research has shown that memories can easily be reactivated from the subconscious mind.  For example if a student studies something repeatedly, the facts are reposed in subconscious mind.  Then those memories will not fade away within a short period.

        随后这些记忆被不断地重新唤起,他们牢固地存储在潜意识心理中。这一记忆过程可能持续两到三天。研究表明,记忆可以很容易地从潜意识中唤醒。例如,如果一个学生反复地学习,这些内容会建立在潜意识内。那么这些记忆不会在短期内消失。

      When something is memorized the cells are activated in a moment.  Therefore the facts given to students by a teacher should be well organized.  Here “well organized” means, those facts should be presented to students in an easy and systematic way to understand.  Man can assimilate only a small amount of what he sees and hears.  If this is to happen, systematic and well-organized teaching should be done.

    当有什么东西是被记住时这些细胞在一瞬间被激活。因此老师教给学生的东西应被很好的组织。这里“很好的组织”意思是,这些事实应给学生一个容易和有系统的表达方式来理解。人可以很少量地吸收他的见闻。如果这种情况发生,系统和组织良好的教学就完成了。

      Stage of sensual memorization is of utmost importance.  Different people react with the world in different ways and this happens according to peoples’ different mentalities.  Small children and elderly people have a short-term memory power but this differ according to cognitive levels of individuals.  Researchers done on “memorization” have found that secondary students have a good memory power.

     感官记忆是至关重要的阶段。不同的人对世界有不同的反应方式和这是根据人的不同心态而产生的。儿童和老人有一个短期记忆能力,这种差异是根据个体不同的认知水平。研究人员对“记忆”的研究已经发现,中学生有很好的记忆能力。

 

           Sir Francis Goulton is the first to show that people with high degree of intelligence have an advanced state of memory power.  Due to external factors like drugs and liquor, and internal factors like adverse emotional development it has been found that memory power can be minimized.  Buddhism advocates that drugs and liquor lose the intellectual potency of a person.

    弗兰西斯柯罗马蒂第一次表明高度智慧的人有高度的记忆能力。由于外部因素,如毒品和酒,和内部因素,如不利的情感发展等已经被研究发现记忆能力减至最低限度。佛教声明,毒品和酒导致人失去智能。

           The next important aspect in memorization is the long-term memory power.  This means to keep something in one’s memory for a longer period.  The time cannot be calculated here for memory.  This too differs from person to person.  According to Buddhism, memory power of a person can remain with him even after death until the last birth.  These memories can be considered as past traits and characteristic properties of the past birth of a person.  Researchers have proved that some children have exceptional memories of their past birth.  This shows that long-term memory power can live longer.  A person can keep any amount of information in one’s long-term memory.  Researchers have found that how this long-term memory can be developed in man.

    记忆另一个重要的方面是长期记忆能力。这意味着在某些东西在记忆之中保持了很长一段时间。时间无法计算这里的记忆。人与人之间是非常不同的。根据佛教,一个人的记忆能力能够保持到他死后以及后世。这些记忆可以被认为是过去的特征和一个人前世的特有禀赋。研究人员已经证明,一些儿童有非常好的前世记忆。这表明,长期记忆可以保存更久。一个人可以在长期记忆中保留大量的信息。研究人员已经发现了人的长期记忆是如何形成的。

           Sound mind of a person can contribute for a long-term memory power.  A person with a high intellectual level may absorb something and maintain it for a longer period in memory.  This can also happen if the same is repeatedly studied.

    心智健全的人都有形成的长期记忆的能力。一个智力水平高的人可以吸收某些东西并在记忆中保持较长时间。如果不断重复学习这也是可能发生的。

           Loss of memory power means, what is absorbed by a person fades away in different forms.  In the educational process, memorization occupies a significant place.  The exam success of a student depends on the amount of information that can be memorized.  A student with a high power of memorization and recollecting facts may score high marks at examinations.  The present examination system has been designed to test the students’ memory power.  Therefore the teacher should help the students how to develop their memory power.  The two major methods to develop memory power are recollecting and by rote learning.  Rote learning can be practiced in parts or being divided into categories.  Another effective method to develop “memory” is to make the same thing re-read and seen repeatedly.

 

    丧失记忆意味着,一个人所吸收的东西会以不同的形式削弱。在教育过程中,记忆中占有重要地位。一个学生考试的成功取决于学生记忆的大量的信息。一个有着很高记忆力能想起很多事实的学生能够在考试之中获得高分。目前设计的考试制度是用来测试学生的记忆能力。因此,教师应帮助学生如何发展他们的记忆能力。两个发展记忆能力主要的方法是回忆和背诵学习。背诵学习可以在某方面练习或者被分为不同的种类。另一个发展记忆的有效方法是不断重复阅读。

 

      Good interpretation by the lecturer will help the student to keep them in memory. In teaching, recapitulation of the past knowledge by the lecturer is greatly conductive to develop memory power.  Teaching without cohesion should not be done by the lecturer.  It is absolutely necessary for the lecturer to organize his teaching so that the student may keep them in memory.  Therefore “memory power”  plays a significant role especially in the field education.

    讲师的良好的阐释将帮助学生更好地记忆。在教学中,讲师总结过去的知识大大有利于发展记忆能力。讲师不应该做没有凝聚力的教学。讲师组织他的教学是绝对必要的,学生因此而记住上课的内容。所以记忆力尤其在教育领域内扮演了一个重要的作用。

 

 

           01  Sussusa labhate pannan.  Alavaka sutta Page 382.  Sanyukta nikaya 1. Buddha Jayanthi book.

           02  Suta danan.  Anguttara nikaya          07 Nipata I b

           03  Sutavato ariyasavakassa assutavato putujjano. Page 246 Anguttara nikaya II P.T.S.

           04  Paratko gosapachchaya.  4 Nipata Anguttara nikaya Sotapatti sanyukta.

           05  Sabbadanam dammadanam jinati

                 Sabbam rasam damma raso jinati

                 Sabbam ratim damma rati jinati

                 Thanhakkayo sabba dukkham jinati

                

                 The gift of Truth excels all (other) gifts.  The flavor of Truth excels all (other) flavors.  The pleasure in Truth                       excels all (other) pleasures.  He who has distorted craving overcomes all sorrow.

                         实相的馈赠超越了所有其它的礼物。实相的滋味超越了所有其它的味道。实相的愉悦超越了所有其它的快乐。谁扭曲了对实相的渴望他将遭遇各种悲伤。

 

                 Dammapada – Tanha vagga, 354 verse.  Translated from Pali by Narada Thera, Vajirarama, Colombo.

           06  Ovadeyyanusaseyya – asabbha ca nivaraye satam hi so piyo hoti – asatam hoti appiyo.

                 Let him advice, instruct and dissuage one from evil; truly pleasing is he to the good, displeasing is he to the bad.

                 Dammapada, 77 verse, Chapter 6, Panditha vagga – I b.

           07  Nako panananda Sukaran paresan damman desetum.  Anguttara nikaya. V Nipata

                 300 page, Buddhajayanti book

           08  Paresan Ananda dammam desentena pancha damme ajjattan upattapethva paresan dammo desetabbo. i.b.

           09  Anupubbe katan katessamiti ajjattan upattapetva paresan dammo desetabbo. i. b.

           10  Danakattan, seelakatan, saggakatan, kamanan adinavan, nekkamme anisansan. Mahavaggapali 1.40- Page Buddha               Jayanthi book.

           11  Pariyaya dassami katan katan katessameti ajjattan upattapettva paresan dammam desctabbo. Anguttara nikaya III,             300 – Page Buddha Jayanthi book.

           12  Anuddayatn patichcha katan katessamiti ajattan upattapettva paresan dammam desetabbo.  Anguttara nikaya III               300- Page Buddha Jayanthi book.

           13  Na amisanta karo katan katessamiti ajattan upattapettva paresan dammam desetabbo. 300- Page i.b.

           14  Attanka paranda anupachcha katan katessamiti ajattan upattapettva paresan dammam desetabbo. 300 –Page i.b.

           15  Na bhikkave ayatakena geetassarena dammo gaitabbo – Yo gayeyiya aptti dukkatassati Chullavaggapali II -  Page                12 Buddha Jayanthi book.

           16  Vissatta manju vingeiya savaneya visarino bindu gambhira ninnadetveva mattangiko saro.

          

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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