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考研阅读精读笔记(98Passage Four - 99)

(2009-06-30 17:58:21)
标签:

杂谈

Passage Four

L:
census n.人口普查

regional a.地区的                        region n.

standstill n.停止

in years ahead  将来

enthrone vt.使加冕;使登王位;使成为最高/最大/最强...

densely ad.稠密地;密集地                dense a.

populate = inhabit  vt.居住

the most densely populated region   人口最密集的地区

the most thinly populated area   人口最稀少的地区

counting n.计数,计算,数数                          count v.

numerically ad.数字地,数目地                 numerical a.

add up to = amount to  总计,达到

except for 除了

the Depression  (1929-1932)大萧条

migrate v.       迁徙,移动                         migration n.

migrant n.迁徙者;候鸟

belt n.带,地带,腰带

be attributed to   被归因于

nonstop a.不停顿的

wave n.浪潮;波浪

immigrant n.移民                        immigrate v.

crop n.庄稼,作物;一批

baby boom  婴儿潮,婴儿出生高峰

child-bearing a.生育孩子的

demographer n.人口学家

demography n.人口学

vast a.广大的,大的

respectively ad.各自地                 respective a.

be composed of  由...构成,包括

square n./a.正方形;广场;平方

per square mile  每平方英里

crowded a.拥挤                           crowdedness n.

bearable a.能承受的,能忍受的

dramatize v.戏剧化的表达;清楚地表达/表现

spacious a.宽敞的

smog n.烟雾

plague n.弊端;瘟疫;灾难;祸患

urbanization n.       城市化,都市化                         urbanize v.

the Golden State  指California

two thirds  三分之二

one fifth  五分之一

discern v.看,分辨

perplex v.使困惑

net a.净的,纯的

witness vt.见证;目击  n.证人

unparalleled a.无与伦比的

bring sth to a standstill   让sth停下来

highlight = spotlight  vt.凸显;强调

pursuit n.追逐;追求                                pursue v.

elaborate v.精心制作;详细阐述

unanimously ad.一致地,无例外地                          unanimous a.

in favor of  支持,赞同;喜欢

conservative n.保守者  a.保守的

cling to = stick to  坚持

 

S:

Nowhere do 1980 census statistics dramatize more the American search for spacious living than in the Far West. =

1980 census statistics do not more dramatize the American search for spacious living anywhere than in the Far West.

比起遥远的西部,在其他任何地方,1980年的人口普查数据都不会更清楚的表现美国人对宽敞的居住条件的追求。

在遥远的西部, 1980年的人口普查数据能最清楚的表现美国人对宽敞的居住条件的追求。

 

Discerned from the perplexing picture of population growth the 1980 census provided, America in l970s witnessed a southwestern shift of population.

从1980年的人口普查所提供的、关于人口增长的、令人困惑的情况来看,二十世纪七十年代的美国见证了人口向西南方向的迁移。

 

W:

Arizona ranked second of all states in its growth rate of population.

在人口增长率方面,亚利桑那州在各州当中位居第二。

China ranks first of all countries in population.

在人口方面,中国在全世界位居第一。

 

Passage Five

L:
globe n.世界;地球仪                        global a.

isolate v.使孤立;隔离                              isolation n.

volcanic a.火山的

volcano n.火山

A named/called/termed B   被(人们)称作B的A

A known as B   被(人们)称作B的A

A known to sb as B  被sb称作B的A

geologist n.地质学家

boundary n.边界

drift v./n.飘移

plate n.板块;盘子

make up  构成,组成

surface n.表面

on the contrary  相反

lie vi.位于;躺

interior n./a.内部

past prep.通过,经过

milestone n.里程碑

floor n.底部;地板

complementary a.补充的,互补的                           complement v.

coast n.海岸

coastline n.海岸线

continent n.大洲,大陆                             continental a.

join v.连接

relative a.相对的

motion n./v.移动

construct v.构建;建造

with respect to  关于,对于,至于

opposite a./n.相反

stationary a.静止的

anchor v.停留,停泊;固定  n.锚

frame n.框架

geophysical a.地球物理的

propel v.推动,驱动                          propulsion n.

across prep.横穿,跨越

dome n.隆起;圆屋顶

mutability n.可突变性                 mutate v.变异;突变

inconstancy n.易变性,可变性

correspond to A   与A相对应;与A相符

deduce v.推断,推导                                deduction n.

stable a.稳定的                           stability n.

Just as ..., so ...   正如...,...也

Just as the Chinese have the Spring Festival for family reunions, so westerners have their Christmas.

正如中国人有春节可以进行家人团聚,西方人也有他们的圣诞节。

 

W:

A is a reminder of B.   A让人们想到B。

Dogs are often reminders of loyalty.   狗常常让人们想到忠诚。

 

That ... is now beyond dispute.    无可置疑,...

That the Internet has considerably changed our life is now beyond dispute.

无可置疑,互联网已经大大改变了我们的生活。

 

1999

Passage One

L:

rough a.粗糙的;粗鲁的;粗暴的;粗略的;混乱的;艰难的

step vi.走  n.步;步骤

slip v.滑,滑倒

doormat n.门口的脚垫

light up  点燃;照亮

stove n.炉子

luckily ad.幸运的是

warn/caution sb of A  提醒某人注意A

warn/caution of A  提醒人们注意A

warn/caution sb that  提醒某人注意

warn/caution that   提醒人们注意

caution v. = warn 警告,提醒  n.小心,谨慎               

cautious a. 小心的,谨慎的

coming a.即将到来的

disaster n.灾难                            disastrous a.

lawsuit = suit  n.诉讼;起诉                          

sue vt. 诉讼;起诉

compensate v. 赔偿                            compensation n.赔偿;赔偿金

or conj.或许,或者

hold sb liable for sth  让sb为sth负责

misfortune n.不幸

ever-longer a.越来越长的

stepladder n.人字梯

inch n.英寸

foot n.英尺;脚

among other things  除了其他因素/事物

federal a.联邦的

regulation n.规则,规矩             

regulate v.调整,规范,管理

protect sb from sth  使sb免受sth

take sb to court  把sb告上法庭

claim n./v.索赔

side with = support  vt.支持

defendant n.被告

paralyze v.麻痹,瘫痪                paralysis n.

game n.比赛;游戏

helmet n.头盔

substantial a.大的,重大的;相当数额的;牢固的;丰盛的

carry substantial weight  极有分量,很重要

issue v.发布;发行

tort law  侵权法

lengthy a.冗长的

a sea of  大量的

triviality n.无关紧要的细节;琐碎

trivial a. 无关紧要的;琐碎的

draft v./n.起草;草稿

moderate a.不过分的;适度的;有节制的

have one’s way  得偿所愿,实现

relieve sb of sth   减轻sb的sth (sth:通常指不好的事物,如负担,债务等)

manufacturer n.制造商

manufacture n./v.制造

inadequacy n.不足                              inadequate a.

feel obliged to do   感到不得不做

demonstrate v.                             demonstration n.

eventually ad.最终

discard v.抛弃

 

W:

Now the tide appears to be turning.    现在潮流似乎正在逆转。

 

A might lose popularity with people.   A可能会不再受欢迎。

A enjoys (great) popularity with people.   A(极)受欢迎。

Some traditions might lose popularity with people. 

有些传统可能会被人们淡忘。

 

Passage Two

L:

or so  (只位于数字后)大概,左右

revolve v.旋转

revolve around = center around  vt.绕着...转,以...为中心,以...为主

tap v.开发,开拓

business-to-business = B-2-B  企业对企业

make sense 有意义

make sense of sth  理解sth,明白sth

typically ad.总是;典型地

nonetheless = nevertheless  ad.尽管如此

reliability n.可靠                         reliable a.

trust v./n.信任

senior a.资深的;年纪大的

analyst n.分析者

conduct v.进行;执行;传导;指挥

online a./ad.网上的;在线

transaction n.交易

established a.固定的;既定的

partner n.伙伴

be given access to A  可以接近/获得/使用A

give sb access to A   让sb可以接近/获得/使用A

commerce n.商业                        commercial a.

concern vt.关系到,与...有关

develop tools   开发软件工具

allow sb to do   使sb有可能做;允许sb做

target vt.把...作为目标;瞄准  n.目标

targeted customer  目标客户

screen n.屏幕

screen saver  屏幕保护程序

notably ad.尤其;显著地

deliver v.传送;移交;发表

update v.更新

updated a.最新的

stream n.一连串,一系列;流,溪流

subscriber n.订购者,订阅者,用户

subscribe to sth  认购;订阅;捐赠

monitor n.显示器;班长  v.监视

customize vt.定制,定购

proceed vi.进行

think highly of   高度评价

flow v./n.流;流动

request n./v.请求,要求

distinction n.区别

horrify vt.使害怕

purist n.纯粹论者

compute v.计算

silicon n.硅

10 years from now  10年后

take the plunge  决心做,犹豫之后断然开始

expand v.拓展;扩展;膨胀                      expansion n.

boom v./n.繁荣

speak of = refer to = mention  vt.提到,说到

have faith in A  对A有信心

Sth is accessible to sb.   Sb可以接近/获得/使用sth。

in the view of sb  在sb看来

in view of A = given A    考虑到A

priority n.优先,优先性,优先考虑

give priority to A   优先考虑A

be given priority to  被优先考虑

be independent of   独立于

 

W:

tried but in vain to do ...   试图做...,但却没用/但却是徒劳。

Some universities tried but in vain to discourage their students from cheating on exams.

有些大学试图阻止他们的学生考试作弊,但却没用。

 

广告:commercial promotion, marketing messages, commercial information

 

That’s a prospect that horrifies sb.    这是sb所不愿意看到的一种情况。

Global warming may cause the ice caps in the poles to melt completely. That’s a prospect that horrifies everyone.   

全球变暖有可能使两级的冰盖彻底融化。这是大家都不愿意看到的一种情况。

 

 

Passage Three

L:
invisible a.看不见的                           invisibility n.

border n.边界;界线

argue for  vt.支持,赞同

on/in the behalf of A   代表A

subject n.主题;主旨

explore v.探索,探讨                                exploration n.

contradiction n.矛盾                    contradictory a.

aim at   vt.目的是;瞄准

get sb A   让sb得到A

technical a.专业技能的;技术的;专业的

teens n.青少年期(尤指13-19)

rather = on the contrary   ad.相反

conception = concept  n.概念,观念

competently ad.合格地,称职地                       competent a.          competence n.

assess v.评价,评估                           assessment n.

livelihood n.生计;职业,工作

equip v.装备                        equipment n.

be equipped to do  能够做,适合做

be equipped for   为...做好准备

by nature  ad.天生

pursue education = receive education  

A characteristic of B     作为B的特点的A

forsake A for B = forsake A in favor of B      为了B放弃A,放弃A转而选择B

betray v.背叛                       betrayal n.

cheery a.快乐的,高兴地,活泼的

bank on  依赖,依靠,指望

confusion n.困惑,迷惑                            confuse v.使困惑

emphasize A over B    在A和B当中,更重视A

early on  早些时候,前不久;最初

profession n.职业

professional a.职业的;专业的  n.专业人士

presumptuous a.自以为是

accountant n.会记

basics n.基本的东西;基础知识

acquaintance n.熟悉,了解;熟人

pick up  学会;捡起

various a.各种各样的

entirely ad.完全,彻底                       entire a.

at the longest  最长

in any case   在任何情况下,无论如何

the host of = a host of   大量,许多

observe v.观察,注意,注意到

vocational a.职业的

vocation n.职业

rush n./v.冲;匆忙;潮流

far-reaching a.深远的

dubiously ad.可疑                       dubious a.

doubt v./n.怀疑

orient v.定向,定位;使适应

indispensable a.不可或缺的

be indispensable to A     对A不可或缺

be indicative of = indicate  v.表明

come into being   vi.形成,出现

be deeply rooted in    深深扎根于

auxiliary a.辅助的  n.助动词

qualifications n.资历;资格

master v.掌握,精通

otherwise ad.相反

 

S:

Very few writers on the subject have explored this distinction — indeed, contradiction — which goes to the heart of what is wrong with the campaign to put computers in the classroom.

关于这个主题,很少有作者探讨过这种差别 — 其实是矛盾 — 给学校配电脑的运动出了问题,而问题的核心正是这种矛盾。

 

An education that aims at getting a student a certain kind of job is a technical education, justified for reasons radically different from why education is universally required by law. =

An education that aims at getting a student a certain kind of job is a technical education, justified for reasons radically different from the reasons why education is universally required by law.

为了给学生找特定工作的教育是技能教育,这种技能教育是合理的,能够证明其合理的理由,与能够说明教育为什么被法律所普遍要求的理由,是有很大区别的。

 

With optimism characteristic of all industrialized countries, we came to accept that everyone is fit to be educated.

有了作为所有工业化国家特点的乐观,我们开始接受一个观点,即人人都适合受教育。

 

Computer-education advocates forsake this optimistic notion for a pessimism that betrays their otherwise cheery outlook.

计算机教育的倡导者们放弃了这种乐观,转而选择了一种背叛他们的人生观的悲观思想,否则他们的人生观是很积极的。

 

Banking on the confusion between educational and vocational reasons for bringing computers into schools, computer-ed advocates often emphasize the job prospects of graduates over their educational achievement.

计算机教育的倡导者们,因为对于给学校配电脑这件事,究竟是应该出于教育的目的还是就业的目的,产生了困惑,所以在毕业生的就业前景和教育上的成就这二者当中,他们经常更重视前者。

 

Passage Four

L:
Scottish a.苏格兰的

startle vt.震惊

clone v./n.克隆

swiftly ad.迅速地                        swift a.

husbandry n.畜牧,养殖;种植

propose v.建议;提出

chair vt.领导

Princeton (在本文指Princeton University)

the White House  白宫

national a.全国的,全国性的;国家的;民族的

bioethics n.生物伦理学

advisory a.顾问的;建议的

feverishly ad.狂热地;发烧地

wisdom n.意见,建议;智慧

agree on A = reach an agreement on A   就A达成一致

indefinitely ad.无限定地;不限期地

definite a.明确的;有限定的

word v.表达,用言辞表达,选择...的措辞

cell n.细胞;蜂房;小房间

molecular a.分子的

molecule n.分子

crucial a.重要的

legislation n.立法

crime n.犯罪;罪行

preface to sth      sth的前言

consensus n.一致

find a broad consensus   达成广泛共识

attempt v./n.试图,尝试;企图

nuclear a.核的

nucleus n.(复数nuclei)核

stem from = come from   来自

call for  vt.要求;需要

ban n./v.禁令;禁止

forbid sb to do   禁止sb做

endanger vt.危及

clinic n.诊所;医院

be divided on A    关于A有分歧

impose sth on sb   把sth强加于sb

interview n./v.采访;面试

up in the air   悬而未决

project n.计划;项目

be authorized to do   被授权做

put sth under control    将sth置于控制之下

criminal a.犯罪的  n.罪犯

ethical a.伦理的,道德的

explicitly ad.明确地 (来自explain)                          explicit a.

in no time = immediately   ad.立刻,立即

 

Passage Five

L:
in practice  实践中

supposedly = allegedly  ad.(通常放到句首翻译)据说

gravity n.重力;严重性

for years  多年来

orbital a.轨道的                          orbit n.

planet n.行星;星球

in place   处在通常的位置;处在合适的位置;原地

fruit n.水果;成果

heaven n.天空;天堂

cut and dried  干巴巴的,索然无味的;事先定好的,内定的

journal n.报刊;日记

find A a substitute for B     发现A可以替代B,认为A可以替代B

substitute n./v.替换;替代品

substitute A for B   用A替代B

exchange A for B   用B替代A,拿A去交换以获得B

conference n.大会;(研讨)会

advisability n.可取性;可行性                          advisable a.

frown vi./n.皱眉

graph n.曲线图

inconclusive a.非结论性的;不确定的

shock v./n.震惊;休克

amount to  vt.意味着;总计,达到

put forward  提出

unquestioned a.未被质疑的(表否定含义);无可置疑的(表肯定含义)

convince v.使相信                       conviction n.

according to   根据

faithfully ad.忠实,忠诚,真实                        faithful a.

perfectly ad.完全,绝对;完美地

logical a.符合逻辑的

logic n.逻辑

measurable a.可衡量的,可测量的

distract vt.干扰,使分心                           distraction n.

regularity n.规律,规律性                         regular a.

conformity n.遵守,遵循                          conform v.

desirable a.可取的;称心如意的,值得想望的

discriminate against A   歧视A,对A有偏见

discriminate in favor of A   偏爱A

conventional a. 普通,平凡;传统;老套;(按)习惯,常规

inquiring a.好奇的;好问的

inquiring minds = curiosity  n.好奇心

advance vi./n.进步

fruitful a.富有成果的;硕果累累的

replace A with B   用B替代A

concise a.简洁的,简明的                         concision n.

have a keen interest in A   对A有浓厚/强烈的兴趣

speculate on A    对A进行猜测

underestimate v.低估

overestimate v.高估

 

S:

If experiments are planned and carried out according to plan as faithfully as the reports in the science journals indicate, then it is perfectly logical for management to expect research to produce results measurable in dollars and cents.

如果实验被计划和执行时,能够像科学报刊中的报告所表明的那样忠实于事先所做的计划,那么管理层期待研究产生出能够用钱衡量的结果就完全符合逻辑。

如果人们设计和执行实验时,与事先所做计划的吻合,能达到科学论文所描述的程度,那么,管理层期待可用金钱来衡量的研究结果,就是完全符合逻辑的。(作者的观点是,实际情况下的实验,不可能那么详尽的被规划到,所以管理层也不应该产生随后的期望。)

 

It is entirely reasonable for auditors to believe that scientists who know exactly where they are going and how they will get there should not be distracted by the necessity of keeping one eye on the cash register while the other eye is on the microscope.  =

If experiments are planned and carried out according to plan as faithfully as the reports in the science journals indicate, it is entirely reasonable for auditors to believe that scientists who know exactly where they are going and how they will get there should not be distracted by the necessity of keeping one eye on the cash register while the other eye is on the microscope.

财务人员相信,非常清楚他们往哪走并且清楚如何到那的那些科学家,不应该受到一只眼睛要盯着现金出纳机,另一只眼睛还要盯着显微镜的必要性的干扰,也就是完全合理的。

如果人们设计和执行实验时,与事先所做计划的吻合,能达到科学论文所描述的程度,那么,财务人员相信这样一件事,就是完全合理的,这件事就是,非常清楚他们的实验目的,并清楚如何达到这一目的的那些科学家,不应该一边进行科学实验,一边还要随时关注实验是否有经济效益。

 

Nor, if regularity and conformity to a standard pattern are as desirable to the scientist as the writing of his papers would appear to reflect, is management to be blamed for discriminating against the “odd balls” among researchers in favor of more conventional thinkers who “work well with the team.”

如果对科学家而言,规律性和对一个标准模式遵守的可取性,能达到他的论文写作似乎所表明的那种程度,那么管理层歧视研究者中那些怪人,而偏爱那些与整个研究团队“合作很顺利”的那些传统思维的科学家,也就不应该受到责备。

 

W:

A weighs less than B.   A没有B重要。

When it comes to factors of success, IQ weighs less than EQ.

就成功的因素而言,智商没有情商重要。

 

In doing .../When you do ..., you might gather the impression that ...  

当...的时候,你或许会产生这样一种印象,即...

In talking to today’s teenagers, you might gather the impression that they think highly of pop culture.

在跟今天的青少年谈话时,你或许会产生这样一种印象,即他们认为流行文化非常好。

 

What this amounts to is that ...    这就意味着...

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