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George Washington Carver

(2009-01-12 13:27:46)
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文化

分类: 国士无双

  卡弗(Carver,George Washington) 美国农业化学家。1864年生于密苏里州代蒙德格罗伏附近;1943年1月5日卒于亚拉巴马州特斯基吉。 人们并不清楚卡弗确切的生辰,因为他是黑人。在他出生的那个年代和地点,黑人还处在奴隶地位,被人视若牛马,不当人看。对于他们的生和死,谁也不重视去统计。卡弗这个年轻的孩子直到1865年美国取缔奴隶制度的第十三届宪法修正案通过之前,在法律上一直是一个奴隶。他生下来还只有几个月的时候,他和他的母亲就被一群袭击者(盗卖奴隶者)抢走,带到阿肯色州。卡弗从此失去母亲,但他的原主人摩西斯·卡弗却被允许以一匹价值三百美元的种马把孩子赎回卡弗夫妇在土法法公布、孩子从奴隶地位获得解放之后收养了他,它孩子此后一生便改用养父的姓。卡弗夫妇设法让这个聪明过人的小伙子受到教育,但那是很困难的。勉强算是在另一市镇的一间黑人学校读完了他的基础课程。但到考大学的时候,他不得不到北方去。1889年他考入了衣华州印第安诺拉的辛普森学院,从而成为该学院有只以来第一位黑人学生。卡弗学习得很好,毕业后又去上衣阿华州立农业学院,并以第一名的成绩毕业。1892年取得硕士学位,后在该校任教。但是一个更崇高的职位在召唤他。在亚拉巴马州的特斯基吉,教育家布克·华盛顿创办了一所黑人学院----特斯基吉学院。卡旨被邀去教书,年薪一千五百美元,外供食宿。总之,学校提供了所能提供的一切。1896年他接受了这一邀请,回到南方以帮助黑人获得他曾经无法觅得的高等教育。为些,他拒绝了来自别处的更加优厚的一切聘约。他担任特斯基吉学院农业研究纱主任并在他的学生们的帮助下,逐渐地、实际上是从无到有的建立起一座实验室。他还大量利用附近的沼泽地和堆肥改造荒瘠的土。在南方各地做这类工作是他的使命。这个地区的传统作棉花和烟草已的已把土壤的肥力耗尽,南方的农民劳而不获、负债累累。卡弗终于成功地发动了一场播种花生与甘薯以使土壤肥沃的运动。然后,为了给这些剩余的花生与甘薯安排出路,卡弗一心一意地从事发展副产品的工作。他竟成为研究化学的伯班克了;研究的不是新的农作物,而是新的农产品。光从花生一项,他就研制出近三百种合成材料。从染料、肥皂到牛奶、人造干酷无所不包。从甘薯一项则有一百一十八种产品。他所有的研究都公诸于世,无意于图私利。卡弗始终认为他在特斯基吉学院的工作在改善黑人命运方面有着头等重要的意义,所以他拒绝了那些巴结讨好的邀请要他参加到爱迪生或福特的事业中去。在他们那里,他可能变得相当富足,并且,那样的话,他就要住在北方,生活当然就舒适得多了。他也拒绝了要他到苏联担任他们的棉织业顾问的邀请。总之,南方是大大地受惠于这位生下来便是奴隶的黑人的劳动的。1939年他荣获了罗斯福奖章,奖章上刻有“奖给恭顺地遵循上帝指引的科学家,白人和黑人的共同解放者”的字样。1953年,即他死后十年,他出生的那个农庄被辟为国家纪念馆。

 

A Tour of His Life
taken from "The Gentle Genius," an article by Peggy Robbins

Born out of slavery and reared in Reconstruction, this humble man emerged to become a great benefactor to his people and his section.
         George Washington Carver was born into slavery during the Civil War, in the midst of bloody guerrilla warfare in Missouri . A tiny, sickly baby, he was soon orphaned, and his very survival beyond infancy was against the laws of nature.
        That he, a Negro, became the first and greatest chemurgist, almost single-handedly revolutionized Southern agriculture, and received world acclaim for his contributions to agricultural chemistry was against all accepted patterns. But, seen from today's distance, possibly the most amazing facet of the life of this gentle genius is the manner in which he overcame enormous prejudices and poverty in his struggle from nameless black boy to George Washington Carver, B.S., M.S., D.Sc., Ph.D., Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts, London, and Director of Research and Experiment at Tuskegee Institute, Alabama -- all without a trace of bitterness, with total indifference to personal fortune, and thought only to make the world, and America in particular, a better place for all mankind.
        George Washington Carver did not know the exact date of his birth, but he thought it was in January, 1864 (some evidence indicates July, 1861, but not conclusively). He knew it was sometime before slavery was abolished in Missouri , which occurred in January, 1865. (The Emancipation Proclamation freed only those slaves whose masters were "in rebellion against the United States ," which was not the case in Missouri , where slaves were finally freed by state action.)
        George grew up on the farmlands of Missouri , reared by his mother until her seizure by a band of raiders; and then by Moses and Susan Carver , his mother's former owners, who had a homestead near Diamond Grove. Because the frail little boy was not required to help with the heavy farm chores, he had many free daylight hours in which to do exactly as he chose, and he chose to explore the wonders of nature. He talked to the wildflowers, asking why some of them required sunlight and some didn't, and how roots that looked exactly alike produced different-colored blossoms, and, he said many years later, the flowers answered him as best they could. He investigated insects, tree bark, leaves, ferns, seeds, and the like and made all of them his precious playthings. He tended the roses, sweet peas, and geraniums around the Carver house, and they flourished so strikingly a visitor asked him what she might do to make her flowers prettier. "Love them" the boy answered.
        Word spread around Diamond Grove that "Carver's George " had a magic way with growing things, and people began calling him the Plant Doctor. He made house calls, either prescribing remedies for ailing plants or taking them to his secret garden in the woods where he tenderly nursed them. His "magic" with growing things was largely the result of his patient testing of different combinations of sand, loam and clay as potting soil for various plants, his experimentation with different amounts of sunlight and water, and his tracking down of damaging insects and the like. When the Carver's finest apple tree began withering, George crawled along its limbs until he found some on which colonies of codling moths had taken up residence. "Saw off those branches," he told Moses Carver , "and the tree will get well." And it did.

从"温柔天才, "一篇文章,是由焦雄罗宾斯

诞生于奴隶制和饲养重建工作,这谦卑的男子出现,成为一个伟大的恩人给他的人民和他的科。
          乔治华盛顿卡佛出生于奴隶制的内战期间,在一片血腥游击战,在密苏里州。弹丸之地,害病的婴儿,他很快就成为孤儿,和他非常存活婴儿以外,是对自然规律的。
         他认为,一个黑人,成为第一个和最大的chemurgist ,几乎单一一手革命性南部农业,并得到世界的赞赏他的贡献,农业化学,是对大家都接受的模式。但是,从今天的距离,可能是最了不起的层面,生命的这种温柔天才是哪种方式,他克服了巨大的偏见和贫穷的斗争中,他从无名的黑人男孩乔治华盛顿卡佛,获得学士,硕士, d.sc.博士,研究员,英国皇家学会的艺术,伦敦和研究部主任,并在实验tuskegee研究所,阿拉巴马州-都没有丝毫怨恨,总冷漠以个人财富和思维只能使世界第一步,美国,尤其是一个更好的地方,为全人类的。
         乔治华盛顿卡佛,不知道确实的自己的出生日期,但他以为那是在一月, 1864年(有些证据显示, 7月, 1861年,但不是决定性) 。他知道这是一段时间才废除了奴隶制,在密苏里州,发生在一月, 1865 。 (解放获得自由的,只有那些奴隶的主人,是"在反抗美国" ,这是情况并非如此,在密苏里州,那里的奴隶,终于获释,由国家行动) 。
         乔治长大对农田的密苏里州,饲养他的母亲直到她扣押,乐队的收集者; ,然后再由摩西和苏珊卡佛,他的母亲的原业主,他们有一个家园近钻石格罗夫。因为体弱小男孩,是不是需要帮助与重型农场劳动,他有许多免费的夏令时,在其中做的,正是因为他选择,他选择了探索大自然奇观。他谈过了野花,询问为什么他们中的一些人需要阳光和一些没有,又如何根看来完全一样产生了不同色泽鲜艳的花朵,他说,很多年后,花卉回答了他作为最好的,他们可以。他曾调查过的昆虫,树皮,树叶,蕨类植物,种子,以及类似,并提出所有的人是他的贵重玩具。他倾向于玫瑰,甜豌豆,并geraniums周围雕刻房子,他们兴盛,使惊人地一个访客问他什么,她会做,使她的花漂亮。 "爱"男孩回答。
         散布字左右的钻石格罗夫说: "佛的乔治"进行了魔术的方式与日益增长的事情,人们开始称他为植物医生。他家电话,无论是处方的补救措施,为疲弱的植物或把他们带到自己的秘密花园树丛中,他温柔地护理他们。他的"魔术" ,与越来越多的东西,主要是由于他的病人测试的不同组合,砂,壤土及粘土作为盆栽土壤中的各种植物,他的实验与不同数目的阳光和水,还有他的追查破坏昆虫和像。当卡佛最优秀的苹果树开始枯萎,乔治摸爬滚打,沿其四肢,直到他找到了一些关于殖民地codling飞蛾已采取了官邸。 "看到过那些党支部, "他告诉摩西卡佛" ,并在树将做好" 。和这样做。

 

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