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什么是批判性阅读?学生如何掌握批判性阅读?

(2017-05-19 04:53:03)

很多学生都说美国高考SAT或ACT的阅读很难高分,难在哪里?难在于考的Critical Reading。这个Critical的英语与中文的文字上直译为:批判性阅读。传统的中文好像还没有这个词呢。我们传统讲的只是“读书”、“阅读”。到底这个“批判性阅读”需要如何去读?


这个是美国在英语阅读的教育上所提倡的阅读教学,在一些国家,批判性阅读被认为是考核学生的学习能力,而且对于学生有效的阅读起着至关重要的作用。我觉得这个Critical不能直译为中文“批判性”,因为它并不是带着"批判性"这个词的意思,但确实找不到更准确的文字来翻译,近年来大家已成习俗这种说法


什么是批判性阅读?这个就是跟“略读”、"粗读”相反的阅读模式:深入去理解文章的内容、结构,理解文章的逻辑兼容、调子以及思想。批判性阅读是个对读者参与感要求极高的阅读模式。读者和作者是相对平等的;当作者在叙述观点的时候,读者要通过思考来和作者达到积极地互动和交流。普通的阅读,读者的思考是被动的随着作者的阐述而进行的;可是批判性阅读,读者不仅仅会主动地辩证性地思考作者的观点,同时也会对文本的整体结构达到更深的理解。一篇好的文章,通常是有它的思想意义或者灵魂所在,读者要读出作者所写这篇文章的真正所表达的思想内容,而不是仅仅读懂作者所写的文字表面的故事而已。


那怎样才能成为一个拥有批判性思考的读者呢?下面有几点让大家参考。


  1. 成为作者的听众

  2.    不仅仅能够读懂作者表面上的文字,更重要的是了解作者写下这些文字背后的意义。想更好地明白作者的意图,读者去了解作者的背景,以及仔细琢磨引言和批注都是很有帮助的。下面的一篇示范性的文章《家》是我们机构上个星期给7、8年级的学生上的阅读课文章。首先老师让学生知道这个作者布鲁克斯于1953年写这篇文章,作者是美国一位著名的黑人女作家,获得普利策奖,她笔下总是贫穷的小人物。这样让学生更加容易明白作者写这篇文章是意图是什么。当时我们有一个思考题,同学们选择了不同的答案,老师让学生们说说为什么选择了他们的答案,同时让同学们互相辩论。同学们积极性特高。

  3. 开放性的思维

  4.    批判性阅读的读者乐于从不同角度去剖析作者观点的深度。

  5.  揣摩标题

  6.     一篇文章最显眼的就是标题。标题也是最能体现作者的中心思想,态度以及叙事方式的存在。

  7.  慢式阅读

  8.     慢慢地阅读、不要囫囵吞枣地去阅读,能帮助读者更加好的理解文字行间的细微联系。

  9.  运用字典或者其他资料帮助理解不懂的词

        每一个词汇的出现都是有意义的。遇到不会的词,及时的运用字典或者其他文献资料能更好帮助读者了解作者的观点。通过阅读去理解单词,是一个很有效的掌握词汇的方法。

  10.  做笔记

  11.  在阅读的时候,读者可以根据自己的习惯,把作者的主要观点和论证通过标注或者侧批的方式记录下来,

  12. 养成记录读书日志的习惯

  13.    养成一个写读书日志的习惯,读者的想法不仅能被永久的记录下来,而且还可以提高写作能力。阅读和写作能力可以同时得到提高。

  14. 特别针对中国学生,批判性阅读能提高学生们的批判性思维的能力。带着批判性思维去阅读,对批判性阅读很有帮助。


下面是两篇批判性阅读范例 (包括文章,思考问题,以及词汇),初中家长们可以让你的孩子阅读一下,让孩子跟你们谈谈这两篇文章所写的内容、表达的思想和文章的意义所在。这两篇文章是我们给七、八年级的阅读课所用的文章:

 第一篇:                                                 

 

Home

By Gwendolyn Brooks. 1953

 What had been wanted was this always, this always to last, the talking softly on this porch, with the snake plant in the jardinière in the southwest corner, and the obstinate slip from Aunt Eppie’s magnificent Michigan fern at the left side of the friendly door. Mama, Maud Martha, and Helen rocked slowly in their rocking chairs,and looked at the late afternoon light on the lawn and at the emphatic iron of the fence and at the poplar tree. These things might soon be theirs no longer. Those shafts and pools of light,the tree, the graceful iron, might soon be viewed passively by different eyes.

Papa was to have gone that noon, during his lunch hour, to the office of the Home Owners’ Loan. If he had not succeeded in getting another extension, they would be leaving this house in which they had lived for more than fourteen years. There was little hope. The Home Owners’ Loan was hard. They sat, making their plans.

“We’ll be moving into a nice flat somewhere,” said Mama. “Somewhere on South Park, or Michigan, or in Washington Park Court.” Those flats, as the girls and Mama knew well, were burdens on wages twice the size of Papa’s. This was not mentioned now. 

“They’re much prettier than this old house,” said Helen. “I have friends I’d just as soon not bring here. And I have other friends that wouldn’t come down this far for anything, unless they were in a taxi.”

Yesterday, Maud Martha would have attacked her. Tomorrow she might. Today she said nothing. She merely gazed at a little hopping robin in the tree, her tree, and tried to keep the fronts of her eyes dry.

“Well, I do know,” said Mama, turning her hands over and over, “that I’ve been getting tireder and tireder of doing that firing. From October to April, there’s firing to be done.”

“But lately we’ve been helping, Harry and I,” said Maud Martha. “And sometimes in March and April and in October,and even in November, we could build a little fire in the fireplace. Sometimes the weather was just right for that.”

She knew, from the way they looked at her,that this had been a mistake. They did not want to cry.

But she felt that the little line of white, sometimes ridged with smoked purple, and all that cream-shot saffron would never drift across any western sky except that in back of this house. The rain would drum with as sweet a dullness nowhere but here. The birds on South Park were mechanical birds, no better than the poor caught canaries in those “rich” women’s sun parlors.

“It’s just going to kill Papa!” burst out Maud Martha. “He loves this house! He lives for this house!”

“He lives for us,” said Helen. “It’s us he loves. He wouldn’t want the house, except for us.”

“And he’ll have us,” added Mama,“wherever.”

“You know,” Helen sighed, “if you want to know the truth, this is a relief. If this hadn’t come up, we would have gone on, just dragged on, hanging out here forever.”

“It might,” allowed Mama, “be an act of God. God may just have reached down and picked up the reins.”

“Yes,” Maud Martha cracked in, “that’s what you always say — that God knows best.”

Her mother looked at her quickly, decided the statement was not suspect, looked away.

Helen saw Papa coming. “There’s Papa,” said Helen. 

They could not tell a thing from the way Papa was walking. It was that same dear little staccato6 walk,one shoulder down, then the other, then repeat, and repeat. They watched his progress. He passed the Kennedys’, he passed the vacant lot, he passed Mrs. Blakemore’s. They wanted to hurl themselves over the fence, into the street, and shake the truth out of his collar. He opened his gate— the gate — and still his stride and face told them nothing.

“Hello,” he said.

Mama got up and followed him through the front door. The girls knew better than to go in too.

Presently Mama’s head emerged. Her eyes were lamps turned on.

“It’s all right,” she exclaimed. “He got it. It’s all over. Everything is all right.”

The door slammed shut. Mama’s footsteps hurried away.

“I think,” said Helen, rocking rapidly, “I think I’ll give a party. I haven’t given a party since I was 11. I’d like some of my friends to just casually see that we’re homeowners.”

 

 

Discussion学生讨论:

1, What is the difference between a house and a home?

2, In the context of the text, what makes a family? Why is a home an important part of a family? Cite evidence from this text, your own experience, and other literature, art, or history in your answer.

 

Assessment测验:

1, PART A: Which of the following identifies a theme of the text?

Homes provide physical and emotional security for families.

While change can be frightening, it also creates a chance for growth.

The stress of waiting for bad news can be worse than the bad news itself.

Families are stronger when everyone shares their true feelings.

 

2, PART B: Which detail from the text best supports the answer to Part A?

 

a, “‘They’re much prettier than this old house,’ said Helen.‘I have friends I’d just as soon not bring here.’” (Paragraph 4)

 

b, “‘It’s just going to kill Papa!’ burst out Maud Martha.‘He loves this house! He lives for this house!’” (Paragraph 10)

 

c, “‘if you want to know the truth, this is a relief. If this hadn’t come up, we would have gone on, just dragged on, hanging out here forever.’” (Paragraph 13)

 

d, “‘I think I’ll give a party. I haven’t given a party since I was 11. I’d like some of my friends to just casually see that we are homeowners.’” (Paragraph 24)

                                                       

第二篇:  


Maud Martha And New York                       

By Gwendolyn Brooks


The name “New York” glittered in front of her like the silver in the shops on Michigan Boulevard. It was silver, and it was solid, and it was remote: it was behind glass, it was behind bright glass like the silver in the shops. It was not for her. Yet.

When she was out walking, and with grating iron swish a train whipped by, off, above,its passengers were always, for her comfort, New York-bound. She sat inside with them. She leaned back in the plush. She sped, past farms, through tiny towns,where people slept, kissed,quarreled,1 ate midnight snacks; unfortunate folk who were not New York-bound and never would be.

Maud Martha loved it when her magazines said “New York,” described “good” objects there, wonderful people there, recalled fine talk, the bristling or the creamy or the tactfully shimmering ways of life. They showed pictures of rooms with wood paneling, softly glowing, touched up by the compliment of a spot of auburn here, the low burn of a rare binding there. There were ferns in these rooms, and Chinese boxes; bits of dream like crystal; a taste of leather. 

In the advertisement pages, you saw where you could buy six Italian plates for eleven hundred dollars — and you must hurry, for there was just the one set;you saw where you could buy antique French bisque figurines(pale blue and gold) for — for — 

Her whole body became a hunger, she would pore over these pages. The clothes interested her, too; especially did she care for the pictures of women wearing carelessly, as if they were rags, dresses that were plain but whose prices were not. And the foolish food (her mother’s description) enjoyed by New Yorkers fascinated her. They paid ten dollars for an eight-ounce jar of Russian caviar; they ate things called anchovies, and capers; they ate little diamond-shaped cheeses that paprika had but breathed on; they ate bitter-almond macaroons; they ate papaya packed in rum and syrup; they ate peculiar sauces, were free with honey, were lavish with butter,wine and cream.

She bought the New York papers downtown, read of the concerts and plays, studied the book reviews, was intent over the announcements of auctions. She liked the sound of “Fifth Avenue,” “Town Hall,” “B. Altman,”“Hammacher Schlemmer.” She was on Fifth Avenue whenever she wanted to be, and she it was who rolled up, silky or furry, in the taxi, was assisted out, and stood, her next step nebulous, before the theaters of the thousand lights, before velvet-lined impossible shops; she it was.

New York,for Maud Martha, was a symbol. Her idea of it stood for what she felt life ought to be. Jeweled. Polished. Smiling. Poised. Calmly rushing! Straight up and down, yet graceful enough. 

She thought of them drinking their coffee there — or tea, as in England. It was afternoon. Lustrous people glided over perfect floors, correctly smiling. They stopped before a drumtable,covered with heavy white — and bearing a silver coffee service, old (in the better sense) china, a platter of orange and cinnamon cakes (or was it nutmeg the cakes would have in them?), sugar and cream, a Chinese box, one tall and slender flower. Their host or hostess poured, smiling too, nodding quickly to this one and that one, inquiring gently whether it should be sugar,or cream, or both, or neither (She was teaching herself to drink coffee with neither). All was very gentle. The voices, no matter how they rose,or even sharpened, had fur at the base. The steps never bragged or grated in any way on any ear — not that they could very well, on so good a Persian rug, or deep soft carpeting. And the drum table stood in front of a screen, a Japanese one perhaps, with rich and mellow, bread-textured colors. The people drank and nibbled, while they discussed the issues of the day, sorting rejecting, revising. Then they went home quietly, elegantly. They retired to homes not one whit less solid or embroidered than the home of their host or hostess.

What she wanted to dream, and dreamed, was her affair. It pleased her to dwell upon color and soft bready textures and light, on a complex beauty, on gem like surfaces. What was the matter with that? Besides, who could safely swear that she would never be able to make her dream come true for herself? Not altogether,then! — but slightly? — in some part?

She was eighteen years old, and the world waited. To caress her.


Assessment测试:

1.  Which of the following identifies the theme of the text?

  1.  People always strive to possess what they can’t have.

  2. Beautiful things and places can be deceiving.

  3. It’s easy and pleasant to get swept up by dreams of the future.

  4. The bigger a person dreams, the more they are likely to accomplish.


Discussion学生讨论:

1. What does your ideal future look like?

2. Do you think Maud Martha’s desires to go to New York are realistic? Why or why not?

3. In the context of the text, why should we value our youth? How does Maud Martha’s age contribute to her views on the future? Cite evidence from this text, your own experience, and other literature,art, or history in your answer.


Vocabulary词汇:

1. Quarrel (verb): to have an angry argument or disagreement

2. Poised (adjective): having a composed and self-assured manner

3. Lustrous (adjective): shining or glowing

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什么是批判性阅读?学生如何掌握批判性阅读?

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