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B世界十大恐怖習俗10HorribleCulturalPractices

(2010-05-30 07:08:07)
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杂谈

十大恐怖習俗

分类: 感悟一刻.Sentiment.Moment

6.切腹 Hara-Kiri

B世界十大恐怖習俗10HorribleCulturalPractices

切腹是武士道的重要精髓。這是作為一名勇士的守則;切腹一般用在以防勇士落入敵手或是減少恥辱的一種方式。武士也會聽從與他們的領袖(封建統治者)執行切腹。因此隨後,也出現了一些受辱的武士甘願切腹也不願死在一般人手下的情況。至此,切腹也在那些並非世襲武士(沒有人命令和期望他們切腹)中流行,成為了主要恢復或維護自己榮譽的做法。但那些女性武士只可以根據許可來執行。 士沐浴後,穿上白色袍子。吃一頓最喜歡的食物。這些都做完後,把他的文書放在碟子上。身著傳統服裝的日本切腹人,會將他的配刀放在身前。有時在坐處墊上特殊的布。並且在死前他會準備好遺書。

讓他所選的助手(介錯人 ——幫助他進行下一步程序的人)站在其後

1. 切腹人要打開他的和服(衣服

2. 拿起他的武士刀(刀)直接切入腹部

3. 刀口從左至右。

4. 隨後介錯人進行下一步「介錯「程序,一刀 將切腹人斬首。(在一瞬間肉體痛苦中替其斬首)

Samurais might also slash their stomachs out of obedience to their leader (usually a dictator). Subsequently, some samurais being insulted would also slash their stomachs to avoid being killed by enemies.. Hara-kiri is also practised by samurais without prior permission to do so in order to protect or regain their honor. Female samurais however, must have prior permission before they can do so.

After bathing himself, the samurai would put on a white robe, eat a favourite meal, and put his documents on a plate. He would be dressed in traditional Japanese custom, hold his sabre in front of him; sometimes he would sit on a piece of special cloth and he would also have a will ready.

The samurai’s assistant (chosen by him to take care of his body) would stand behind him while the samurai:

a)    Opens his robe

b)    Holds up his sabre and pierces right into his stomach

c)    The sabre would enter from the left side, going to the right

d)    The helper would immediately sever his head after he pierces himself with the sabre to avoid prolonged suffering.

 

7、活人祭祀 Live Burials 

B世界十大恐怖習俗10HorribleCulturalPractices

活人祭祀的方法是用來祭祀神靈或其他神物。人們通常用殺死人類來乞求超自然力量和權利這種習俗常常出現在古代文化中,並且在多個文化領域中發揚,如因殺人儀式而惡名昭彰的瑪雅文化和阿茲特克文化——一些人將這兩種文明視為這種恐怖習俗的本源。人們認為受害人的死亡儀式是為了取悅神靈、安撫靈魂的方法。受害人的選取範圍從囚犯到嬰孩到純潔的處女,他們遭受著悲慘的命運——焚燒、斬首、活埋。

經歷了數年,活人祭祀在全球範圍內已經變得不常見。如今這種祭祀已經非常稀少。大多數的宗教譴責這種行為,當代法律也將其定位違法行為。儘管如此,在如今還是會看見這種習俗,特別是仍然信奉傳統文化的不發達地區。

Some ancient civilizations offer live human as sacrifices to the gods for power and privileges. Both the Maya and Aztec cultures were notorious for this practice and were hailed as the originators of this rite.

Victims such as prisoners, babies or virgins were burnt, beheaded or buried alive to please the gods or calm departed spirits.

This practice gradually disappeared with time and is very rare today as most religions condemn it and the governments consider it a crime.. Still, it is practised in some undeveloped regions where tradition is strictly followed.

 

8.納妾制度 Concubine System

B世界十大恐怖習俗10HorribleCulturalPractices

照片上的是一群姬妾站於她們的保護人(一般是太監)的背後。妾是一個由婦女和少女組成的社會階層。她們與社會地位高的男人組成類似婚姻的關係。典型是,男人有一位正式的妻子和一位或者更多的妾。妾擁有來自於男人給予的一定權利。他們的子女公開承認為男人的孩子,但是這些孩子的地位低於正式的妻子(妻子們)
歷史上,女人做妾經常是自願的(由少女或其家人安排)。作妾可以給婦女的將來帶來經濟保障。而有時妾也會遭到強迫、奴役,成為性奴隸關係中的一員(多半為女性)

In this photo, one sees a group of concubines standing behind 2 “guardians”, who were usually eunuchs. Concubines refer to the stratum of society made up of women or young girls who have marital relationships with some male benefactor in the upper classes of society. Typically, the man would have a wife and one or more concubines, which is a privilege that the male sex enjoys, and children by concubines are openly acknowledged, although their social position would be lower than that enjoyed by the children of the wife. Usually women are willing to be concubines if they think that it would provide financial security for them. Sometimes, slavery, persecution or sexual transactions may also force women into this system.

 

9.藝妓 Geishas 

B世界十大恐怖習俗10HorribleCulturalPractices

正統的藝妓已經被現代社會系統所代替。曾經藝妓數量數不勝數。在1900年,藝妓數量超過25,000人。到1930年早期藝妓數量為80,000人。大多數藝妓都在京都,京都是日本古代首府。如今,藝妓數量不到10,000人。在東京,還留有100多名藝妓。但事實上藝妓已經非常的稀少了。

 

現代藝妓不是來自於貧窮的家庭。她們還是孩子的時候就去了藝妓學校。在現代成為藝妓完全是自願的。而且那些不是幼年成為藝妓的女性也可以做藝妓。無論如何,藝妓的訓練與過去是一樣的嚴格。年輕的女孩們一定要擔起責任努力學習日本傳統舞蹈、演唱、音樂等眾多技藝。

傳統藝妓不需要提供肉體服務,雖然有些現代藝妓會這樣做。

 

Geishas

Traditional geishas in Japan have been replaced in contemporary Japan. In 1900, they numbered more than 25,000, reaching 80,000 in 1930. Most of them lived in Kyoto, the ancient capital of Japan. Today, less than 10,000 and only around 100 geishas exist in Kyoto and Tokyo respectively.

Geishas do not come from poor families. In fact, they attend geisha school voluntarily while still a child and receive strict training regimes. These young girls bear the responsibility of carrying on the traditional Japanese dance, singing, musical performances and other artistic skills. Even women who have not been trained as a young girl can become geishas. In general, geishas are not prostitutes, even though some do provide that service nowadays.

 

10.藏族天葬傳統 Tibetan Spiritual Burial 

B世界十大恐怖習俗10HorribleCulturalPractices

天葬或是解屍典禮是一種西藏的傳統習俗。把屍體切成許多碎片散在山頂上,暴露於動物和自然界中——特別鳥類猛禽。根據一種文獻記錄,步驟是:

1.   將主幹切分成幾塊

2.    將肢體砍成碎片

3.    把所有碎片交給助手,助手就是負責用巖石將屍體上的肉搗爛並將骨頭一起碾成糊狀的人。

4.    準備完成後,在禿鷹來食之前加入糟耙(由青稞、茶、奶和耗牛奶油組成)

5.    在幾種文獻記錄中,也有其他方式。一種是直接將肉從骨頭上剝下來,不需要任何進一步準備直接獻給禿鷹;另一種是在禿鷹來食前,當肉支解到大槌骨時將其打碎直接混入糟耙就可以了。其他文獻也有不同說法,直接將整個屍體獻給禿鷹。在只剩下骨頭時,打碎槌骨周圍撒上糟耙,等到禿鷹離開後分給烏鴉和老鷹吃

6.   中國共產黨在1960年取締了這種習俗,所以這種傳統在當時幾乎不存在了。但在1980年這種習俗又一次合法化

 

Tibetan “Heavenly” Burial

The “Heavenly Burial” or body dismemberment is a tradition of the Tibetan people. The corpse is dismembered into many pieces and scattered on mountain top, amongst nature and wild animals, especially birds.

 

Procedure as we know it :

a)   The trunk of the corpse is carved into several sections.

b)    Each section is chopped into small pieces.

c)    The assistant takes over by grinding the pieces up with stones to make a paste.

d)    Supplements (usually a mixture of vegetables, teas and dairy products) are added before the bald eagles make a meal out of this human paste.

 

Records show that there are several other ways to prepare the corpses for this Heavenly Burial, some of them offering the meat directly to the eagles while some a mixture of both procedures.

The Chinese government stopped this practice in 1960. Instead of being extinct, this practice was re-legalized in 1980.

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