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听力和记忆(一)

(2009-08-14 22:44:34)
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文化

Publication. 01

 

Listening and Memorization

 

Advantages of listening

 

           From the point of view of a student, listening plays a key and vital role in his education process in spite of all the advanced development in science and technology.  Of the four skills of a language, listening precedes all the other three skills i.e. speaking, reading and writing.  Listening is first developed from one’s environment.  A person may further develop this listening skill through modern audio-visual media and a vast knowledge is gathered through it.

出版。 01

听闻和记忆

听闻的优势

  从一个学生的观点来看,听闻对于他接受高等的科学和技术教育有着关键和重要作用。就语言学习的四个技能来说,听力应排在说,读,写的前面。听力是一个人从环境中首先发展的能力。一个人可能会通过现代视听媒体训练出听力的技能并因此而获得大量的知识。 

   Visual techniques also occupy an important place in the educational process.  Based on the knowledge, information and data received through the audio-visual method can develop his creative thinking for new ideas.  Buddhism has given top priority to audio method or medium, but it has not overlooked visual method.  On many occasions, Buddha preached sermons based on visuals in the environment.  However, in modern discourses delivered at present times audio-system is the mostly used medium.  Listening is considered in Buddhism as a powerful medium of intellectual development.01,  Listening is a vast treasure.  This saying elucidate that listening helps to gain knowledge and wisdom. 02,  A person who hasn’t listened much is not an educated one.03,  Aversatile and well-versed person is considered an intelligent one in Buddhism as he has read and listened much.

   视像技术也在教育过程中占据着重要的地位。以相关知识为基础,通过视听媒体收到的信息和数据可以发展自己的创造性新思维。佛教很重视声音媒体,但它并没有忽视视觉媒体。在许多情况下,佛的布道是基于视觉境界。然而,在现代佛教的传布教义中,最常使用的是听力系统。佛教认为听闻是非常有效的启迪智慧的方法。01 ,听闻是一个巨大的宝藏。这句谚语说明,听力有助于获得知识和智慧.02,一个人听闻不多的人不是一个受过教育的人。03多才多艺的人和专精的人在佛教中被认为是智慧的人,因为他阅读听闻了许多。

 

 

Why should sermon be delivered

 

           A compulsory component in Buddhism is listening to Dhamma if one, except for a Buddha, is to attain Nibbana being the ultimate goal of Buddhism.  This is well explained in Buddhism, as listening to a sermon delivered by someone to attain Nibbana.04,  During Buddha’s time his followers and disciples attained Nibbana purely through listening to sermons and this shows how powerful listening is.

 

为什么要传道
    除了佛之外,听闻佛法是佛教中通向终极目的涅槃所必不可少的方法。这在佛教中有很好的解释,因为听闻某人讲道可以达到涅槃。04在佛陀的时代,他的追随者和弟子仅仅通过听闻讲法达到了涅槃,这表明听闻是多么有效。

 

A sermon is for the benefit of others

 

           The highest service by a preacher is to deliver a sermon for the welfare of his listeners.  This is called “Offer of Dhamma”.  This means preacher doesn’t expect any perks from the listener but helps to understand Buddhist doctrine.  It is suitable to accept something offered by a devout follower but this should not be the motive of the preacher.  If so this could be like holding a snake from its tail, said Buddha.

          

           Listening to Dhamma sermons leads a person to the highest level of enjoyment and jubilation says Buddhism.05, “Offering Dhamma” to others is considered to be the highest offer or alms in Buddhism.

 

布道是为利益他人

   一名布道者所做的最高服务就是对听众讲道,这被叫作“法布施”。这意味着布道者不希望从任何听众得到外快而是只要有助于理解佛教教义。接受虔诚的追随者的供奉是可以的,但是这不应是布道者的动机。如果是这样的话,这就象从尾巴去抓住一条蛇,佛如是说。

    佛教认为听闻正法说教是一种最高级别的享受和欢乐 .05 对他人的“法布施”被认为是佛教最高的供养或施舍。

 

 

 

 

Advantages of listening to Dhamma

 

           There are many advantages of listening to Dhamma listed in Buddhism.  The first one is virtue or Seela meaning discipline.  Discipline is further described as what should be and what should not be done.  On the other hand, it is the discipline of body and word.  “Vinaya” is another word used to denote the same idea.  “Mental purity and calmness of mind are all developed through discipline”.

听闻佛法的益处
   在佛教中列出了听闻佛法的许多优点。第一个是美德或涵养这意味着戒律。戒律进一步被描述为应该做什么,不应该做什么。另一方面,这是身与语的戒律。 “律”是用来表示同样的想法的另一个词。 “精神的纯度和冷静的心态都是通过戒律发展出来的” 。

 

           The second advantage in listening to Dhamma is the development of mental concentration with which visual objects can be retained in mind for a longer period of time.  The main and key points of a lecture or sermon remain in mind due to this state of concentration.  Human mind constantly depend on objects which are taken from visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory and tactile means.  These objects taken by the mind should be clearly understood as being good and bad.  If not properly understand, these objects can move and shake mind.  This state of the mind is called “Asamahita” meaning untamed.

 

    第二个听正法益处是形成精神专注因而视觉对象可以在心理保留一个更长的时间。从心理记住演讲或讲道的关键内容的原因在于专注的程度。人的心理不断地依赖于从视觉,听觉,嗅觉,味觉和触觉得到的目标。这些心理的对象应明确被理解为好的和坏的。如果不能正确理解,这些对象可以移动和动摇心理。这个心理状态被叫做的“散乱心”意味者不受约束。

 

     The root cause for all the deterioration is this untamed mind and the concentrated mind leads to all achievement and development.  Through listening, the development of mind called concentration can be achieved.

    所有堕落的根源就是这种不受约束的散乱心而专注的精神会导致所有的成就和发展。通过听闻,专注的心理是可以形成的。

 

           The third use of listening is to develop one’s cognitive power.  Here cognitive power means the ability to understand the objects that the mind takes or observes.

  

    听闻的第三个用处就是发展出一个人的认知能力。在这里认知能力意味着心灵有能力理解摄取和观察到的对象。

 

     In the other words, it is further defined as the correct understanding of life in terms of doctrine or Dhamma but it is not the real emancipation of life.

    换言之,就教义或佛法来说这进一步被界定生命正确理解,但是这不是生命的真正解放。

    The final goal of listening is for complete liberation or emancipation from all kinds of suffering.  Liberation literally means to redeem and relieve one from a tight grip.  Relieving or recovering from a long illness is on one hand redemption.  Freeing from an enemy prison is another kind of freedom or liberation.  So this liberation has different forms but the real liberation here means to be free from all defilement that had covered man’s mind.

    听闻的最终目标是为了从各种痛苦之中完全解放或解脱出来。解放的字面意思是从紧紧的束缚之中摆脱或解放出来。在长期患病中获得救助或治愈是在一种救赎。脱离敌人的监狱是另一种自由或解放。因此,这种解放有不同的形式,但真正的解放这里是指从覆盖人的心灵的各种污染之中解放出来。

    The objective of a lecturer should be to impart knowledge to the hearer and to direct him in the correct path, if so the preacher is admired and liked by all and disliked by all other people covered with ignorance.06,

    布道者的目标应该是对听者传授重要的知识并指示给他们正确的道路,这样的布道者是令所有人尊敬的和喜欢的而不被那些充满无知的人喜欢。06  

 

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