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感应式电动机工作原理

(2009-05-19 08:30:13)
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电动机

杂谈

    电动机也称为“马达”,把电能转变为机械能的机器。利用电动机可以把发电机所产生的大量电能,应用到生产事业中去。构造和发电机基本上一样,原理却正好相反,电动机是通电于转子线圈以引起运动,而发电机则是借转子在磁场中之运动产生电流。为了获得强大的磁场起见,不论电动机还是发电机,都以使用电磁铁为宜。电动机因输入的电流不同,可分为直流电动机与交流电动机:
 (1)直流电动机——用直流电流来转动的电动机叫直流电动机。因磁场电路与电枢电路连结之方式不同,又可分为串激电动机、分激电动机、复激电动机;
 (2)交流电动机——用交流电流来转动的电动机叫交流电动机。种类较多,主要有:
  ①整流电动机——使串激直流发电机,作交流电动机用,即成此种电动机,因交流电在磁场与电枢电路中,同时转向,故力偶矩之方向恒保持不变,该机乃转动不停。此种电动机因兼可使用交、直流,故又称“通用电动机”。吸尘器、缝纫机及其他家用电器等多用此种电动机。
  ②同步电动机——电枢自一极转至次一极,恰与通入电流之转向同周期的电动机。此种电动机不能自己开动,必须用另一电动机或特殊辅助绕线使到达适当的频率后,始可接通交流电。倘若负载改变而使转速改变时,转速即与交流电频率不合,足使其步调紊乱,趋于停止或引起损坏。因限制多,故应用不广。
  ③感应电动机——置转子于转动磁场中,因涡电流的作用,使转子转动的装置。转动磁场并不是用机械方法造成的,而是以交流电通于数对电磁铁中,使其磁极性质循环改变,可看作为转动磁场。通常多采用三相感应电动机(具有三对磁极)。直流电动机的运动恰与直流发电机相反,在发电机里,感生电流是由感生电动势形成的,所以它们是同方向的。在电动机里电流是由外电源供给的感生电动势的方向和电枢电流I方向相反。
  交流电动机中的感应电动机,其强大的感应电流(涡流)产生于转动磁场中,转子上的铜棒对磁力线的连续切割,依楞次定律,此感应电流有反抗磁场与转子发生相对运动的效应,故转子乃随磁场而转动。不过此转子转动速度没有磁场变换之速度高,否则磁力线将不能为铜棒所切割。

Motors, also known as "motor", the electrical energy into mechanical energy of the machine. The use of electrical generators can be generated by a large number of power applied to the production to the cause. And generators are basically the same structure, the principle is just the opposite is the electric motor in the rotor coil to cause movement, and the generator rotor is in magnetic field by the current movement. In order to obtain the sake of a strong magnetic field, regardless of motor or generator, are appropriate to use the electro-magnet. Electrical current due to the different input can be divided into DC motor and AC motor:
(1) DC Motors - DC current to the motor rotation is called DC motor. Due to the magnetic field circuit and armature circuit of the different links, can be divided into series-excited motor, sub-excited motor, complex motor excitation;
(2) AC motor - with AC current to the motor rotation is called AC motors. More and are:
① rectifier motor - so excited DC generator string for AC motor, and the fait accompli of such motors, due to alternating current in the magnetic field and the armature circuit, while turning, the moment the direction of Constant Couple remain unchanged, it is turning non-stop. A result of such a motor and can be used to pay, DC, it is also called the "General Motors." Vacuum cleaners, sewing machines and other household appliances, such as the use of such motor.
② synchronous motor - armature from one pole to pole times, exactly with the current access to the same shift of the motor cycle. Such a motor can not start, we must use another special auxiliary motor winding or so after the arrival of the appropriate frequency before it can be connected to AC. If the load to change the speed of change, with the AC frequency speed not enough to pace disorders, tend to stop or cause damage. Due to restrictions, and therefore not widely applied.
③ induction motor - home to the rotating magnetic field in the rotor due to eddy current effect in that the rotor turning device. Rotating magnetic field is not caused by mechanical methods, but in AC pass in a few of the electromagnet, the nature of its magnetic cycle of change can be seen as rotating magnetic field. Usually the use of three-phase induction motor (with three pairs of poles). DC motor and DC generator movement exactly the contrary, in the generator, the induced current is formed by the induced electromotive force, so they are in the same direction. Years in the motor current is outside the power supply from the induced electromotive force and the direction of armature current I in opposite directions.
AC motor of induction motor, its strong induced current (eddy current) magnetic field generated in the rotation, the rotor of the magnetic force on the copper line for cutting, according to Lenz's Law, the induced current has taken place against the rotor magnetic field and the effect of relative motion Therefore, while the rotor is rotating with the magnetic field. However, the speed of the rotor rotation speed did not change the high magnetic field, or magnetic line of force will not be able to cut the copper.


 

感应式电动机工作原理感应式电动机工作原理

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