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要容貌还是要身材——爱美女人的两难选择

(2009-05-07 12:37:14)
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法国女演员凯瑟琳.丹尼尔说过,过了三十岁的女人如果想要保住青春容颜,就必须在身体和脸蛋之间做出选择,本周发表于“整形杂志”的一项主要研究证明她说得很对。世界一流整形专家巴哈马.格伊隆医生指出,消瘦最让人显老。

格伊隆和他在俄亥俄州克利夫兰市西储大学的团队在该项目的初步研究中,用两年时间研究了大约200对一模一样的双胞胎。格伊隆医生是该校整形外科系主任,他说,“个人衰老通常和自身基因和不同的外部环境有关。”

“对于环境因素与脸部衰老之间的关系已经进行了数百次研究,如阳光照射和抽烟的影响,但最后数据还是令人难以捉摸,原因在于尽管研究规模很大很彻底,但是无法控制影响衰老最重要的因素——基因。双胞胎的基因构成是一样的,他们衰老程度的区别就仅仅取决于外部因素了,与基因的‘好坏’无关。”

先要计算出每位双胞胎的身体质量指数“BMI”,即把体重“公斤”除以身高“米”的平方。成年人理想的BMI在18.5至25之间,BMI低于18.5是体重不足。格伊隆医生解释说,“把双胞胎们按BMI差异4点的要求来进行分组,结果发现四十岁以上的妇女中,BMI高出4点的女士容貌年轻2到4岁。”

英国美容外科协会的顾问和秘书拉基夫.格罗弗对该项发现表示欢迎,他说,“我们经常这样想,但是苦于没有证明,现在有了科学依据:你见老的原因不在于母亲的遗传,而是体重减轻。”脸部脂肪越多,特别是面颊部位,人的面部就越能保持年轻。

“过分节食会使脸面中部(面颊)失去肌肉和脂肪,因而使女士显得憔悴。如果是反反复复的节食,这种情况会变得更糟,因为它不仅造成体量减少,支撑面部的韧带也会因反复的变胖变瘦而伸张松弛,使鼻子到唇线和下巴变深。”

有一些影响衰老的外部因素并不令人奇怪,例如喜欢户外生活的人,或者对防晒不注意保护的人一般衰老得更快;双胞胎中抽烟和喝酒的人老得快,而且很明显。

但是有更令人惊奇的其它发现。婚姻状况是衰老的一个关键因素,离婚妇女比结婚或单身妇女更见老。“双胞胎中,离婚的比没有离婚的看起来要老1.7岁。”格伊隆医生说。

此外,双胞胎中患有抑郁症并服用抗抑郁药物的,要明显比没有抑郁症病史和不服用药物的见老。研究表明这种现象的原因可能是紧张导致的衰老效应,而脸部肌肉的持续松弛可能是长期服用抗抑郁药物的结果。

脸部肌肉的减少可以通过保持健康的体重来防止,这比有些难以掌控的事情要容易多了,比如对付抑郁症,或是面对提出离婚的配偶。

心理学家琳达.帕帕道普劳斯医生写过几本有关心理学和皮肤紊乱的书,她说,“你固然无法控制那些事情的发生,但是你可以控制自己对事件的应对。与各方面保持良好关系会让你看上去年轻,这是毫无疑问的。婚姻美满,或身在有保障的社会体系中,对我们的健康和容貌都有保护作用。”

“我们同意,精神紧张会引起皮肤问题,如牛皮癣和湿疹,但是研究也表明紧张是导致皮肤衰老的罪魁祸首。”她说,“不是离婚就会让你生出皱纹,而是你如何对待离婚这件事。假如你离了婚仍然很快活,你就会看上去气色不错。”

“情感紧张会影响免疫系统,并且通过皮肤变化表现出来。当我们紧张的时候,身体产生可以加快新陈代谢的皮质醇,结果使紧张在皮肤表面上爆发出来,导致皮肤早衰。所以说,由于这个道理,离婚,或者压抑会使皮肤衰老。”

尼克.劳维医生是伦敦格兰尼医院的皮肤科顾问,他通常要皮肤病人去看精神治疗医师,因为皮肤有病和变坏的潜在原因常常与紧张有关。“紧张会干扰调节修复皮肤的机理,也会干扰像皮质醇等和紧张有关的荷尔蒙,使皮肤变衰弱。”

拉基夫.格罗弗认同紧张和压抑是导致衰老的关键因素。“我认为,与其说衰老是一种线性过程,不如说是突发性的。而引发衰老突发的一个诱因是一段时间的精神紧张——最近的离婚、生病,或者亲人去世、工作麻烦等。所有这些都会导致压抑,使脸面中部消瘦,因而使面孔失去年轻的心脏形状。”他又说,外表年轻的人往往有乐观的性格,这一点也很明显。

帕帕道普劳斯医生说,新发现有积极意义,但只有当你完整来看待它的时候。你不能知道了这么一回事就想,“哦,我离婚了,我很压抑,所以……”。假如你正确来看待它,就会很受鼓舞。因为只要你学会应对紧张,学会接受你的身体,你就不仅能改变思维,还能改变容貌。

 

格伊隆医生同意这一点,“我们的发现本质上是,你的脸是有可能骗过你的生物钟的。

The secret of ageing beautifully - just like Nigella!

It was the French actress Catherine Deneuve who said that a woman over 30 years of age must choose between her body and her face as she attempts to hold back the effects of time. Now a major new study into the causes of ageing, to be published later this week in the Plastic and Reconstructive Journal, suggests that she was right. Being thin is what ages us most, according to by Dr Bahaman Guyuron, one of the world's leading experts on the subject.

In the first study of its kind, Guyuron and his team at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, studied nearly 200 pairs of identical twins over two years. "The perceived age of an individual is usually attributed to both genetics and environment in various degrees," says Dr Guyuron who is Chairman of the Department of Plastic Surgery.

"While hundreds of studies have looked into how environmental factors, such as sun damage and smoking, are associated with facial ageing, conclusive data has been elusive. The reason is that despite the size and thoroughness of the studies, they weren't able to control one of the most important contributors of ageing – genetics. Because the twins' genetic make-up was identical, the differences in how old they looked could be attributed solely to external factors, and not to "good or bad" genes."

The body mass index (BMI) of each twin was was calculated by dividing their weight in kilograms by their height in metres squared. The ideal BMI for an adult is between 18.5 and 25. Anyone with a BMI lower than 18.5 is classed as underweight. "The twins were divided into groups based on a four-point BMI difference," explains Guyuron. "A BMI higher by four points was found to result in a younger appearance of between two to four years in women over 40 years old."

Rajiv Grover, Consultant Plastic Surgeon and Secretary of the British Association of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, has welcomed the findings. "It gives scientific credence to what we always thought but couldn't prove, which is that it is not what your mother looks like, but volume-loss that makes you look older," he says. ''The more fat that is preserved in the face, particularly the cheeks, the more you will preserve the facial proportions of youth.

"Excessive dieting will give a woman a gaunt appearance by leading to volume loss in the midface [cheeks]. This volume loss can be compounded by yo-yo dieting, where not only do you create volume loss, but also stretching of the facial supporting ligaments due to repeated facial volume gain and volume loss, which causes deeper nose to mouth lines and jowls.''

Some of the other external factors that influence ageing come as no surprise: for example those who enjoyed an outdoor life, or who were careless with their sun protection aged faster. Twins who smoked and drank also aged faster, and more visibly.

But other findings were more surprising. Marital status was found to be a key factor in the ageing process, with women who have divorced looking older than their married or single counterparts. "The twin who is divorced appears about 1.7 years older than the twin who is not divorced," says Dr Guyuron.

In addition, a twin who suffered from depression and who took anti-depressant medication for the condition looked "significantly older" than a twin who had no history of anti-depressant use. Research suggests that the reason for this could be the ageing effects of stress, and the persistent relaxation of facial muscles which can be an effect of long term anti-depressant use.

While loss of volume in the face can be combated by maintaining a healthy weight, what about the things that are harder to control, such as a predisposition to depression or a partner asking for a divorce?

"Of course you can't control these things, but you can control how you handle them", says Dr Linda Papadopoulos, a psychologist and author of several books on psychology and skin disorders. "The idea that being in a happy relationship is going to keep you looking younger, for me is a no-brainer. Being in a happy marriage, or indeed any social support system, has a protective effect on our health and our looks.

"We accept that stress can cause skin conditions such as psoriasis and eczema, but research has also shown that one of the biggest contributing factors to skin ageing is stress," she says. "It's not so much the fact that you are divorced that will give you wrinkles, it's how you deal with it. If you are divorced and happy, then you'll look good.

"Emotional stress influences the immune system and this will manifest in changes in the skin. When we are tense, the body produces cortisol which can speed up the metabolism, resulting in stress break-outs on the skin surface and premature ageing. So yes, divorce, or being depressed, could age you for this reason."

Dr Nick Lowe, consultant dermatologist at the Cranley Clinic in London, routinely refers patients with skin conditions to psychotherapists, because the underlying cause of skin problems and deterioration is often stress-related. "Stress interferes with the systems that repair and regulate the skin, and hormones associated with stress, such as cortisol, weaken the skin.

Rajiv Grover agrees that stress and depression are key factors in ageing. "I believe ageing occurs in spurts rather than in a linear fashion. One trigger for an ageing spurt is a period of stress – recent divorce, illness, and bereavement or work problems. All these are related to depression which could accelerate volume loss from the midface, which therefore loses its youthful heart shape." However, he adds that a youthful outlook and joie de vivre are also significant characteristics in those who retain a young appearance.

Dr Papadopoulos says the new findings are positive ''but only if we read them in context. You shouldn't look at it and think, 'I'm divorced and depressed etc, so that's it…' If you turn it on its head, it is really encouraging because it suggests that if you learn to cope with stress, and learn to accept your body, then you cannot only change the way you think, but the way you look, too."

Dr Guyuron agrees: "What we've essentially discovered that is, when it comes to your face, it is possible to cheat your biological clock.

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