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轴流泵使用过程中常用方法

(2009-03-25 09:03:10)
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杂谈

    轴流泵在使用中,有时水泵性能不符合生产需要,就要调节水泵性能,使之能够满足实际需要。例如冬季枯水、夏天汛期,进水池或出水池水位都发生了变化,即实际地形扬水高度改变了,原来所决定的扬程和流量已经不适应,效率降低,水泵运行不经济。所以,若要水泵既能满足新要求,又能在较高的效率下工作,这就需要对水泵性能进行调节。
  轴流泵的性能调节,通常采用两种方法:
  1.变速调节我们已经知道,轴流泵是在一定转速下工作的,而且获得相应的流量、扬程、功率和效率等。当转速改变后,它的性能参数也相应地发生变化,从而达到调节的目的。如果轴流泵是采用柴油机或汽油机作动力的,可改变油门大小来变速;如果轴流泵与动力机相联是采用三角皮带或平皮带间接传动装置的,则可以改变传动皮带轮直径来变速,更换主动轮或从动轮都可以,目的是改变传动速比。变速调节水泵性能,比较经济,适用范围较广,对所有农用水泵均能采用。
  2.变角调节从构造来看,轴流泵叶轮具有巨大的轮毂,便于安装可调角度的叶片。当叶片安装角度改变后,叶片对水的升力也就改变了,从而改变了水泵的工作性能,这就是轴流泵的变角调节。随着叶片安装角的增大、变小,轴流泵的流量、扬程、功率即随之而变,但是,效率最高点却没有什么变化,极有利于轴流泵性能调节。
  根据叶轮构造上,叶片安装角的装置情况,叶片分为三种类型:
  (1)固定式叶片叶片和轮毂铸造成为一整体,叶片安装角在设计制造时已固定了,在使用过程中不能调整。这种叶轮多用于小型泵。
  (2)半调节叶片在叶轮轮毂上,将每块叶片的固定螺帽和定位螺丝松开,根据要求,把叶片安装角调整成一致,并紧固之。一般叶片安装角从负100―180。在这个范围内,按使用要求来调节。
  (3)活叶式叶片叶片借助特别设计的角度调节机构来调整,不必拆卸叶轮,就可以直接操纵机构来改变叶片安装角度,其调节范围从0―260。叶片角度调节机构有机械调节和液压调节两种。这种叶轮多为大型轴流泵采用。

Axial flow pump in use, sometimes not in conformity with the production of pump performance required, it is necessary to regulate pump performance, to enable them to meet the actual needs. Such as dry winter, the summer flood season, into the pond or the pond water level changes have taken place, that is, pumping the actual terrain height has changed, the original decision of the head and no longer meet the flow, reducing efficiency, water pumps do not run the economy. So, in order to pump that meets the new requirements, but also at a higher efficiency of work, which required adjustment of the pump performance.
Regulating the performance of axial flow pump, usually used in two ways:
1. Variable-speed control we already know, at a certain speed axial flow pump are working under, and to obtain the corresponding flow, lift, power and efficiency. When the speed changes, its performance parameters are also changed accordingly, so as to achieve the purpose of regulation. If the axial flow pump are used for diesel or gasoline engine power, and can change the size of variable-speed throttle; if the axial flow pump with the power machine is linked to the use of triangular belt or flat belt drives the overhead, you can change to variable speed drive pulley diameter, the replacement of driving wheel or the driven wheel can be, the purpose is to change the transmission ratio. Variable-speed control pump performance, more economical, a broader scope of application of all agricultural water pumps can be used.
2. Variable Angle adjustment from the structure, the axial flow pump impeller with enormous wheels, easy to install adjustable angle blade. When the blade installation angle changes, the leaves of water lift is changed, thus changing the water pump job performance, this is the axial flow pump of the variable angle adjustment. With the blade installation angle increases, smaller, axial flow pump flow, head, power that is to change, but the highest point of efficiency did not change, it is favorable to adjust the performance of axial flow pump.
Impeller on the basis of structure, leaf angle of the device is installed, the blade is divided into three types:
(1) fixed-blade leaves and casting wheel to become one whole, and leaves the installation of angle at the design and manufacture has been fixed, and in the use of the process should not adjust. This small pump impeller for many.
(2) semi-conditioning at the impeller blades on wheels, each block of the fixed blade and positioning screw nut loosened, as requested, put the leaves into a consistent installation angle adjustment and fastening of. Generally leaves the installation of angle from the negative 100-180. Within this framework, by using the request to adjust.
(3) live leaf blade with specially designed blade angle adjusting mechanism to adjust without the demolition of the impeller, you can directly manipulate the institutions to change the blade setting angles, and its adjustment range from 0-260. Blade angle adjusting mechanism to adjust and hydraulic machinery have two types of regulation. Such large-scale axial flow pump impeller used for the many.

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