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基于安全的美国加州服务区体系建设

(2011-07-19 07:03:35)
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杂谈

安全型服务区体系

加州交通局根据街道和公路守则第218-226条将安全型服务区体系作为州际高速公路系统的一部分。服务区应为旅客提供停车,放松身心、午睡、上厕所、取水、查阅地图、打电话、充电、检查车辆、放养宠物的环境,从而减少驾驶者行驶过程中昏昏欲睡、注意力不集中的可能,并替代原来沿路边停靠这种不安全的停车方式。

景观设计工程为新服务区规划设计和原有服务区改造提供了很好的指导。地方交通部门在地区工程、结构设计部门支持下,完成服务区的设计及建设。加州地方政府和项目指挥部任命服务区协调员。

地方交通部门在公路管理局的监督下,对服务区进行的维护和经营。查询加州87个服务区的位置及服务内容请登录公路管理局网站。

加州旅游局对接待中心系统是否方便旅客使用进行监督。查询加州接待中心信息请登录加州旅游局网站。

Safety Roadside Rest Area System

Caltrans provides Safety Roadside Rest Areas as a part of the State Highway System pursuant to Streets and Highways Code, Sections 218-226.5. Safety Roadside Rest Areas provide opportunities for travelers to safely stop, stretch, take a nap, use the restroom, get water, check maps, place telephone calls, switch drivers, check vehicles and loads, and exercise pets. Rest areas reduce drowsy and distracted driving and provide a safe and convenient alternative to unsafe parking along the roadside.

The Landscape Architecture Program provides guidance for planning and designing new rest areas and rehabilitating existing rest areas. Rest area projects are designed and constructed by the Department's local districts, with architectural and mechanical support from the Division of Engineering Services, Structures Design. Safety Roadside Rest Area Coordinators are located in each Caltrans District Office and Headquarters.

Rest areas are maintained and operated by the Department's local districts with guidance from the Division of Maintenance. For the location and services of Caltrans' 87 rest areas visit the Division of Maintenance web site.

The California Division of Tourism oversees a system of Welcome Centers for the convenience of travelers and tourists. For information on California Welcome Centers check the Division of Tourism web site

 

我们的目标是提高安全性

加州交通局精心策划及维护的安全型服务区体系要营造了一个极具吸引力,并且安全、舒适的环境,供旅客恢复自己的精力及提高驾驶的警惕性,同时方便旅客获得关于加州自然和文化资源的信息和知识。加州交通局安全型服务区系统的愿景包括改善服务区功能、设计、服务和运营,以及协调其他停车方式,详情可在查询网上关于安全型服务区愿景文件。

Our Goal is Safety

Vision: Caltrans Safety Roadside Rest Area System provides a well-planned and maintained system of attractive and safe places where travelers restore their energy and driving alertness, while gathering information and learning about California's natural and cultural resources. Details regarding Caltrans vision for the Safety Roadside Rest Area system, including recommendations for improving its function, design, service and operations, in concert with other traveler stopping opportunities, is available online in the Safety Roadside Rest Area Vision document.

 

公路安全至关重要

服务区是加州交通局的努力确保旅客安全的措施中重要组​​成部分。他们提供为旅客干净、安全、舒适的地方休息和解决他们的需求。极具吸引力的服务区,促使旅客利用路外安全的区域休息一会儿,从而提高在公路上行驶的警惕性。

ESSENTIAL TO HIGHWAY SAFETY

Rest areas are an important part of Caltrans' efforts to ensure traveler safety. They provide clean, safe and comfortable places for travelers to rest and manage their needs. Attractive and useful, rest areas encourage travelers to use a safe location off the roadway to take a break and return more alert to the highway.

 

 

 

安全、清洁、方便、更有吸引力

服务区对​​所有旅客,不论年龄,残疾或语言都是开放和方便的。每天24小时提供良好的照明和安全特性。良好园林绿化和步行环境吸引旅客在这里休息和放松。

SAFE, CLEAN, ACCESSIBLE, AND ATTRACTIVE

Rest areas are open, convenient and accessible to all travelers, regardless of age, disability or language. Good lighting and security features allow comfortable use 24 hours a day. Landscaping and pedestrian amenities invite the traveler to rest and relax.

 

COORDINATED AND BALANCED SYSTEM

协调和平衡系统

The rest area system is planned with consideration of alternative stopping opportunities, such as truck stops, commercial services, welcome centers and vista points. The rest area system provides public stopping opportunities where they are most needed, usually between large towns and at the entrance to major metropolitan areas.

安全型服务区体系的规划与诸如卡车停车区、商业服务、游客中心和Vista点等统一考虑。服务区往往处于大城镇之间以及大都市的入口区域,因此应充分考虑给人们的公共停车问题。

MAINTAINABLE AND SUSTAINABLE

维护和可持续性

Rest areas are designed for long-term, heavy-duty use. Durable materials and construction methods are used to ensure ease and economy of maintenance. Designs emphasize resource conservation and the use of environmentally sound technologies.

服务区是一种长周期、耐用性设施。因此,为方便维护、减少维护费用,实施过程中都是用耐用性材料和施工方法。设计中强调节约资源以及无害环保技术的使用。

INFORMATION CENTERS

信息中心

Rest areas provide telephones, maps and public information. Information generally includes roadway conditions, tourist and recreational opportunities, traveler-related commercial services, public service bulletins, missing children information and information about the local history, culture and regional environment.

服务区提供电话、地图和公共信息。这些信息一般包括路况信息,旅游和娱乐的场所位置,与旅行相关的商业服务,公共服务公告,失踪儿童信息以及当地历史、文化和区域环境的信息。

CONTEXT SENSITIVITY

关联性设计

Caltrans emphasizes context-sensitive design. Rest areas introduce many travelers to unfamiliar regions and their unique cultural and aesthetic qualities. Quality design includes environmentally sensitive site planning, appropriate architectural theme, and thoughtful selection of materials, colors, plantings and artistry. Local culture, history, terrain, geology or vegetation often suggests the appropriate theme.

加州交通局强调公路关联性设计。服务区向许多旅客介绍他们不熟悉的地区以及这些地区独特的文化和审美特征。设计质量包括符合环境特征的场地规划,适当的建筑风格,以及在材料、颜色、植物和景观小品选择上进行充分考虑。当地的文化、历史、地形、地质或植被往往体现这些主题。

STAKEHOLDERS AND PARTNERS

公众参与

Rest area planning, design and operation involve many stakeholders and partners. Caltrans appreciates the ongoing support, cooperation and collaboration of the California Highway Patrol, local law enforcement agencies, the many non-profit rehabilitation facilities that employ persons with disabilities to maintain rest areas, blind entrepreneurs who provide vending machines, the California Division of Tourism and other State agencies that provide public information, traveler organizations, and associations representing the commercial trucking and truck stop industries.

服务区的规划、设计和运行涉及到许多利益群体和合作伙伴。加州交通局感谢相关机构、部门不断提供的支持及合作,其中包括加州高速公路巡警、当地执法机构、提供维护服务区的残疾人士的非营利康复机构、提供自动售货机的盲人企业家、加州旅游部、提供公共信息的其他国家机构、游客组织以及代表商业货车运输和货车停车场的行业协会。

JOINT-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

股份制经济发展

New rest areas are needed to meet traffic demands and fill gaps in the rest area system. Funding constraints currently prevent consideration of new rest areas that are not located on the major Interstate highways, including Interstates 5, 10, 15, 40 and 80.

Caltrans is authorized to construct and operate up to six new rest areas as a joint economic development demonstration project, provided there is a need, and that the proposal will result in an economic savings to the State. Contracts must be awarded on a competitive basis; the rest areas may include traveler-related commercial services; and the Department is interested in a significant savings in the capital costs of construction (land and development).

新的服务区需要符合交通需求并填补在服务区系统的空白。目前由于资金限制除了主要的州际公路包括5,10,15,40和80号州际公路,其他公路已经很少考虑设置服务区。 

加州交通局授权建造和运营作为一个联合经济发展示范项目的六个新的服务区,并使国家经济储备增加。必须在竞争基础上授予合同;服务区应包括旅行相关的商业服务;交通部在大大节省建设资金成本方面感兴趣。

History of Rest Areas in California

加州服务区的历史

Wayside rest areas -- providing water and shade for travelers and livestock -- have a history as old as highways. However, roadside development in California may have received its official start in 1868 when the Legislature authorized a reimbursement program for private planting of roadside shade and fruit trees to benefit travelers. In 1895, roadside shade trees were also a priority for the newly created Bureau of Highways -- the precursor to Caltrans. Roadside trees and parks proliferated in the early years of the 20th Century. In the 1920's, though, car ownership exploded, and roads began to be designed for speed, safety and serious transportation.

为旅客和牲畜提供水和遮阳的服务区同公路历史一样长。然而,在1868年,加利福尼亚州在发展路边的过程中,立法机关正式启动赔偿私人的用以造福旅客行道树和果树计划。 1895年,路边的行道树也被路政署局-加州交通局的前身-优先考虑。路边的树木和公园在20世纪初几年激增。20世纪20年代,由于汽车保有量发生爆炸,公路设计要求更为快速、安全、严谨。

In 1931 the Legislature challenged the highway department to take leadership for roadside beautification and development (ACR 34). In 1932, the department reported plans for adding 131 wayside areas to the 44 it already had. Through the 1930s many roadside fountains, picnic areas and scenic overviews were built by special labor crews. These facilities served well until they were obliterated by post-World War II highway improvement.

在1931年,立法会要求公路部门采取措施进行路边的美化和发展。 1932年,公路部门计划在已有的44个服务区基础上增加131。在20世纪30年代,特殊劳动队建造许多路边的喷泉、野餐区和风景名胜。这些设施的服务良好,直到二战高速公路改造运动时,它们才被毁掉。

In 1951 the Legislature asked the Division of Highways and the Division of Beaches and Parks to examine and report on the practicality of establishing a system of rest areas along California's state highways. As a result, a dozen rest areas were built and operated by the Division of Beaches and Parks in the late 1950s.

在1951年立法会要求路政署和海滨、公园司进行建立沿加州的州际高速公路的服务区系统的可行性研究和报告。因此,在20世纪50年代末,海滨、公园司建成、经营了十几个服务区。

In 1962 the Legislature requested the Division of Highways to develop a master plan for a rest area system. The Division's plan for a system of 257 units, became the basis for legislation in 1963 (SB173) that directed the Division of Highways and the California Highway Commission to plan, design, construct and maintain a system of safety roadside rests on the state highway system.

在1962年的立法会要求路政署司制定了一个服务区体系的总体规划。这个涉及257个服务区的体系,成为1963年(SB173)立法的基础,为路政署和加州公路委员会在高速公路系统上进行服务区体系设计、建造和维护提供执导。

By 1970 all but a handful of the rest areas that exist today had been constructed and were operating with enormous public and political support. However, following the oil crisis and rampant inflation of the early 1970s, funding constraints reigned in the rest area program. An "Initial System" master plan was adopted in 1974 that reduced the system to a total of 162 units.

到1970年,少数现在还保留的服务区已经建成,并在公众和政府巨大的支持下不断经营。然而,随着20世纪70年代初的石油危机和愈演愈烈的通货膨胀,资金不足的原因限制了服务区计划。到了1974年 ,总体规划中服务区数量降低到162个。

In 1985 as a result of new funding constraints, a "Revised Initial System" master plan was adopted that included 91 existing units plus 13 proposed units that would be built only if significant economic partnership could be found. More than a dozen major efforts have been attempted since 1982 - all unsuccessful -- to obtain an economically feasible and politically acceptable partnership.

在1985年,同样由于资金限制,总体规划中服务区数量只包括现有的91个服务区,还有13个规划的服务区上,而这13个规划服务区只有在找到明确的经济合作伙伴方可实施。自1982年以来,为在服务区获得经济上和政治上可以接受的的合作伙伴而进行的多次努力都未取得成功。

In 1999 -- faced with an aging rest area system used by more than 100 million people a year, and a legal requirement to comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act -- the Department began planning the rehabilitation of its 88-unit system. A "Rest Area System Improvement Team" was established to provide direction. Functional units from throughout the Department and from many stakeholder agencies and organizations were represented on the team. In late 1999, the team's recommendations were adopted by Caltrans management and presented to the California Transportation Commission.

1999年,针对这个不断老化却又要每年接待100万民众的服务区系统,同时为符合“美国残疾人法案”,交通部开始一项涉及88个服务区的改善计划。“服务区系统改善小组”的成立为这项计划提供指导。小组成员从交通部和许多相关的机构和组织中选派。在1999年年底,小组的建议通​​过加州公路管理局,并提交给加州交通委员会。

RECOMMENDATIONS

Raise the Priority of the Safety Rest Area System as Integral to Highway Safety

Develop an Updated Safety Roadside Rest Area System Master Plan

Rescind the Mandatory Privatization Policy

Expand and Formalize Public and Private Partnerships

Conduct Ongoing Evaluation of Rest Area System Performance

Investigate In-Route Truck Parking Capacity Issues

Maintain Ongoing Stakeholder Involvement

Update Safety Roadside Rest Area Design Standards and Guidelines

建议内容

提高安全服务区系统级别,成为公路安全的组成部分

制定一个更新的安全路边服务区系统总体规划

取消强制性的私有化政策

展开和正规化公私伙伴

进行服务区正在进行的评估系统性能

调查路线卡车停车场容量问题

保持的投资人的不断参与

更新安全路边服务区设计标准与准则

 

Rest Area System Master Plan

服务区系统总体规划

New rest area system master plan recommendations were completed in 2011 by the research firm, Dornbush Associates, for the Landscape Architecture Program. The deliverables include the Safety Roadside Rest Area System Master Plan along with a Rest Area System Map and background matrices: Current and Projected UseParking DeficienciesUnauthorized Truck Parking, Alternative Stopping Opportunities, and Partnership Opportunities.

 

2011年,新的服务区系统总体规划的建议,由Dornbush联营公司研究完成。该成果包括安全型服务区总体规划、服务区系统的示意图以及当前和未来的使用情况、停车场不足、未经授权的卡车停车场、替代停车的机会、与合作机会等背景资料。

Building on past research, this effort included the identification of alternative stopping opportunities and locations of chronic unauthorized truck parking, along with collecting traffic and user data at all 87 existing Safety Roadside Rest Areas. The recommendations will assist the Department in determining the current and 20 year rest area system needs.

在过去的研究的基础上,通过收集所有87个现有的安全型服务区车流量和用户的数据,确定替代停车的机会和未经授权的卡车停车场的位置。这些建议符合当前和未来20年的服务区系统需要。

Focusing on the development of Public/Private Partnerships was identified as the most viable solution to developing new facilities, specifically utilizing the Federal Interstate Oasis program as a pilot. The 2011 master plan recommendations do not specify an implementation schedule or a funding mechanism. Based on findings in the report and input from the Districts, the next step is to focus on developing an implementation plan for the future of the statewide Rest Area System.

重点发展公共/私营伙伴关系被认为是发展新设施的最可行的解决方案,特别是利用联邦州际公路绿洲计划作为试点。 2011年总体规划建议没有明确的实施时间表或筹资机制。基于地区报告的结果,下一步的重点放在发展未来全国范围内的服务区系统的实施计划。

In 2008, the Department and its consultants completed two research studies involving rest areas:

Task 1092 – Reducing Accidents Involving Driver Fatigue

Task 1921 – Public Private Partnership Strategies for Safety Roadside Rest Areas

部及其顾问在2008年完成了两项涉及服务区的研究,:

任务1092 - 减少事故涉及疲劳驾驶

任务1921-安全型服务区公私合作战略

In 2001, the Department completed a study of the adequacy of commercial truck parking facilities serving the National Highway System: Partners for Adequate Parking Facilities Initiative which includes mapping for Private Truck Parking on California State Highways and Unauthorized Truck Parking on California State Highways

2001年,交通部完成了关于服务全国的公路系统的适合商用卡车的停车设施的研究:合伙人发起设置足够的停车设施的倡议应包括加州公路私人卡车停车场和未经授权的卡车停车场的筹划。

 

Rest Area Rehabilitation

服务区升级改造

The Office of State Landscape Architecture is currently engaged in the programming and design of projects to complete the first-phase rehabilitation of its 88 existing rest area units by the 2008-09 fiscal year.

加州园林局目前正在进行项目的规划和设计,在2008-09年度财政计划中完成现有的88个服务区第一阶段的改造。

Priorities for this phase of rehabilitation include:

Complete all work required for compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act

Ensure all work spaces comply with Cal OSHA requirements.

Ensure water, electrical and waste water utilities are safe and reliable

Enhance safety with pedestrian lighting improvements, office space for California Highway Patrol, security cameras

Repair or replace walks, shelters and pedestrian facilities that require immediate or imminent attention for safety or preservation of the facility

Expand capacity of restrooms where warranted by bus traffic, gender balance or other factors

Information on upcoming rest area rehabilitation projects may be found in the 2002 State Highway Operation and Protection Program (SHOPP).

这一阶段的改造重点包括:

完成残疾人法中要求所有内容

 

确保所有工作场所达到加州OSHA标准。

确保供水、供电和废水处理设备安全可靠

 

加强行人照明、加州公路巡警办公环境、安保摄像机的安全型

修理或更换步道、凉亭和行人设施这些时常需要马上注意其安全型的设施以及保护设施。

 

扩大洗手间的空间并保证客流量、性别平衡或其他因素。

即将到来的服务区改造项目的信息,会在2002年的国家高速公路经营和保护方案(SHOPP)中公布。

 

Value Analysis

价值分析

Value Analysis, (VA), is part of Caltrans' standard procedures for developing projects. It is a method for enhancing product value by improving the relationship of performance to cost through the study of function. VA recommendations should not include cost reduction at the expense of project functions

价值分析(VA)是州交通发展项目的标准程序的一部分。它是一种通过函数分析研究提高产品性价比进而提高产品价值的方法。价值分析的建议不应该包括项目功能方面成本削减。

During 2006, nine VA Studies were conducted on programmed Rest Area projects statewide. The primary purpose of the Rest Area VA studies was to identify ways to reduce construction costs while maintaining or improving project quality.

Attached is the Northern Area VA Summary Report. This report is a compilation of the results of the seven (7) Rest Area VA Studies conducted in Districts 4, 5, and 6.

Attached is the Southern Area VA Summary Report. This report is a compilation of the results of Rest Area VA Studies conducted in Districts 8 and 11. These studies reviewed four Rest Area projects in these Districts.

2006年期间,基于全州的服务区项目规划进行了9项关于VA的研究。关于服务区的VA研究的主要目的是确定以何种方式降低建设成本,同时保持、提高工程质量。

北部地区的VA总结报告包括7项研究,这些研究基于对4、5、6区研究成果的汇总。

南部地区的VA总结报告基于于对8、11区研究成果的汇总。这些研究在这些地区的服务区项目中接受检验。

 

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