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圣诞岛红蟹 艰险的爱之路

(2009-04-14 20:28:02)
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圣诞岛红蟹 艰险的爱之路

文/蕙的风

    这几天蕙风看了央视《绿色空间》关于圣诞岛红蟹的纪录片,喜欢上了这样的小生灵,千百年来,他们的迁徙繁衍之路比非洲的角马还要壮观,它们以残枝落叶为食,粪便肥沃了贫瘠的珊瑚礁土质,滋养了茂密的热带雨林,它们天生喜欢在树根部打洞疏通,使树木适意而生长迅速,也使弹丸之地(135k㎡)的圣诞岛拥有着大陆才有的繁茂植被,荫蔽所有的鸟类和小型哺乳动物,生态发达竟然进化出非洲苍鹰的近亲--圣诞岛苍鹰(Accipiter fasciatus natalis),实在另人惊叹造物主的神奇。红蟹作为圣诞岛特有物种,是圣诞岛的象征,是上帝的恩赐,千百万年来,红地毯般的红蟹爱情大军潮涨潮落、绮丽而壮观,像一首大自然的史诗织造着岛屿的精美与和谐。直到有一天,黄足捷蚁(Yellow Crazy Ant)的到来改变了这一切,要想知道物种入侵如何可怕,光听Yellow Crazy Ant字面上的翻译---黄疯蚁就知道了。  

         

 

    看到最后,蕙风为它们与人类的和谐共处而感动,也为它们岌岌可危的前途感到担忧,在网上查阅圣诞岛的资料,好家伙,这澳大利亚孤悬海外的离岛,仅有135平方公里的观光天堂和钓鱼乐园,竟是全球少数以华人为主的地区之一,华人占到61%,而且是从不吃红蟹、与之和谐共处的华人哟,油然而生亲切圣诞岛红蟹 <wbr>艰险的爱之路!然后继续查找,蕙风发现关于红蟹的详细资料竟然没有圣诞岛红蟹 <wbr>艰险的爱之路,只好求助圣诞岛官方网站。在此将有关红蟹的章节翻译过来,与关注的朋友们共享。 

 

Christmas Island Red Crabs
圣诞岛红蟹

Gecarcoidea natalis (Pocock, 1888)
学名:Gecarcoidea natalis
The Christmas Island red crab is by far the most obvious of the 14 species of land crabs found on Christmas Island. It is estimated that 120 million of these bright red land crabs live in their preferred shady sites all over the island.
圣诞岛红蟹是迄今为止在圣诞岛上最明显发现的14种陆蟹之一。据估计全岛有1.2亿只这样的红蟹生活在它们喜爱的阴凉处。

 

圣诞岛红蟹 <wbr>艰险的爱之路   圣诞岛红蟹 <wbr>艰险的爱之路

Physical Characteristics of Christmas Island Red Crabs 

圣诞岛红蟹的身体特征

    Bright red is the common colour but there are the occasional orange specimens and more rarely some purple animals. They are a big crab. An adult body shell (or carapace) may measure up to 116mm across. The Christmas Island red crabs' carapace is round shouldered and encloses their lungs and gills. Their claws are usually of equal size unless one is a regrowing claw. Males grow larger overall than females, while females have a much broader abdomen and usually have smaller claws than males. However young Christmas Island red crabs all have the characteristic narrow abdomen of the male. The broader abdomen on the female Christmas Island red crab only becomes apparent in the third year of growth.
    亮红色是最常见的红蟹的颜色,但偶尔也会有橙色的或者更罕见的紫色。它们是一种很大的陆蟹。一只成年红蟹的外壳,即胸甲能达到116毫米宽。圣诞岛红蟹的甲壳和圆形的肩甲包裹着它们的肺和鳃。它们的爪总是一样大除非事新长出来的爪。总体上来说,雄性个体比雌性的大,但雌性个体却有更宽的腹部和略小的爪。它们的幼体的腹部都是狭窄的。成年雄性的腹部仍是狭窄的但雌性个体的宽的腹部将会在第三年显现出来。圣诞岛红蟹 <wbr>艰险的爱之路

 

       圣诞岛红蟹 <wbr>艰险的爱之路


    Christmas Island red crabs grow slowly, reaching about 40mm in carapace width after 4-5 years. They are sexually mature at this age and begin to participate in the breeding migrations.
    圣诞岛红蟹生长缓慢,4-5年以后壳长才达到40毫米。在这个时候它们性征发育成熟并开始参与繁殖大迁徙。


    The Christmas Island red crabs moult their shells regularly during their early growth phases to match their increasing body size. Moulting usually takes place in the protected moist environment of their burrows. Mature Christmas Island red crabs probably moult only once a year, as their growth rate slows.
    圣诞岛红蟹在生长的初期阶段定期脱壳来使之符合自己的身体大小。它们总是选择安全且潮湿的地洞来完成脱壳。成年圣诞岛红蟹或许一年只蜕一次壳,因为它们生长缓慢。

Diet
食谱
    Red Crabs diet consists mainly of fallen leaves, fruits, flowers and seedlings. They prefer fresh green leaves but will eat any fallen leaves. They are not solely vegetarian however. They will eat other dead crabs and birds, the introduced Giant African snail and palatable human rubbish if the opportunity presents itself.
They have virtually no competition for their food resource due to their high numbers and dominance of the forest floor.
    红蟹的食谱主要是落叶、水果、花、种子。它们更喜欢绿叶,对于落叶也毫不介意。但它们不只是素食者。如果有机会的话,它们也会吃其他红蟹的尸体,鸟类,非洲大蜗牛和美味的人类垃圾。由于它们巨大的数量和对森林地面的占据,它们几乎没有对于食物来源上的竞争。

Habitat
生活习性
    Although most common in the moist environment of the rainforest, Red Crabs live in a variety of habitats including coastal shore terraces, and even domestic gardens. Tall rainforest on deeper soils has the highest crab density. They dig burrows in almost every square metre of available soil or live in deep crevices in rock outcrops. For most of the year, a crab will settle in one place, living in their burrow. The crabs' burrows have a single entrance tunnel which leads to a single chamber. Only one crab lives in a burrow and outside of the breeding season Red Crabs are solitary, and do not tolerate intruders into their burrows.
    虽然红蟹常见于潮湿的热带雨林中,但它们的生活环境却十分复杂,包括海边的岩石,甚至家庭花园当中。深层土壤上的热带雨林中红蟹密度更大。它们在能挖懂得任何一平方米挖洞或者生活在岩缝中的岩洞中。一年中的大部分时光它们会在自己的洞中度过。螃蟹的洞只有一个入口通过隧道达到一个房间。一个洞内只有一只螃蟹,除繁殖期以外它们都是孤独的,并且不能容忍洞中的入侵者。 
    Red Crabs are diurnal (active during the day) and almost inactive at night despite lower temperatures and higher humidity. They take great care to conserve body moisture and this seems to be the single most important factor influencing the crab activity. Sensitivity of crabs to moisture, combined with the seasonal climate on Christmas Island, create a distinct seasonal pattern of activity. Crabs retreat into the humid interior of their burrows during the dry season. They plug the burrow entrance with a loose wad of leaves to maintain a high humidity level, and effectively disappear from view for up to two to three months of the year.
    红蟹是日行性动物,无论其文如何晚上总是无精打采。它们注意保重身体,以保持水分,这似乎是一个最重要的因素影响蟹的活动。蟹对于湿度的敏感,结合圣诞岛上的季节性气候,造成了一个独特的季节性的活动模式。在干季它们退入潮湿的洞内,用树叶堵住洞口来维持湿度,并有效地消失期长达一年中的2至3个月。


圣诞岛红蟹 <wbr>艰险的爱之路  

                                 圣诞岛鸟瞰


The Annual Migration To The Ocean
每年一次与大海的约会
     At the beginning of the wet season (usually October / November), most adult Red Crabs suddenly begin a spectacular migration from the forest to the coast, to breed and release eggs into the sea. Breeding is usually synchronized island wide. The rains provide moist overcast conditions for crabs to make their long and difficult journey to the sea. The timing of the migration breeding sequence is also linked to the phases of the moon, so that eggs may be released by the female Red Crabs into the sea precisely at the turn of the high tide during the last quarter of the moon. It is thought that this occurs at this time because there is the least difference between high and low tides. The sea level at the base of the cliffs and on the beaches, where the females release their eggs, at this time varies the least for a longer period, and it is therefore safer for the females approaching the water's edge to release their eggs. Sometimes there are earlier and later migrations of smaller numbers of crabs but all migrations retain this same lunar rhythm.
    在雨季开始之时(通常是10-11月),大多数成年红蟹会突然开始壮观的迁徙,从森林到海岸,为了繁殖和向大海中产卵。繁殖通常与海岸宽度同步。雨在红蟹的旅程中提供了潮湿的环境。繁殖迁徙的时间和次序也和月亮的转台有关,这样雌性红蟹释放的卵就能正好在涨潮时被带入海中。也有人曾认为这时高潮和低潮相差不大。海平面正好在岩石和海滩上,正是雌性红蟹要产卵的地方,此后的很长一段时间海平面变化都很小,便于雌性接近海的边缘来产卵。随着月圆月缺,会有先后几批迁徙陆续到达。


The Breeding Calender
繁殖日程
    Males lead the first wave of the downward migration and are joined by females as they progress. Larger males arrive at the sea first (after about 5-7 days) but are soon outnumbered by females. The crabs replenish moisture by dipping in the sea, then the males retreat to the lower terraces to dig burrows.
    雄性第一批到达了繁殖地点,随后雌性加入了它们。体型较大的雄性最先到达(大约旅行开始的5-7天后)但是到达的雌性的数目很快超越了它们。红蟹们在海里补充盐分和水分,然后雄性退到较低的海边开始挖洞。
    The density of burrows is high (1-2 per square metre and fighting occurs between males for burrow possession. The females move to the terraces and mating occurs, usually in the privacy of the burrows that males have dug and fought for. As mating, and fighting, abates, males dip again and begin returning inland. They move quickly, reaching the plateau in only 1-2 days.
    红蟹密度很高,每平方米能有1-2个(这里可能数值有错圣诞岛红蟹 <wbr>艰险的爱之路)。雄性之间对于争夺领地的大都时常发生。雌性也来到海滩边,交配开始了,通常是在雄性拼命争夺来的秘洞中。交配和大豆过后,雄性螃蟹再蘸一蘸潮湿的海水,回到内陆。它们快速移动,回到高地只需要1-2天。(强圣诞岛红蟹 <wbr>艰险的爱之路
    The females produce eggs within 3 days of mating and remain in the moist burrows on the terraces for 12-13 days while they develop. The eggs are held in a brood pouch between their extended abdomen and thorax. A single female can brood up to 100,000 eggs.
    雌性将在三天内产生卵,孵卵的时候它们呆在岸边潮湿的洞中大约12-13天。他们的卵在孵卵囊里(胸部和腹部之间)。一只雌性可以产生大约10万个卵。(竟也会灭绝?圣诞岛红蟹 <wbr>艰险的爱之路
    In the morning and late afternoon around the last quarter of the moon, the egg-laden females descend from the terraces to the shoreline. They pack into shaded areas above the waterline at densities of up to 100 per square metre in places. The females usually release their eggs into the sea toward dawn, around the turn of the high tide. Release of eggs may occur on 5-6 consecutive nights during the main breeding migration. After the first two days, eggless females may be seen crossing plateau roads, kilometres from the shore.
    早晨和午后,通常是下弦月时,雌性从岩石边下来,来到海岸线。在某些地方,他们以超过100只/平方米的密度拥挤进海平面上面的阴暗处。拂晓时,雌性开始向海中产卵,在即将涨潮时。主迁徙期,产卵通常持续5-6个晚上。开始的两天过去后,就可以看到已产卵的雌性穿过离海岸线几公里的高原地带的路。
    If the spawning migration is delayed or disrupted, usually because of unfavorable weather conditions, both male and female crabs will remain on the terraces for the next month and complete the spawning one lunar month later.
    如果繁殖迁徙收到中断,通常是因为恶劣的天气条件,雄性和雌性会继续呆在岩石上等待下一个月的涨潮。
    Although only 5mm across, the baby crabs begin their march inland, taking about 9 days to reach the plateau. Here they seem to disappear and are rarely seen, living in rocky outcrops and under fallen tree branches and debris on the forest floor for the first three years of their life.
In many years, very few or no baby crabs emerge from the sea, but the occasional very successful year (perhaps only one or two every ten years) is enough to maintain the Red Crab population to a high level.
    虽然只有5毫米长,小螃蟹宝宝们也开始进军内陆,花了大约9天抵达高原。在这儿他们似乎消失了而且很难见到,这是因为他们生活在地表岩层落叶下面,他们将在这里度过3年的生命。
许多年来,非常少或者根本没有小螃蟹宝宝回到海洋中来,但是偶尔的非常成功的繁殖(十年一两回)也足够维持红蟹种群数量了。

 

圣诞岛红蟹 <wbr>艰险的爱之路

                           圣诞岛丛林风光

Impact Of Humans
与人类的冲突
     Certain human activities have led to increased numbers of Red Crabs dying during their annual migration to the sea. As well as there being a greater risk of crabs dehydrating when forced to cross areas cleared of forest cover, thousands of adults and young are crushed by vehicles while crossing roads. Some have to negotiate up to three or four such hazards on their descent and ascent each year. Conservation measures have been implemented to help reduce this high death toll. 
    可以确定的是人类活动使红蟹的增加数量减少了,主要是迁徙途中。(他们会横穿公路、马路、甚至闯进你的私家花园)同样砍伐树木使它们脱水而死,数以千计的成年或幼年蟹在迁徙途中死在车轮下(因该是150万只/年)人们认为这样多的风险回对他们造成伤害。保护措施已经实施,有助于减少这样高的死亡数目。

     To reduce the number of crabs killed by vehicles during the migration, 'crab crossings' are being constructed in roads which cross main crab migration paths. Points where high numbers of Red Crabs cross roads have been identified, and tunnels are built under the road for crabs to pass through. Walls that the crabs can not climb over are built alongside the road to 'funnel' the migrating crabs through the tunnels. These crab crossings may be seen on the Lily Beach road. Other conservation measures used by the community are road closures and traffic detours around the major migration paths during peak periods of the migration.
    为了减少一些红蟹在迁徙途中遇难, “蟹路”正在迁徙的主要道路被建造。大量的红蟹横过马路的地点已经被指出,并且隧道的建设允许道路下的螃蟹通过。蟹不能通过的墙被斜放,漏斗形的隧道也在兴建。这些“蟹路”可以在Lily海滩看到。其他养护措施包括封路及交通疏散各地的主要迁徙路径高峰期间的红蟹。

圣诞岛红蟹 <wbr>艰险的爱之路


    每年的10月份,圣诞岛进入雨季,此时,蛰伏在洞穴里的红蟹听从爱情的召唤,走出家门、爬向海边去搭建爱巢。选择这个季节,不但有利于身体的保湿,而且此时的大潮汐也能把母蟹排出的卵顺利带入大海里。从栖息地到海边的沙滩,不足3公里的距离,这是红蟹们寻觅爱情的必经通道,也是一条充满凶险的艰难旅程。
  红蟹上路了,铺天盖地,浩浩荡荡的红蟹,像一块移动的红地毯。它们趁着清晨的阴凉,以每小时700米的速度,从树林里出发,蟹脚掀动树叶的声音,如一阵疾雨掠过树林。
  当红蟹们爬出树林时,赤道的烈日已经等候它们多时了。它们仿佛一下子就进入了50多度的烤炉里,毒辣的太阳光,迅速地蒸发着它们身上的水分。为了不被烤干,它们加快了速度,向海边爬行。但是,爬行在队伍后面的那些体质差的老、弱、残蟹,却无法经受这种“烤”验,暴晒使它们身体迅速脱水,它们再也无力爬行了。
  活下来的红蟹们,仍不能松懈,因为它们马上就会迎来下一个生死考验:那是几条运送矿石的铁轨。发着亮光的铁轨,在太阳的烘烤下,可以达到摄氏八十度,从上面经过,无异于是经受炮烙之刑,所以,红蟹们跨越这些铁轨时的速度一定要快。而那些腿脚不利索、爬行速度慢的红蟹,则会被烙得直冒烟。

  经过铁轨后,海滩就只有百米之遥了。但它们还要经历最后一次生死考验,因为它们还要穿过一条高速公路,总有一些命运差的红蟹会被碾在快速行驶的汽车轮子下面。黑色的路面上,红蟹们用生命涂画着一片片悲壮的红色。
  经过一路炼狱一般的考验,才能在海滩上筑起爱巢,交配产卵,然后生活在海滩上,直到终老。据统计,每年都有超过500万只的红蟹,长眠在这条不足3公里的路上,

  亘古以来红蟹的爱与责任,让圣诞岛上的“爱情之路”举世闻名。如今转瞬之间,物种入侵成为人人谈虎色变的话题,红蟹的最大威胁将不再是自然与人工的艰难险阻。人类活动带来的入侵者黄足捷蚁,几乎彻底摧毁他们。蚁酸令再坚硬的甲壳也不堪一击,红蟹成为蚁口美味,更助长了黄足捷蚁的繁殖,连岛上最偏僻的地方也发现了黄足捷蚁的足迹,而蚁路正是红蟹的不归路,每年因黄足捷蚁死亡的蟹有1500万之巨!

    圣诞岛的生态系统相对独立,在这一场大的挑战面前,无论危亡无否,都足以成为地球生态的缩影警示着人类。对于生物入侵,蕙风想起了前几年海南岛椰心叶甲入侵造成的空前危机,一颗椰树有虫、500米椰林不存,岌岌可危的状况最终是靠引进生物天敌姬小蜂得以化解。这样的经验希望对挽救红蟹有利,或者可以移植专门的可以迅速蔓延的病毒于黄足捷蚁体内以解决问题。

    祝福可爱的生灵,祝福艰险的爱之路,祝福亿万年得以保存的生态法则,在这样的法则面前人类只有短短的几百万年的历史而已!对于我们一手导演的生态悲剧,人类对于自然家园的危亡需要自责,需要用实际行动来忏悔!

 

圣诞岛红蟹 <wbr>艰险的爱之路

                            圣诞岛海景

 

 

圣诞岛资料

 

太平洋中部偏南有个岛国叫基里巴斯共和国。它由3 个群岛组成,即西部的吉尔伯特群岛,中部的凤凰群岛和东部的莱恩群岛。圣诞岛是莱恩群岛的北部三岛之一。从地图上看,圣诞岛是地球上最小的岛之一,占地只有135k㎡,可实际上它是世界上最大的环礁湖岛,加上礁湖的面积为640k㎡。圣诞岛是全球少数以华人为主的地区之一,其中华人占61%,马来人占25%,欧洲人占11%,官方语言为英语。

地理

圣诞岛位于印度洋东北部,为火山岛。北距印度尼西亚雅加达约500公里,东南距澳大利亚西岸的西北角约1565公里。海岸线长80公里,沿岸大多为悬崖峭壁,仅有浅滩约13处,最大的一处名为飞鱼湾(Flying Fish Cove),是岛内惟一港口和人口主要聚居地。属热带海洋性气候,平均气温2l℃~32℃,湿度高达80~90%。气候温和,但湿季(11月~次年4月)时有暴风雨,使岛周围出现较大风浪。年均降雨量为2000毫米。

历史

1643年圣诞节,英国人威廉·迈纳斯长发现该岛,并命名为圣诞岛,1888年正式并入英国。1942年~1945年曾被日本军队占领。1946年起成为英属新加坡的属地。1957年,在澳大利亚的要求下,新加坡以290万英镑的价格将此岛转让,1958年10月1日,依据《1958年圣诞岛法案》,圣诞岛正式移交澳大利亚管理,成为澳大利亚的海外领地。

经济

磷酸盐矿开采是圣诞岛的经济支柱。另外,旅游业也正成为日益重要的产业,该岛约70%的面积都是国家公园,拥有独特的动植物资源,能看到全球仅此可见的圣诞岛陆地红蟹大迁徙。良好的潜水、捕鱼设施也吸引众多游人前来观光。2000年岛上约有旅馆90家。

岛名来历:

1777 年,英国航海家詹姆斯·库克在夏威夷以南2080 公里的太平洋海面上登上一个岛,因为当时正值圣诞节前夕,故取名为圣诞岛。

风景介绍:

圣诞岛上风光绮丽,四周为珊瑚礁所环绕,岛的外侧暗礁重重,巨浪冲天;内侧则细浪轻柔,银白色的沙滩全部是由珊瑚碎片形成,在阳光下熠熠发光。退潮时,珊瑚礁的尖顶纷纷露出水面,琼堆玉砌,晶莹剔透,顺着银白色的海滩延伸,形成一个宽数百米的环岛珊瑚带。岛上森林繁茂,苍翠欲滴,遍地是挺拔的槟榔、叶大如伞的热带山芋和香蕉、菠萝、面包树等热带树种。近年来岛上还种植了大片的椰林,据说有50 余万棵。

圣诞岛是钓鱼爱好者的天堂,那里得天独厚的条件可以任他们大显身手。他们总能乘兴而来,满载而归。为发展旅游业,岛上建起了一家旅馆,旅馆以圣诞岛的发现者的名字命名,叫詹姆斯·库克旅馆。

到圣诞岛不可不尝一尝当地特有的饮料——淘迪。淘迪是一种经过发酵的椰子汁,它甜中带点儿酒味,喝着既解渴又爽口,但喝多了会醉人。


 蕙的风的链接: http://blog.sina.com.cn/u/5bb2f7c90100dder [查看原文]

 

 

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