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听力和记忆(二)

(2009-08-14 22:55:10)
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Preacher as a noble person in the society

讲道人在社会中是受到尊敬的

 

      Teaching or speaking to others in a very understandable and comprehensible way is really a difficult task.07, Man becomes a noble person according to his services rendered for the society.  A noble person does a great service for the intellectual, spiritual cognitive and ethical development of the society.  Preaching the doctrine of Buddha helps develop these aspects of a society.  Hence delivering sermons is absolutely necessary for social development.

     教导或者以一种能懂的可理解的方式告诉别人是一个非常困难的任务。07 ,人成为一个受尊敬的人是根据他对社会的服务。一个崇高的人对社会的智力的,精神认知和道德的发展做出了杰出贡献。宣扬佛的教义有助于改善社会的面貌。因此,布道对社会的发展是绝对必要的。

Spiritual qualities of a preacher

布道人的精神品质

 

       Buddha explained to Ananda Thero five qualities of a preacher and a general analysis is made here on this aspect.08,

佛向阿难讲述了布道者的五个品质而这儿有一个对于这方面的基本分析.08 ,

      The preacher here should have a right concentration and mindfulness that he preaches to other, and should be able to continue this sermon with cohesion and relationship without being broken its order.09; This is the first important point in delivering a discourse.  Let’s consider here what this step-by-step method adopted in delivering a sermon.

      布道者对他人应有一个正确的关注和留意,并且能够在团结和不中止这种关系的基础上连续布道。09这是在发表演讲前第一重要的一点。让我们思考一下这种次第的方法在发表演说中如何被运用的。     

Generosity, virtuosity, stories of heavenly pleasures, futility and barrenness in sensual pleasures and the good results of avoiding five sensual pleasures are examples for step-by-step sermons.10.

慷慨,鉴别力,非常欢乐的故事,轻浮和空洞的感官乐趣和远离五欲所带结的善果是次第说教的好例子。

Continuing the story step by step and going from known to unknown catering to the common people are the special traits of this system.  The preacher should adjust the story according to situations and the mentality of the audience understand the reality gradually.

一步一步的从已知到未知地讲述故事来迎合普通百姓是这个系统的特点。布道者应根据情况和听众逐步理解事实的心态来调整故事。

Generosity here means donation done with the idea aimed at attaining Nibbana and one has to annihilate craving and misery for this purpose.  Misery can cause sins and to eradicate this state, the state of generosity should be developed.  Generosity is to offer one’s belongings to others with no hope of its dividends.  This is the first step towards attaining Nibbana.  Various sermons are delivered with different objectives in mind and the preacher should apply the best possible methods or techniques to achieve his aims and objectives of a sermon.

     慷慨在这里意味着达到涅槃,一个人要消灭欲望和痛苦以实现这一目的。苦难可能导致罪孽,消除这种状况,国家得以繁荣昌盛。慷慨是把一个人拥有的给另一个人而不求回报。这是达到涅槃的第一步。人们心理有着各自不同目的的各种不同的说教而布道者应运用最可能好的方法或者技术来达到他的目的和布道的宗旨。

The second step towards Nibbana is virtue i.e. spiritual development especially in physical actions and verbal actions.  A person with no moral and spiritual development has no sound and advanced mentality to annihilate these defilement.  Mental discipline and morality is the second stage to be developed to attain Nibbana.

    第二个达到涅槃的步骤是美德也就是精神的修行尤其是肉身的行为和语言的行为。一个没有道德和精神修行的人没有判断力和高度智能来消除这些烦恼。精神的戒律和德行是的是达到和实现涅槃的第二阶段。

 

Thereby the concept of divine or heavenly bodies or planes is considered important here.  People prefer comfort and luxury to suffering.  The retribution of good deeds like donation, generosity and spiritual development may lead a person to enjoy heavenly pleasures.  Knowledge of divine planes is important here to lead the man to the maximum level of worldly or mundane state.  When something is in plenty it is not admired, but admired in case of scarcity.

   因而神的概念或天体或飞机被认为是重要的。人们更喜欢舒适和豪华而不是痛苦。如捐款,布施和精神方面的发展这样善行的回报会让一个人享受天堂的乐趣。神的层次的知识在这里是重要,会让人们达到世俗的或凡夫的最高水准。如果什么东西是充足的它就是不令人羡慕的,羡慕的是缺乏的。

In the next stage the futility of heavenly pleasures, which is the highest level of worldly pleasures, is discussed here.  So long as one is attached to worldly or heavenly pleasures, Panna, meaning the development of highest and advanced level okf intelligence doesn’t take place in mind is focused on deliverance or redemption.  Hence the consequences of not being attached to these pleasures are discussed here.

  天堂的乐趣是无益的,这是最高级别的世俗快乐,这在下一个阶段讨论。只要是重视世俗或天堂的乐趣,慧,这意味着最高的发展阶段以及智慧的最高阶段不会在关注于解脱或赎罪的心灵里发生。因此结果就是讨论不要关注这些乐趣。

Nekkamma means the contemplating of the temporary existence of sensual pleasures.  Avoiding all kinds of pleasures is also described as being Nekkamma.  Thinking in terms of reality without being attached to sensual pleasures is considered right throughout which leads to emancipation liberating from all sufferings.

     出离是指沉思暂时存在的感官快乐。避免各种享乐也被描述为出离。思维实相而不重视感官愉悦被认为是从各种痛苦之中解脱出来的正确之道。

 

                                                                       

Individual Attention

 

           A preacher should know well and pay special attention to hereditary behavior and properties of his followers.  On many occasions even the Lord Buddha and His disciples too have done this behavioral study of their followers individually and understood them clearly.  For this, a deep study of characteristic traits and individual properties of followers has to be done in a very resourceful and delicate manner for a long period of time.

特别注意

     一个布道者应该非常清楚和特别留意他的追随者的习惯行为和福报。在许多场合甚至佛祖和他的弟子对他的追随者的行为进行个别的研究并且对他们理解得非常清楚。为此,深入研究追随者的性格特性和个人福报是一个长期运用的非常丰富和巧妙的方法。

 

     Every man is different in mental states to one an other and it is impossible to find two equal men in ideas, attitudes and behavior. Past lives led in previous birth has a close bearing to this inequality between two people.  It is contradictory and inconsistent with the doctrine of Buddhism to say that a person is found whose personality traits and behavioral pattern is built and developed only in this birth.  As a result of one’s good or bad deeds committed in one’s previous birth, differences and diversifications in metal states of people can be clearly understood and seen.

     每个人的心理状态是不同的,要找到两个在思想,态度和行为上完全一样的人是不可能的。出生以前的前世行为影响了两人的不平等性。这是矛盾的,说一个人的人格特点和行为模式仅是在今生建立和发展起来的是不符合佛教教义的说法。由于一个人前世所做的好的或坏的行为的结果,人的差异和心理的多样性是能够清楚地看到和理解的。

These specific mental and physical differences of persons have been classified under seven categories according to their characters.  Such a classification has not been made so far by any psychologists except Lord Buddha.

  人的这些具体的精神和肉体上的差异根据人的特点被分为7个类别。除了佛祖以外没有任何心理学家做过这种划分。

 

           The seven categories classified by Lord Buddha are as follows.

                  佛祖所做的7个划分如下

 

                 1.  Lustful behavior 贪欲的行为

                 2.  Hatred and prejudicial behavior 仇恨和偏见的行为

                 3.  Ignorant and delusive behavior 无知和虚妄的行为

                 4.  Pious and devout behavior虔诚和诚恳的行为

                 5.  Persevering behavior 坚韧的行为

                 6.  Reasoning behavior 理智的行为

                 7.  Intelligent behavior 智慧的行为

 

      Every man has one or more of these qualities more or less and a preacher should carefully understand what qualities do his hearers have.  According to their characteristic qualities there could be apparent differences in one’s physical and mental states and verbal actions and in their attitudes.  Catering to the different mental and physical faculties of persons, relevant sermons should be delivered in order to achieve the aims and objectives of delivering a sermon.  As a physician diagnoses the root cause or the history of a disease, preacher should identify these differences of man and help him to understand the truth and reality.  A preacher should appreciate one’s special traits like courage, cognitive powers and piety during the course of his sermons.

    每个人都或多或少有一个或更多的这些素质而布道者应仔细了解他的听众有什么样的品质。根据他们的素质特点一个人的肉体的和心理的状态以及语言行为和他们的态度是非常不同的。根据人的心理和肉体状态的不同,为实现目标和布道的宗旨应有针对性的布道。作为一个内科医生诊断的根据或一种疾病的历史,布道者应识别人的这些差异,这有助于他了解真相和事实。布道者应该在传道期间欣赏一个人的特质比如勇气,认知能力和虔诚。

 

    The second salient quality of a preacher is his ability to deliver a sermon with similar stories with similar meaning or well versed and clever in his delivery to adduce similar stories in different ways with same connotations.11,  Similar words, similes or synonyms for the same word or similar statements or sentences in one’s delivery may greatly help the hearer to comprehend at least one of them and there by to understand the truth.  A preacher should also be able to make the hearer understand the truth using diverse techniques that may help achieve the final goal of what the preacher preaches.

 

     布道者的第二个显著的特点是他有能力通过一个类似的故事或类似的含义来讲道或者以不同的方式援引同样的故事来熟练和聪明的布道。11 在讲道之中,同类的话,明喻或相同的同义词或相同的陈述或句子可能会大大有助于听者理解至少是其中一部分,进而了解实相。布道者也应该能够使用不同的技术帮助听者理解实相,这有助于最终实现布道者讲道的最终目的。

     The other vital quality of a preacher is to deliver his sermons with the ultimate motive of making his hearers understand with great compassion being shown to them and the preacher should be completely be devoid of jealousy conceit and pride etc.12

     其他重要的品质是一个布道者要让听众理解他所展现的慈悲是因为非常渴望让听众闻法。牧师应该完全是毫无嫉妒,自负和骄傲等等.12

     The next important trait of a preacher is he should not preach with great hopes of any perks and perquisites from his audience and if so he is not considered a preacher as the term implies.13

    布道者的另一个重要特征是他不应该希望从他的听众那里获取任何福利和小费,如果有,他并不认为是正规意义上的布道者。 13

    Being the final quality, a preacher must not abuse, disparage or insult others during his course of delivery and if so it cannot be considered a very successful sermon.14  A preacher should not give himself top priority or hold himself in high esteem when in the course of comparison during his delivery.  It should be left to the discretion of the listener to initiate them.

     最后的品质是,布道者在传道过程中不得虐待,贬低或侮辱他人,如果是这样这就不能被认为是一个成功的布道。14传教士不应该把自己看得最重要,或在他的布道之中通过比较来自我崇拜。这应该留给听众来判断是否接纳他们。

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