加载中…
个人资料
Spectator
Spectator
  • 博客等级:
  • 博客积分:0
  • 博客访问:28,725
  • 关注人气:11
  • 获赠金笔:0支
  • 赠出金笔:0支
  • 荣誉徽章:
相关博文
推荐博文
谁看过这篇博文
加载中…
正文 字体大小:

The Aims of Education (Excerpts)

(2010-01-06 00:00:00)
标签:

杂谈

Culture is activity of thought, and receptiveness to beauty and humane feeling. Scraps of information have nothing to do with it. A merely well-informed man is the most useless bore on God's earth. What we should aim at producing is men who possess both culture and expert knowledge in some special direction. Their expert knowledge will give them the ground to start from, and their culture will lead them as deep as philosophy and as high as art. We have to remember that the valuable intellectual development is self development, and that it mostly takes place between the ages of sixteen and thirty. As to training, the most important part is given by mothers before the age of twelve. A saying due to Archbishop Temple illustrates my meaning. Surprise was expressed at the success in after-life of a man, who as a boy at Rugby had been somewhat undistinguished. He answered, "It is not what they are at eighteen, it is what they become afterwards that matters."

 

In training a child to activity of thought, above all things we must beware of what I will call "inert ideas" -- that is to say, ideas that are merely received into the mind without being utilised, or tested, or thrown into fresh combinations.

 
In the history of education, the most striking phenomenon is that schools of learning, which at one epoch are alive with a ferment of genius, in a succeeding generation exhibit merely pedantry and routine. The reason is, that they are overladen with inert ideas. Education with inert ideas is not only useless: it is, above all things, harmful -- Corruptio optimi, pessima. Except at rare intervals of intellectual ferment, education in the past has been radically infected with inert ideas. That is the reason why uneducated clever women, who have seen much of the world, are in middle life so much the most cultured part of the community. They have been saved from this horrible burden of inert ideas. Every intellectual revolution which has ever stirred humanity into greatness has been a passionate protest against inert ideas. Then, alas, with pathetic ignorance of human psychology, it has proceeded by some educational scheme to bind humanity afresh with inert ideas of its own fashioning.
在教育的历史上,最惊人的现象莫过于:一度天才济济的学校,后来却变成了只是卖弄学问和陈规旧套的集中地。原因就在于,他们的大脑装满了太多的“无活力的概念”。这种“无活力的概念”教育不但无益,而且极为有害---正如拉丁文格言所说:最好的事物败坏,往往就成了最坏(Corruptio optimi pessima)。除了偶尔出现短暂的思想活跃期,过去的教育基本上都感染了“无活力的概念”病症。这就是为什么那些没有受过教育的聪明女人,在经过丰富的人生阅历、人到中年之后,反而却成了社会最有教养的一群;她们侥幸逃过了那种“无活力的概念”的恐怖重压。历史上,每一次将人性发扬光大的思想革命,都是对“无活力的概念”的激情反抗。然而可悲的是,由于对人类心理状态的无知,它却继续用某种教育体制,以它自己形成的“无活力的概念”,再度把人性牢牢地束缚起来。

Let us now ask how in our system of education we are to guard against this mental dryrot. We enunciate our two educational commandments, "Do not teach too many subjects," and again, "What you teach, teach thoroughly."
那么,我们到底该如何避免教育体制中的这种智力腐败与僵化呢?这里我们阐明两条教育“诫命”:一是不要教授太多的学科;二是不教则已、教必透彻。

The result of teaching small parts of a large number of subjects is the passive reception of disconnected ideas, not illumined with any spark of vitality. Let the main ideas which are introduced into a child's education be few and important, and let them be thrown into every combination possible. The child should make them his own, and should understand their application here and now in the circumstances of his actual life. From the very beginning of his education, the child should experience the joy of discovery. The discovery which he has to make, is that general ideas give an understanding of that stream of events which pours through his life, which is his life. By understanding I mean more than a mere logical analysis, though that is included. I mean "understanding" in the sense in which it is used in the French proverb, "To understand all, is to forgive all." Pedants sneer at an education which is useful. But if education is not useful, what is it? Is it a talent, to be hidden away in a napkin? Of course, education should be useful, whatever your aim in life. It was useful to Saint Augustine and it was useful to Napoleon. It is useful, because understanding is useful.
只教授一大堆学科中的一小部分,其后果便是学生被动接受一些互不相干、死气沉沉的概念。所以,在教育儿童时,向他们传授的主要概念,一定要少而精,而且尽量互相关联。要能让孩子将这些概念变成自己的东西,并能让他们当场领会在实际生活环境中的应用。这样,儿童从一开始接受教育,就能感受探索与发现的乐趣。孩子会发现,他所受教的这些基本概念很有用,可以令他对生活中经历的一件件大事小事有一种理解、有一种领悟,而这一连串事件也就是他的生活本身。我这里所说的“理解(领悟)”,不只包括逻辑分析,更是指法国谚语“完全原谅别人,才能完全理解别人”中所说的那种“理解”。迂腐的学究可能会讥笑这种有用的教育方式。然而,如果教育没有用,那它该是什么呢?它是藏着不用的才能吗?当然不是,不管你生活的目的是什么,教育总是应该有用的。教育过去对圣奥古斯丁是有用的,对拿破仑是有用的,它现在还是有用的,因为理解(领悟)是有用的。

I pass lightly over that understanding which should be given by the literary side of education. Nor do I wish to be supposed to pronounce on the relative merits of a classical or a modern curriculum. I would only remark that the understanding which we want is an understanding of an insistent present. The only use of a knowledge of the past is to equip us for the present. No more deadly harm can be done to young minds than by depreciation of the present. The present contains all that there is. It is holy ground; for it is the past, and it is the future. At the same time it must be observed that an age is no less past if it existed two hundred years ago than if it existed two thousand years ago. Do not be deceived by the pedantry of dates. The ages of Shakespeare and of Molière are no less past than are the ages of Sophocles and of Virgil. The communion of saints is a great and inspiring assemblage, but it has only one possible hall of meeting, and that is, the present, and the mere lapse of time through which any particular group of saints must travel to reach that meeting-place, makes very little difference.
 
关于“理解”问题,应该对其进行教育的文学层面的论述,而这里只是一带而过。同样,在此我也不打算对古典或现代课程的优缺点多说什么。我只想说,我们的教育亟需一种“理解”,就是理解这个我们必须面对的现在。过去的知识,它仅有的作用,是装备我们应付现在。对现在的严重轻视,是对年轻人智力上的最大致命伤害。现在涵盖一切所有,它就是“圣地”---因为它是过去,也是未来!同时,我们必须意识到这一点:两千年前的时代决不比两百年前的时代更为过去。不要被形式上的日期年代所拘泥、所欺骗。莎士比亚和莫里哀的时代决不比索福克勒斯和维吉尔的时代更为过去。就如“圣徒相通”(译者注:神学名词,指因信借基督的灵与耶稣基督联合的所有圣徒,彼此成为一体的团契与交通),它是一种伟大而壮观的集会,然而“会堂”只可能有一个,那就是“现在”,任何一个圣徒小团体都必须乘时光隧道到达“现在”这个“会堂”,所以,时光的流逝其实并没有太大的意义。

Passing now to the scientific and logical side of education, we remember that here also ideas which are not utilised are positively harmful. By utilising an idea, I mean relating it to that stream, compounded of sense perceptions, feelings, hopes, desires, and of mental activities adjusting thought to thought, which forms our life. I can imagine a set of beings which might fortify their souls by passively reviewing disconnected ideas. Humanity is not built that way -- except perhaps some editors of newspapers.
谈到教育的科学与逻辑层面,我们在这里也同样说,不加使用的概念必定有害。使一个概念有用,我指的是使它与生活事件进行关联,包括感觉、感情、盼望、愿望,以及调整思路的脑力活动等,这些事件也就是我们的生活。我可以想像出有这样一批人,他们被动地一遍又一遍死记着一些互不关联的概念,可能想要以此来强化他们的灵魂。但是,人性可不是这样建立起来的---当然,或许某些报纸的编辑应当除外。

In scientific training, the first thing to do with an idea is to prove it. But allow me for one moment to extend the meaning of "prove"; I mean -- to prove its worth. Now an idea is not worth much unless the propositions in which it is embodied are true. Accordingly an essential part of the proof of an idea is the proof, either by experiment or by logic, of the truth of the propositions. But it is not essential that this proof of the truth should constitute the first introduction to the idea. After all, its assertion by the authority of respectable teachers is sufficient evidence to begin with. In our first contact with a set of propositions, we commence by appreciating their importance. That is what we all do in after-life. We do not attempt, in the strict sense, to prove or to disprove anything, unless its importance makes it worthy of that honour. These two processes of proof, in the narrow sense, and of appreciation, do not require a rigid separation in time. Both can be proceeded with nearly concurrently. But in so far as either process must have the priority, it should be that of appreciation by use.
在科学训练中,对于一个概念,我们首先要做的是证明它的真实性。请容许我先对“证明”一词作一点扩充解释,我这里指的是证明概念的价值。概念由命题来加以体现,只有命题被证明是真实的,概念才具有价值。因而,证明一个概念的关键,是对命题的真实性,通过试验或逻辑来进行证明。然而,这并不是说,我们传授一个概念时,就必须先证明它的真实性。毕竟,众多教师的名望与权威,已足够让我们相信其真实性。通常,初次接触一套命题,我们先是抱着一种重视的态度来进行鉴赏。人死之后的灵魂生活就是这样的。从严格意义上讲,除非确实很有必要,我们通常并不去证明或反驳任何事物。狭义而言,证明和鉴赏这两个过程,时间上并无严格区分,二者几乎可以同时进行。但若必须分先后,从使用价值来讲,当是鉴赏为先。

Furthermore, we should not endeavour to use propositions in isolation. Emphatically I do not mean, a neat little set of experiments to illustrate Proposition I and then the proof of Proposition I, a neat little set of experiments to illustrate Proposition II and then the proof of Proposition II, and so on to the end of the book. Nothing could be more boring. Interrelated truths are utilised en bloc, and the various propositions are employed in any order, and with any reiteration. Choose some important applications of your theoretical subject; and study them concurrently with the systematic theoretical exposition. Keep the theoretical exposition short and simple, but let it be strict and rigid so far as it goes. It should not be too long for it to be easily known with thoroughness and accuracy. The consequences of a plethora of half-digested theoretical knowledge are deplorable. Also the theory should not be muddled up with the practice. The child should have no doubt when it is proving and when it is utilising. My point is that what is proved should be utilised, and that what is utilised should -- so far, as is practicable -- be proved. I am far from asserting that proof and utilisation are the same thing.

 

http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_4152d4c80100060v.html

0

阅读 评论 收藏 禁止转载 喜欢 打印举报/Report
  • 评论加载中,请稍候...
发评论

    发评论

    以上网友发言只代表其个人观点,不代表新浪网的观点或立场。

      

    新浪BLOG意见反馈留言板 电话:4000520066 提示音后按1键(按当地市话标准计费) 欢迎批评指正

    新浪简介 | About Sina | 广告服务 | 联系我们 | 招聘信息 | 网站律师 | SINA English | 会员注册 | 产品答疑

    新浪公司 版权所有