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感应加热在工程机械中的应用

(2009-03-17 14:36:36)
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杂谈

    感应加热是利用电磁感应的方法使被加热的材料(即工件)的内部产生电流,依靠这些涡流的能量达到加热目的。感应加热系统的基本组成包括感应线圈、交流电源和工件。根据加热对象不同,可以把线圈制作成不同的形状。
  线圈和电源相连,电源为线圈提供交变电流,流过线圈的交变电流产生一个通过工件的交变磁场,该磁场使工件产生涡流来加热。感应加热是伴随着汽车工业和拖拉机工业的诞生而起步的。由于其具有加热效率高、速度快、可控性好及易于实现机械化和自动化等优点。
  目前常用的最有效的热处理工艺,具有下列多种应用:表面淬火、透热淬火、回火和消除应力(低温)、退火和正火(高温)、焊缝退火、粉末金属烧结等。已在熔炼、铸造、弯管、热锻、焊接和表面热处理等行业广泛应用。在铸造方面,正在迅速发展双联熔炼工艺,即利用中频炉保温改性,进行球墨铁或合金钢的精密浇铸;在锻造方面,利用敢于加热实现快速透热热锻,不仅减少了氧化皮损耗而且大大地增加了锻模的寿命,其材料利用率可达85%,锻件表面粗糙度可小于50μm;在焊接、淬火方面,国外一方面致力于开发大功率全固态高频电源,一方面致力于开发高度自动化热处理成套处理系统。我国目前每年大约需要1000万t铸件,而铸造行业仍以冲天炉熔炼、一般铸铁的铸造为主,吨位较小,导致温度及成份波动大,废品率高。较好的铸造业废品率也在6%~15%间,而一般铸造厂的废品率则高达30%。
           
Induction heating is the use of electromagnetic induction method to enable the material is heated (ie, workpiece) of the internally generated current, to rely on these eddy current heating energy to achieve the purpose. Induction heating system elements, including induction coil, an AC power source and the workpiece. According to heating at different targets, you can put the coil into different shapes.

Coil and power supply connected to provide power for the coils of alternating current, flowing through the coil of alternating current through the workpiece to produce a alternating magnetic field, the magnetic field so that the workpiece to produce eddy current heating. Induction heating are accompanied by the automotive industry and the birth of the industrial tractors started. Heating because of its high efficiency, fast, controllable and easy to realize the advantages of mechanization and automation.

Currently commonly used in the most effective heat treatment process, a variety of applications with the following: surface hardening, through hot quenching and tempering and the elimination of stress (low temperature), annealing and normalizing (high temperature), weld annealing, such as powder metal sintering. In melting, casting, bending, forging, welding and surface heat treatment and other industries widely used. Area in the foundry, is the rapid development of double-melting process, namely the use of intermediate frequency furnace insulation modified to carry out the ball ink iron or alloy steel precision casting; at forging side, dare to achieve rapid heating through hot forging, not only reduced oxide loss but also greatly increased the life span of forging die, the material utilization rate up to 85%, forgings surface roughness can be less than 50μm; at welding, quenching, the foreign countries on the one hand, committed to developing high-power all-solid-state high-frequency power supply, on the one hand, committed to the development of highly automated complete sets of heat treatment processing system. Our country is currently required each year around 10 million t castings, and foundry industry still cupola melting, the casting generally cast iron mainly smaller tonnage, resulting in large fluctuations in temperature and composition, the high reject rate. Foundry better reject rate is 6% ~ 15%, and the general foundry reject rate is as high as 30%.

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