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The autobiography of Benjamin Franklin 富兰克林传(英汉对照)5

(2011-03-13 20:07:59)
标签:

美国文学

富兰克林传

英汉对照

杂谈

The autobiography of Benjamin Franklin 富兰克林传(英汉对照)5

转自:正文翻译论坛

It occasioned my being more considered by Mr. Palmer as a young man of some ingenuity, though he seriously expostulated with me upon the principles of my pamphlet, which to him appeared abominable. My printing this pamphlet was another erratum. While I lodged in Little Britain, I made an acquaintance with one Wilcox, a bookseller, whose shop was next door. He had an immense collection of second-hand books. Circulating libraries were not then in use; but we agreed that, on certain reasonable terms, which I have now forgotten, I might take, read, and return any of his books.
突然我的作品为帕尔马斯先生发现,虽然他严重抗议我这本小册子的主张,据他看来是非常厌恶的,然而却因一个年轻人有这样的聪明而多加注意。我印行这小册子又是一件错误。当时我住在小不列颠街,和一位书商威尔可克斯认识了,他的店就在隔壁。他有许许多多的旧书。在当时并无活动图书馆;但是我们同意订立了一个很合理的条件,(内容如何已忘掉了)允许我任意取拿并读他的书。
This I esteemed a great advantage, and I made as much use of it as I could. In our house lodged a young woman, a milliner, m who, I think, had a shop in the Cloisters. She had been genteelly bred, was sensible, lively, and of a most pleasing conversation. Ralph read plays to her in the evenings, they grew intimate, she took another lodging, and he followed her. They lived together some time; but, he being still out of business, and her income not sufficient to maintain them with her child, he took a resolution of going from London, to try for a country school, which he thought himself well qualified to undertake, as he wrote an excellent hand, and deemed a business below him, and confident of future better fortune, when he should be unwilling to have it known that he once was so meanly employed, he changed his name, and did me the honor to assume mine; for I soon after had a letter from him, acquainting me that he was settled in a small village (in Berkshire, I think it was, where he taught reading and writing to ten or a dozen boys, at sixpence each per week), recommending Mrs.T--to my care, and desiring me to write to him , directing for Mr. Franklin, schoolmaster, at such a place.
这件事我尽力利用,后来估及此事对自己有很大的利益。在我们的屋子里还住着一个年轻妇人,是一个制帽商,我想她在寺院区有一间店面。她受过教育,聪明而活泼,言谈也很有趣。劳夫在夜间读戏剧给她听,就这样他们慢慢熟识,她搬到另外的地方寄宿,劳夫也跟着走。他们同居了一段时间;但是他仍没有工作,而她的收入,不够维持他们和她的一个孩子的生活,劳夫决定离开伦敦,试着到乡下小学教书,以他书法的精妙,足以担任教职,尤其是做算学和会计教师。这件事无论如何他认为是屈就,他对自己的未来很有自信,所以不愿意人家知道他曾就做过这样卑下的职位,于是就借用我的名字;因为我不久就收到他的一封信,告诉我他定居在一个小村落中(大概是白克歇埃,在那里他教十个或十二个孩子念书写字,每周薪金六便士。)他把T夫人托我照料,并且要我写信给她,依上述地址送给学校教师富兰克林先生。
He continued to write to me frequently, sending me large specimens of an epic poem which he was then composing, and desiring my remarks and corrections. These I gave him from time to time, but endeavored rather to discourage his proceeding. One of Young's Satires was then just published. I copied and sent him a great part of it, which set in a strong light the folly of pursuing the Muses.
他不间断地写作,曾寄来一篇长篇叙事诗,这是他最近的作品,并希望我加以批评和修正。我也屡次为他批改,但还是企图阻止他不要再进行了。有一本杨斯的讽刺诗才出版。我抄了一本,把大部分诗稿送给他并希望他为该书所感动,不要再愚蠢地从事于诗歌。
All was in vain; sheets of the poem continued to come by every post. In the mean time, Mrs.T--, having on his account lost her friends and business, was often in distresses, and used to send for me, and borrow what money I could spare to help to alleviate them. I grew fond of her company, and, being at that time under no religious restraint, and taking advantage of my importance to her, I attempted to take some liberties with her (another erratum), which she repulsed with a proper degree of resentment. She wrote to Realph and acquainted him with my conduct; this occasioned a breach between us; and, when he returned to London, he let me know he considered all the obligations he had been under to me as annulled, from which I concluded I was never to expect his repaying the money I had lent him, or that I had advanced for him. This, however, was of little consequence, as he was totally unable; and by the loss of his friendship I found myself relieved from a heavy burden. I now began to employment, I left Palmer's to work at Watts's, near Lincoln's Inn Fields, a still greater printing-house. Here I continued all the rest of my stay in London.
一篇篇没有内容的诗歌仍旧不断地随信附寄过来。正在此时,T夫人因他的缘故失去她的职业和家庭,生活陷于窘困之中。她常向我借钱,我也尽己之力帮助她。慢慢地我欢喜和她作伴了。在这种情况之下忘记了家教的束缚,挟持我对于她的重要,便意图轻薄,(又是一件过失)而她愤怒地拒绝了我,就把我的行为告诉劳夫。于是我们之间的友谊就破裂了,当他重返伦敦时,他宣称我已经把他从前受之于我的美意一笔勾销。这样我知道我借给他并为他垫付的钱没有希望讨回了。这件事也无关紧要,因为他已无力偿还,而失去他的友谊,我反觉得从重担中解放出来了。我现在开始想储蓄一些钱,并且希望有更好的工作,就离开帕尔马斯,来到林肯旅店场附近的华特工作,这是一间比较大的印刷厂,我在这里工作直到离开伦敦为止。

At my first admission into the printing-house I took to working at press, imagining I felt a want of the bodily exercise I had been used to in America, Where presswork is mixed with the composing. I drank only water; the other workmen, near fifty in number, were great drinkers of beer On occasion, I carried up and down stairs a large form of types in each hand, when others carried but one in both hands. They wondered to see, from this and several instances, that the Water-American, as they called me, was stronger than themselves, who drank strong beer!
我刚进印刷厂时,在印刷部工作,因为我觉得缺少身体的运动,不像在美洲;在美洲是印刷和排字混点的。我只喝清水;而其它工人,近于五十个,都是大量地喝着啤酒。通常我两手各拿一块铜板上下楼梯,而别的工人只是两手拿一块。从此事和别的事情上他们觉得我很奇怪,说那个喝水的美洲人,(他们如此称呼我)比他们喝强烈的啤酒的更有力!
We had an alehouse boy who attended always in the house to supply the workmen. My companion at the press drank every day a pint before breakfast, a pint at breakfast with his bread and cheese, a pint between breakfast and dinner, a pint at dinner, a pint in the afternoon about six o'clock, and another when he had done his day's work. I thought it a detestable custom; but it was necessary, he supposed, to drink strong beer, that he might be strong to labor.
在那里有一个酒店的孩子,他常在这屋子进出,把酒供给工人们。印刷厂中的其中一个同事在每天早晨之前喝一品脱,早饭用面包和乳饼时又喝一品脱,在早饭和中饭之间再喝一品脱,中饭一品脱,下什六时一品脱,等到他日间的工作做完时又饮一品脱。我想这是个不好的习惯,但是他以为这是必需的,喝强烈的啤酒,工作起来也比较有劲。
I endeavored to convince him that the bodily strength afforded by beer could only be in proportion to the grain or flour of the barley dissolved in the water of which it was made; that there was more flour in a pennyworth of bread; and therefore, if he could eat that with a pint of water, it would give him more strength than a quart of beer. He drank on, however, and had four or five shillings to pay out of his wages every Saturday night for that vile liquor; an expense I was free from. And thus these poor devils keep themselves always under.
我极力向他解说,啤酒提供给人身体的强健只不过是大麦的一粒麦或麦粉融在水中成比例,啤酒就是这样制造的,而一便士面包中麦粉就更多了;因此,你吃一块面包和一品脱的水,它能够给你比一品脱的啤酒还要多的体力。他仍旧喝酒,每一个星期六晚上为了那种糟糕的流质要付出四五先令,这种浪费我已逃过了。而那些可怜的魔鬼老是使他们捉襟见肘。
Watts, after some weeks, desiring to have me in the composing-room, I left the pressmen; a new bien venu for drink, being five shillings, was demanded of me by the compositors. I thought it an imposition, as I had paid one to the pressmen; the master thought so too, and forbade my paying it. I stood out two or three weeks, was accordingly considered as an excommunicate, and had so many little pieces of private malice practised on me, by mixing my sorts, transposing and breaking my matter, & c., & c., if ever I stepped out of the room, and all ascribed to the chapel ghost, which they said ever haunted those not regularly admitted, that, notwithstanding the master's protection, I found myself obliged to comply and pay the money, convinced of the folly of being on ill terms with those one is to live with continually. I was now on a fair footing with them, and soon acquired considerable influence. I proposed some reasonable alterations in their chapel laws, and carried them against all opposition.
过了几个星期华特调我进排字间,我就离开了这些印刷工人。这些排字工人要我出五先令请喝酒,我想这是敲竹杠,并且我在印刷间已付过了;这个主人也这样想,禁止我付这笔钱。我有两三星期未交,从此我成了一个像来自教会的人,他们经常找我许多麻烦,如果我出去一会儿就打乱我的活字,变换我的页数,破坏我的工作不胜枚举。各种事情都归咎于印刷厂中的鬼,他们说这个鬼专和那种没有正式承认的工人作祟,因此尽管有老板保护,我觉得应该付出这笔钱,我确信处在恶劣的关系上是愚蠢的,而一个人要继续和他们生活,良好的关系是必要的。现在我和他们很友善,没有多久就得到很大的势力。我把我们的会章修改几处,并用它和反对党对抗。

From my example, a great many of them left their muddling breakfast of beer, bread, and cheese, finding they could with me be supplied from a neighboring house with a large porringer of hot water-gruel, sprinkled with pepper, crumbled with bread, and a bit of butter in it, for the price of a pint of beer, viz., three halfpence. This was a more comfortable as well as a cheaper breakfast, and kept their heads clearer. Those who continued sotting with their beer all day were often, by not paying, out of credit at the ale house, and used to make interest with me to get beer; their light, as they phrased it, being out. I watched the payable on Saturday night, and collected what I stood engaged for them, having to pay sometimes near thirty shillings a week on their accounts. This, and my being esteemed a pretty good riggite, that is, a jocular verbal satirist, supported my consequence in the society. My constant attendance (I never making a St. Monday) recommended me to the master; and my uncommon quickness at composing occasioned my being put upon work of dispatch, which was generally better paid. So I went on now every agreeably.
因我的以身作则,他们和我都由邻居供给一大碗的稀饭,加上一点胡椒,杂以面包,再加上一点牛油,合起来不过一品脱啤酒的价格,就是一便士半。这顿早餐既舒服又便宜,更让他们头脑清晰。而那些仍旧整日滥饮啤酒的人,常为付不出钱,酒店里也不再愿意赊帐了,就常常付出利息向我借钱以饮啤酒;他们的光线,如他们所称的隐语,是灭掉了。我在星期六晚上查看这些付款表,把他们答应还我的钱加起来,有时每星期要近于三十先令。这件事使我在这社会上收到效果,他们非常地尊敬我,而我又是个绝妙的讽刺家。我每天都工作,(我从不在礼拜日休息)老板知道了,又因为我敏捷的排字技巧,便赋予我重担,这责任大概比较好一点。所以我过得很舒服。
At Watts' printing-house I contracted an acquaintance with an ingenious young man, one Wygate, who, having wealthy relations, had been better educated than most printers; was a tolerable Latinist, spoke French, and loved reading. I taught him and a friend of his to swim at twice going into the river, and they soon became good swimmers. They introduced me to some gentlemen from the country, who went to Chelsea by water to see the College and Don Saltero's curiosities.
在华特的印刷厂里我和一个聪明的年轻人华盖特结为朋友,他的家族很有钱,其所受的教育比大部份的工人来得好,精通拉丁文,会讲法国话,喜欢读书。在阿里我教他和他的朋友游泳共有两次,他们在短短的时间就把游泳学得很好。他们把几位大人先生们介绍给我。这几位先生是由水道从这里到哲儿西去参观专门学校和唐萨尔脱罗的古董的。
In our return, at the request of the company, whose curiosity Wygate had excited, I stripped and leaped into the river, and swam from near Chelsea to Blackfriar's, performing in the way many feats of activity, both upon and under the water, that surprised and pleased those to whom they were novelties. I had from a child been delighted with this exercise, had studied and practised Thevenot's motions and positions, and added some of my own, aiming at the graceful and easy as well as the useful. All these I took this occasion of exhibiting to the company, and was much flattered by their admiration; and Wygate, who was desirous of becoming a master, grew more and more attached to me on that account, as well as from the similarity of our studies. He at length proposed to me traveling all over Europe together, supporting ourselves everywhere by working at our business. I was once inclined to it; but, mentioning it to my good friend Mr. Denham, with whom I often spent an hour when I had leisure, he dissuaded me from it, advising me to think only of returning to Pennsylvania, which he was now about to do.
我们回来时,为响应同伴的要求,(他们的好奇心让华盖特激动了,)我脱了衣服,跳入水中,从哲儿西的附近游到白拉克弗拉耶,一路上表演了许多的生动的技巧;或浮在水面,或沈入水中,他们大为惊奇和愉快,认为这些技巧真是令人眼界大开。我自小就喜欢这种运动,曾经学习崔佛诺式的动作和位置,经常为了求姿势优美舒适,又要合于实用,所以又加上我自己发明的几种方式。趁此时机我把全部的游泳技巧显露出来,因而大受他们的赞美;而华盖特想要成为一个好手的,又因我们学习的东西很相似,就慢慢的和我亲近了。近来他向我建议一起去欧洲旅行。每到一个地方以印刷工作而自给,当时我很赞成这个建议,但是我告诉了我的好友邓罕先生,(我一有空就和他在一起从事休闲活动)他劝阻我不要如此盲目而行,要存着回宾夕尼亚的心,他现在正预备回去呢!

I must record one trait of this good man's character. He had formerly been in business at Bristol, but failed in debt to a number of people, compounded, and went to America. There, by a close application to business as a merchant, he acquired a plentiful fortune in a few years. Returning to England in the ship with me, he invited his old creditors to an entertainment, at which he thanked them for the easy composition they had favored him with, and, when they expected nothing but the treat, every man at the first remove found under his plate an order on a banker for the full amount of the unpaid remainder, with interest.
我一定要记载关于这位品性良好和善的人之一件轶事,起先他是在勃烈斯多尔做生意的,但是经商失败,欠了不少债,在和平解决债务之后,就到美洲来。在那里他专心一志地做生意,在几年中就赚到许多钱。他和我同船返英,返英之后,就请他的老债主前来赴宴,一再致谢他们的不苛求债款的好意。当时他们除了受他们款待以外,别无希求,但是在每一个人进第二道菜时发现在各自盘子下有一张支票,上面写着签下没有付清的债款和利息的总数。
He now told me he was about to return to Philadelphia, and should carry over a great quantity of goods in order to open a store there. He proposed to take me over as his clerk, to keep his books, in which he would instruct me, copy his letters, and attend the store. He added, that, as soon as I should be acquainted with mercantile business, he would promote me by sending me with a cargo of flour and bread to the West Indies, and procure me commissions from others which would be pro-fitable; and, if I managed well, would establish me handsomely. The thing pleased me; for I was grown tired of London, remembered with pleasure the happy months I had spent in Pennsylvania, and wished again to see it; therefore I immediately agreed on the terms of fifty pounds a year, Pennsylvania money; less, indeed, than my present gettings as a compositor, but affording a better prospect.
并且允许获得他人委托我而获得的佣金;并且如果我经营得法,更可以付给我很大酬劳。这几句话使我颇为心动;因为我逐渐地不喜欢伦敦,回想我在宾夕尼亚所过愉快的时光,并且愿意再度回到这地方;于是我立即同意于每年五十镑,宾夕尼亚货币;虽然比我现在做排字工人所得少了一些,但却给我更好的前途。他现在告诉我预备回到费城去,并且要运送许多的货物,预备在那里开店。他提议带我同去,做他的书记,管理他的帐簿。记账他可以教我,抄写他的信,和照料他的店。他还说,等我熟悉商业事务之后,立即升派我带着一船面包到西印度去,
I now took leave of printing, as I thought, for ever, and was daily employed in my new business, going about with Mr. Denham among the tradesmen to purchase various articles, and see them packed up, delivering messages, calling upon workmen to dispatch, & c., and, when all was on board, I had a few days' leisure. On one of these days, I was, to my surprise, sent for by a great man I knew only by name, sir William Wyndham, and I waited upon him.
我现在离开印刷厂,如我所想,这是永久的了。我每天致身于我的新事业,跟着邓罕先生在商人之中从事于采办各种的货物,看他们包装、运输、唤工人快速捆载等等的事;等到全部上了船,我还有几天空闲。这几天闲暇中,忽然有一日,有一位大人物叫我去,这位大人我仅知道他的名字,即是威廉温特罕爵士,于是我就去见他。

He had heard by some means or other of my swimming from Chelsea to Blackfriar', and of my teaching Wygate and another young man to swim in a few hours. He had two sons, about to set out on their travels; he wished to have them first taught swimming, and proposed to gratify me handsomely if I would teach them. They were not yet come to town, and my stay was uncertain, so I could not undertake it; but, from the incident, I thought it likely that, if I were to remain England and open a swimming-school, I might get a good deal of money; and it struck me so strongly, that, had the overture been made me sooner, probably I should not so soon have returned to America. Many years after, you and I had something of more importance to do with one of these sons of Sir William Wyndham, become Earl of Egremont, which I shall mention in its place.
他不知从什么地方听到我和教会朋友华盖特和另一个年轻人从哲儿西游到白雷克弗拉耶几个钟头。他有个儿子,预备出外旅行;如果我肯去教,请先教他们游泳,他可以给我很多酬劳。他的两个儿子都不在这城中,而我留在这里并无一定的时间,所以我不能担任这个职务。但是因此之故,我想如果我留在伦敦,开一所游泳学校,便可以得到许多的钱;这个想法时时地鼓励我,如果我不是立即要回美洲去的话。过了几年之后,我曾和这位爵士的一个儿子伊克里孟伯爵接洽商务,这件事我将在那时候再讲。

We landed at Philadelphia on the 11th of October, where I found sundry alterations. Keith was no longer governor, being superseded by Major Gordon. I met him walking the streets as a common citizen. He seemed a little ashamed at seeing me, and passed without saying any thing. I should have been as much ashamed at seeing Miss Read, had not her friends, despairing with reason of my return after the receipt of my letter, persuaded her to marry another, one Rogers, a potter, which was done in my absence.
十月十一日我们在费城上岸,在那里我发现许多人事的变化。基德已不做省长了,继任的是戈登少校。我遇到他像一个普通公民般在街上散步。他看到我似乎有点难为情,一句话也没说就走过去了。我看见李得小姐也该这般难为情呢!收到了我的信,知道我归程遥遥无期,因此她的家人劝她和一个从事陶业的罗杰斯结婚,(这件事是我不在时候发生的)
With him, however, she was never happy, and soon parted from him, refusing to cohabit with him or bear his name, it being now said he had another wife. He was a worthless fellow, though an excellent workman, which was the temptation to her friends. He got into debt, ran away in 1727 or 1728, went to the West Indies, and died there. Keimer had got a better house, a shop well supplied with stationery, plenty of new types, and a number of hands, though none good, and seemed to have a great deal of business.
无论如何她和他生活在一起一点也不快乐,不久就和他分开了,拒绝和他住在一起并跟他姓,据说,现在他已另娶别人了。他是个毫无价值的人,不过是一个很好的工人,这也是诱惑她家人的原因。后来他欠了债;在一七二七或一七二八年时逃走了,跑到西印度,最后就死在那里。基梅尔住着更高级的房屋,店中附设了文具部,有许多新活字版,增加工人,工人素质虽然不是很优秀,但生意似乎很不错。
My brother-in-law, Holmes, being now at Philadelphia, advised my return to my business; and Keimer tempted me, with an offer of large wages by the year, to come and take the management of his printing-house, that he might better attend to his stationer's shop. I had heard a had character of him in London from his wife and her friends, and was not for having any more to do with him. I wished for employment as a merchant's clerk; but, not meeting with any, I closed again with Keimer.
我的姊夫霍尔莫斯现在正在费城,劝我回到自己的本行上去;而基梅尔也劝诱我,答应给我很高的年薪,去管理他的印刷厂,那么他可以多照管他的文具店了。我在伦敦时从他的妻子和她的朋友那里得知他品性不良,很不喜欢和他做任何一件事。起先想谋一个商人书记的工作,但是不容易谋求,我只好先和基梅尔订约了。

I found in his house these hands: Hugh Meredith, a Welsh Pennsylvanian, thirty years of age, bred to country work: he was honest, sensible, a man of experience, and fond of reading, but addicted to drinking. Stephen Potts, a young countryman of full age, bred to the same, of uncommon natural parts, and great wit and humor, but a little idle. These he had agreed with at extreme low wages per week, to be raised a shilling every three months as they would deserve by improving in their business; and the expectation of these high wages, to come on hereafter, was what he had drawn them in with. Meredith was to work at press, Potts at bookbinding, which he, by agreement, was to teach them, though he knew neither one nor the other. John, a wild Irishman, brought up to no business, whose service, for four years, Keimer had purchased from the captain of a ship; he, too, was to be made a pressman. George Webb, an Oxford scholar, whose time for four years he had likewise bought, intending him for a compositor, of whom more presently; and David Harry, a country boy, whom he had taken apprentice.
我在他的印刷厂中知道这几个工人,休梅尔迪士,一个宾夕尼亚省的韦尔斯人,三十岁,以前在乡间工作,诚实而有见识,富有经验,尚喜读书,但也好饮酒。司蒂芬波顿,二十一岁的乡下年轻人,从前也在乡下工作,天赋颇为平凡,具有机智和幽默,但有点懒惰。这两个人,基梅尔以每星期极低廉的薪水雇用他们,如果他们的工作有进步,每三个月加一先令,作为他们的报酬;而以后能得高薪的希望才是促使他们继续工作的原动力。梅尔迪士在印刷处工作,波顿在订书处,依据合约,他要教导他们做事,虽然他自己也是一窍不通。约翰,是一个野蛮的爱尔兰人,没有一件事他能做好。他的工作期限为四年,基梅尔是从一艘船上那儿雇来的,他也要叫他学作印刷工人。乔治威勃是一位牛津的学生,四年为期,薪水和约翰相同,他想把他训练为排字匠,乔治的事情,下面就要讲到;还有戴维哈利,是个乡下人,基梅尔用他为学徒。
I soon perceived that the intention of engaging me at wages so much higher than he had been used to give, was, to have these raw, cheap hands formed through me; and, as son as I had instructed them, they being all articled to him, he should be able to do without me. I went, however, very cheerfully, put his printing-house in order, which had been in great confusion, and brought his hands by degrees to mind their business and to do it better.
我立即发觉他以比往常高许多的工资雇用我的动机是,想要我训练一批熟练与廉价的工人;等到我教会了他们,他们都是与他订有合约的,他即使没有我也能做了。无论怎样我仍是很愉快地生活,把他的印刷厂管理得井井有条,(以前是极为混乱的)和指导他的工人逐渐专注他们的工作,并且做得更好。
It was an odd thing to find an Oxford scholar in the situation of a bought servant. He was not more than eighteen years of age, and he gave me this account of himself: that he was born in Gloucester, educated at a grammar-school, and had been distinguished among the scholars for some apparent superiority in performing his part, when they exhibited plays; belonged to the wits' Club there, and had written some pieces in prose and verse, which were printed in the Gloucester newspapers thence was sent to Oxford, where he continued about a year, but not well satisfied, wishing of all things to see London, and become a player. At length, receiving his quarterly allowance of fifteen guineas, instead of discharging his debts he went out of town, hid his gown in a furze bush, and walked to London, where, having no friend to advise him, he fell into bad company, soon spent his guineas, found no means of being introduced among the players, grew necessitous, pawned his clothes, and wanted bread.
另有一件奇怪的事,就是一个牛津学生在这里工作。他不过十八岁,他向我略为自我介绍。他生于格路萨斯德并在那里的文法学校受过教育,当他们演戏时,因为他的演技很精彩,所以在学生中颇有名气;也曾加入那里的聪明俱乐部,写过几篇散文和诗歌,都刊登在格路萨斯德的报纸上;以后他被遣派到牛津去;在那里他住了约有一年,但是并不满足,想去伦敦看看,希望成为一个演员。后来他收到每季的补助费十五几尼,没有去还债,却离开了市镇,把他的长袍藏在金雀花丛中,跑到伦敦去。在那里,没有朋友规劝,使他交到了坏朋友,立即花掉了他的几尼,才知道没有法子请人介绍当演员,渐渐地穷困起来,当掉了他的衣服,又没有面包可吃。

 

Walking the street very hungry, not knowing what to do with himself, a crimp's bill was put into his hand, offering immediate entertainment and encouragement to such as would bind themselves to serve in America. He went directly, signed the indentures, was put into the ship, and came over, never writing a line to his friends to acquaint them what was become of him. He was lively, witty, good-natured, and a pleasant companion, but idle, thoughtless, and imprudent to the last degree.
他饥饿地在街上闲荡,一个诱拐者把支票放在他的手中,以金钱并怂恿他立即和他们到美洲去工作。他从未写过只字词组给他的家人,让他们知道他现在的状况。他是活泼、聪慧、好脾气,是一个愉快的伴侣,但是也是懒惰、没有思想、而且又粗心大意的人。
John, the Irishman, soon ran away; with the rest I began to live very agreeably, for they all respected me the more, as they found Keimer incapable of instructing them, and that from me they learned something daily. My acquaintance with ingenious people in the town increased. We never worked on Saturday, that being Keimer's Sabbath, so that I had two days for reading. Keimer himself treated me with great civility and apparent regard, and nothing now made me uneasy but my debt to Vernon, which I was yet unable to pay, being hitherto but a poor economist.
这个爱尔兰人约翰没有多久就逃跑了;我和其它的人相处甚安,他们都很敬重我,因为他们知道基梅尔不能教导他们,却能每天从我那里学到一点东西。我们在星期六是不工作的,那是基梅尔的安息日,所以我有两天读书的时间。我认识城中聪明的人们增加了。基梅尔非常礼遇我,现在除了威尔农的借款以外,没有使我不舒服的事,这笔款子我仍未还他,虽然我还是个可怜的勤俭的人呢!
He, however, kindly made no demand of it. But, however serviceable I might be, I found that my services became every day of less importance, as the other hands improved in their business; and, when Keimer paid me a second quarter's wages, he let me know that he felt them too heavy, and thought I should make an abatement. He grew by degrees less civil, put on more the airs of master, frequently found fault, was captious, and seemed ready for an outbreaking. I went on, nevertheless, with a good deal of patience, thinking that his encumbered circum-stances were partly the cause.
他却始终仁慈地没有向我要过这笔钱。但是无论我怎样的勤劳,我发觉我的工作日益减轻了,而其它工人的工作却增加;并且当基梅尔把我的第二季工资付给我时,告诉我他觉得工资太高了,认为我应该主动减低点,他对我愈来愈不客气,也逐渐摆出一副老板的神气,常常鸡蛋里挑骨头,强词夺理,好像随时要和我吵架似的。不过我认为他多半是由于新环境不好才这样的,所以仍旧一再忍耐,不和他争吵。
At length a trifle snapped our connection; for, a great noise happening near the courthouse, I put my head out of the window to see what was the matter. Keimer, being in the street, looked up and saw me, called out to me in a loud voice and angry tone to mind my business, adding some reproachful words, that nettled me the more for their publicity, all the neighbors who were looking out on the same occasion being witnesses how I was treated.
终于因为一件小事,把我们的关系弄僵了。有一天,我在印刷厂里,听见外面法庭附近一片嘈声,我把头伸出窗外,想看看是怎么一回事。基梅尔正在街上,抬头看见我,气呼呼地对我高声大吼,叫我少管闲事,还骂了我几句,他当众这样对我,使我怒不可遏,因为所有在这里看热闹的邻居,都看到他是怎样对待我的。
He came up immediately into the printing-house continued the quarrel, high words passed on both sides, he gave me the quarter's warning we had stipulated, expressing a wish that he had not been obliged to so long a warning. I told him his wish was unnecessary, for I would leave him that instant; and so, taking my hat, walked out of doors, desiring Meredith, whom I saw below, to take care of some things I left, and bring them to my lodgings.
他马上跑进印刷厂来,继续和我争吵不休,我心也有所不甘,反唇相讥,双方互不相让,彼此怒言相向。他按照我们从前签订的条件,给我一季的通知,叫我到时离职,并且还说,他希望他用不着给我这么长的时间作准备的,我告诉他大可不必如此,因为我马上就会走。于是我拿了帽子,走出门口,在楼下看见梅尔迪士,我请他把我留下来的东西收拾一下,送到我住的地方去。

 

Meredith came accordingly in the evening, when we talked my affair over. He had conceived a great regard for me, and was very unwilling that I should leave the house while he remained in it. He dissuaded me from returning to my native country, which I began to think of; he reminded me that Keimer was in debt for all he possessed; that his creditors began to be uneasy; that he kept his shop miserably. Sold often without a profit for ready money, and often trusted without keeping accounts; that he must therefore fail, which would make a vacancy I might profit of. I objected my want of money. He then let me know that his father had a high opinion of me, and, from some discourse that had passed between them, he was sure would advance money to set me up, if I would enter into partnership with him. "My time," said he, "will be out with Keimer in the spring; by that time we may have our press and types in from London. I am sensible I am no workman; if you like it, your skill in the business shall be set against the stock I furnish, and we will share the profits equally."
当他到我的寓所来,我们将事情讨论了一下。他对我非常敬重,当他还在那个印刷厂里工作的期间,很不愿意让我离开那里。我原本想回到波士顿去,他叫我不要回去,他说基梅尔负债累累,所有的财产都不够清偿债务,而且债主们已经开始不安起来。他经营不善,常常为了要现金,把货物依成本卖出,一点也没有利润,而且常常贱卖出去,也不记账;因此,他的那家印刷厂一定会倒闭的,这样一来,本地又少一家印刷厂,我可以利用这个机会,开一家印刷厂,一定可以获利。我说我没有本钱,于是他告诉我说,他的父亲对我的评价甚高,他从和父亲的几次谈话中,可以确定如果我愿意和他合伙开店,他的父亲一定愿意借钱来帮我们的。他说:「在春天我和基梅尔所订的期限满了,在那个时候我们的印刷机和铅字都可从伦敦运来。我自知不是个很好的工人;如果你愿意,你在业务上的能干和我提供的资本相等,那么利润我们平均分配好了。」
The proposal was agreeable to me, and I consented; his father was in town and approved of it; the more as he said I had great influence with his son, had prevailed on him to abstain long from dram-drinking, and he hoped might break him of that wretched habit entirely, when we came to be so closely connected. I gave an inventory to the father, who carried it to a merchant; the things were sent for, the secret was to be kept till they should arrive, and in the mean time I was to get work, if I could, at the other printing-house.
这个建议我表示同意;他的父亲正在城中,也赞成这个计划;尤其他看我对于他的儿子有潜移默化的作用,曾使他戒酒,所以他希望如果我和他一直保持这样地密切关系,可以改掉他全部的坏习惯。我把一张货物单给他的父亲,由他交给商人代办各货物;在东西没有运到之前暂时保密。在这期间我想在别的印刷厂工作。
But I found no vacancy there, and so remained idle a few days, when Keimer, on a prospect of being employed to print some paper money in New Jersey, which would require cuts and various types that I only could supply , and apprehending Bradford might engage me and get the job from him, sent me a very civil message, that old friends should not part for a few words, the effect of sudden passion, and wishing me to return.
但是各印刷厂都没有空缺,所以就闲荡了几天。此时基梅尔正承印哲儿西的钞票,这件事必定要有图版和各式的活字,那些东西只有我能够做,恐怕布雷德福特会请我去承办这项生意,在这种情况之下带给我一个很有礼貌的口信,说老朋友不要为了几句话分开,在动之以情的攻势下,希望我回去。
Meredith persuaded me to comply, as it would give more opportunity for his improvement under my daily instructions; so I returned, and we went on more smoothly than for some time before. The New Jersey job was obtained, I contrived a copper-plate press for it, the first that had been seen in the country; I cut several ornaments and checks for the bills. We went together to Burlington, where I executed the whole to satisfaction; and he received so large a sum for the work as to be enabled thereby to keep himself longer from ruin.
梅尔迪士劝我答应,认为在我的日常训练下,这件事可以使他有更多进步的机会,于是我就回去了。我们的日子过得比以前要平静许多。哲儿西的生意得到之后,我设法为它做铜板,这在本国是第一次见识到;我把这钞票划了花纹和校对的东西。我们一起到白灵顿去,我全部工作做到使人满意;因此他获得许多的钱,才能使他暂免破产。

 

We continued there near three months; and by that time I could reckon among my acquired friends, Judge Allen, Samuel Bustilll, the secretary of the Province, Isaac Pearson, Joseph Cooper, and several of the Smiths, members of Assembly, and Isaac Decow, the surveyor-general. The latter was a shrewd, Sagacious old man, who told me that he began for himself, when young, by wheeling clay for the brick markers, learned to write after he was of age, carried the chain for surveyors, who taught him surveying, and he and now, by his industry, acquired a good estate; and said he, "I foresee that you will soon work this man out of his business, and mark a fortune in it at Philadelphia." He had then not the least intimation of my intention to set up there or anywhere. These friends were afterward of great use to me, as I occasionally was to some of them. They all continued their regard for me as long as they lived. We had not been long returned to Philadelphia before the new types arrived from London.
我们留在那里约有三个月;在这段时间我得到的许多朋友,有阿伦审判官、山姆布斯笛尔省秘书长、伊萨克比尔逊、约瑟夫柯柏,还有几个司密斯,都是省议员,还有伊萨克狄柯,是测量局长。最后的一位是个精明饯俐的老人,他告诉我在年轻时作泥水匠运泥的小工人,到成人后才学习写作,后为测量员拿练条,他们教他测量,到现在才又以工业为主,创造很好的产业。他说,「我预料你很快就能在印刷业中追上基梅尔,并且在费城靠此致富。」当时我想在这里或别的地方创业的想法他一点也不知道的。这些朋友后来对我颇有帮助,而我偶然也有用于他们,他们毕生都不曾间断地关心我。在新印刷机从伦敦运到之前我们不久就返回费城。
We settled with Keimer, and left him by his consent before he heard of it. We found a house to let near the Market, and took it. To lessen the rent, which was then but twenty-four pounds a year, though I have since known it to let for seventy, we took in Thomas Godfrey, a glazier, and his family, who were to pay a considerable part of it to us, and we to board with them. We had scarce opened our letters and put our press in order, before George House, an acquaintance of mine, brought a countryman to us, whom he had met in the street inquiring for a printer.
我们首先和基梅尔办清手续,让他在我们开店之前允许我们离职。我们在市场旁边租到一间房子。我知道从前这间房子每年要租七十镑,现在却减租,只有二十五镑了。我们便分租给一个玻璃匠汤马斯哥弗来和他的眷属同住,他们付一部分的租金给我们,而我们就寄食在他们那里。我们刚把铅字开用,和将印刷机整理好,我的一位朋友豪斯带一个乡下人来。这个人是他在街上遇到,正在询问印刷厂。
All our cash was now expended in the variety of particulars we had been obliged to procure, and this countryman's five shillings, being our first-fruits, and coming so seasonably, gave me more pleasure than any crown I have since earned, and the gratitude I felt toward House has made me often more ready than perhaps I otherwise should have been to assist young beginners.
当时我们全部的钱都花在购置货物上,而这个乡下人的五先令是我们第一笔的交易,而且来得正是时候。这使得我比得到一顶王冠还要快乐;因为我感激豪斯,以后使我常存要扶助刚出社会的年轻人的心意,否则我不会这样热心。
There are croakers in every country, always boding its ruin. Such a one there lived in Philadelphia; a person of note, an elderly man, with a wise look and a very grave manner of speaking; his name was Samuel Mickle. This gentleman, a stranger to me, stopped me one day at my door, and asked me if I was the young man who had lately opened a new printing-house. Being answered in the affirmative, he said he was sorry for me, because it was an expensive undertaking, and the expense would be lost; for Philadelphia was a sinking place, the people already half bankrupts, or near being so; all the appearances of the contrary, such as new buildings and the rise of rents, being to his certain knowledge fallacious; for they were, in fact, among the things that would ruin us. Then he gave me such a detail of misfortunes now existing, or that were soon to exist, that he left me half melancholy.
每个地方都有一个工作不祥预言的人,常常预言事业的破产。在费城也有这样一个人,很出名的一位老人,他有聪明的外貌和庄严说话的态度;他的名字是山密克儿。这位先生和我素不相识,有一天站在我的门口,就问我是不是最近开一家印刷厂的那个年轻人。我回答他「是的」,他说他为我感到忧虑,因为印刷厂是一个消费大的事业,而且这种消费必要丧失;因为费城是一个没落的地方,人民大部份都已破产或濒临破产;从外表看来却相反,例如新起的建筑和租金的升高,以他的某种智慧而言都是虚妄的;因为事实上它们都是使我们破产的种种因素之一。他还详细告诉我许多最近发生的不幸,以及即将要发生的不幸。他的话使我忧喜参半。

 

Had I known him before I engaged in this business, probably I never should have done it. This person continued to live in this decaying place, and to declaim in the same strain, refusing for many years to buy a house there, because all was going to destruction; and at last I had the pleasure of seeing him give five times as much for one as he might have bought it for when he first began croaking.
如果我在开此店之前认识了他,显然我决不会从事此事。这个人仍是住在这个衰落败坏的地方,以同一的论调演说。他好几年来拒绝在那里买一栋房屋,因为全部都慢慢地要灭亡了,直到后来有幸看他以巨额买一栋房屋,其价钱比他开始作不祥议论时要高到五倍。

I should have mentioned before, that, in the autumn of the preceding year, I had formed most of my ingenious acquaintance into a club for mutual improvement, which we called the JUNTO; we net on Friday evenings. The rules that I drew up required that every member, in his turn, should produce one or more queries on any point of Morals, Politics, or Natural Philosophy, to be discussed by the company; and once in three months produce and read an essay of his own writing, on any subject he pleased.

在这里我要提的是,在翌年的秋天,我曾和几个朋友组织一个交换知识的俱乐部,称为「秘密会」,在每星期五晚上开会。我所拟定的会中规则要求每一个会员轮流提出一个或几个问题,无论是有关道德、政治或自然哲学,大家都可以讨论;又每人在三个月中提出或诵读一篇自己写作的散文,题目自己拟定。
Our debates were to be under the direction of a president, and to be conducted in the sincere spirit of inquiry after truth, without fondness for dispute, or desire of victory; and, to prevent warmth, all expressions of positiveness in opinions, or direct contradiction, were after some time made contraband, and prohibited under small pecuniary penalties.
我们的辩论是在会长的指导之下,务求以诚恳的精神研求真理,不须争论,不要胜利;并且为防止激烈的情形发生,不论正面意见的表现,或负面的,都在一些时候之后加以禁止,并且施以微薄的罚金。
The first members were Joseph Breintnal, a copier of deeds for the scriveners, a good-natured, friendly, middle-aged man, a great lover of poetry, reading all he could meet with, and writing some that was tolerable; very ingenious in making little knickknackeries and of sensible conversation. Thomas Godfrey, a self-taught mathematician, great in his way, and after ward inventor of what is now called Hadley's Quadrant.
最初入会的会员有约瑟夫白理尼特纳尔,是一个借债人的契约撰写者,好脾气,对朋友有义气的一个中年人。他是诗歌的爱好者,他能够看到多少就读多少,写几首诗也过得去;在许多小技艺上也很聪明,谈话颇有水平。汤马斯哥弗来,一个自学的数学家,且颇精此道,后来发明一种现在叫做哈德来式象限仪的东西。

 

But he knew little out of his way, and was not a pleasing companion; as, like most great mathematicians I have met with, he expected universal precision in every thing said, or was for ever denying or distinguishing upon trifles, to the disturbance of all conversation. He soon left us.
Nicholas Scull, a surveyor, afterward surveyor-general, who loved books, and sometimes made a few verses.
但是他除数学之外别无所知,故不是一个愉快的伴侣;正如我曾遇见的大多数的大数学家一样,他盼望他所说的任何一件事都是普遍的且精确无误,常常执着在一件极小的事情,以致扰乱全部的谈话。他不久就离开我们。尼古拉斯斯克尔,一个测量员。后来做测量局长,他喜欢读书,有时也作几首诗。
William Parsons, bred a shoemaker, but, loving reading, had acquired a considerable share of mathematics, which he first studied with a view to astrology, and afterward laughed at it. He also became surveyor-general. William Maugridge, joiner, but a most exquisite mechanic, and a solid, sensible man. Hugh Meredith, Stephen Potts and George Webb I have characterized before.
威廉派尔逊,是一个鞋匠,但是爱读书,数学学得也不少,起先他为了想做天文学家,所以学数学,后来他却嘲笑天文学家。他也成为测量局长。威廉麻格尔谷,一个小木匠,手工很精巧,是个踏实有知识的人。休梅尔迪士、司蒂芬波顿和乔治威勃我之前已经说过了。
Robert Grace, a young gentleman of some fortune, generous, lively, and witty; a lover of punning and of his friends. Lastly, William Coleman, then a merchant's clerk, about my age, who had the coolest, clearest head, the best heart, and the exactest morals of almost any man I ever met with. He became afterward a merchant of great note, and one of our provincial judges. Our friendship continued without interruption to his death, upward of forty years; and the club continued almost as long, and was the best school of philosophy, morality, and politics that then existed in the province; for our queries, which were read the week preceding their discussion, put us upon reading with attention on the several subjects, that we might speak more to the purpose; and here, too, we acquired better habits of conversation, every thing being studied in our rules which might prevent our disgusting each other. Hence the long continuance of the club, which I shall have frequent occasion to speak further of hereafter.
罗伯特格来斯,一个有钱的年轻绅士,慷慨、活泼和有智慧,喜欢说双关语,也爱结交朋友。还有威廉柯尔孟,当时是一个商人的书记,和我年龄相仿,他有最冷静、最清楚的头脑,心地善良,及崇高的道德,这样的人我差不多未曾见过。他后来成为很有名的商人,并且是我们的省裁判官之一。我们的友谊毫无间断直到他死,往后有四十年的交情呢!而这个俱乐部差不多也持续这样长的时间,它是这一省里哲学、道德和政治的最好学堂;因为我们的议题,在讨论前一星期已读出了,使我们研读时注意这几个题目,那么我们讨论起来更能切入主题,而且我们又能学到谈话的好技巧,每一件事情都按规则而行,以免双方争论。自组织以来,这个俱乐部的长久存在,我在后来将有很多的机会谈起。
But my giving this account of it here is to show something of the interest I had, every one of these exerting themselves in recommending business to us. Breintnal particularly procured us from the Quakers the printing of forty sheets of their history, the rest being to be done by Keimer; and upon these we worked exceedingly hard, for the price was low. It was a folio, pro patria size, in pica, with long primer notes. I composed a sheet a day, and Meredith worked it off at press; it was often eleven at night, and sometimes later, before I had finished my distribution for the next day's work, for the little jobs sent in by our other friends now and then put us back. But so determined I was to continues doing a sheet a day of the folio, that one night, when, having imposed my forms, I thought my day's work over, one of them by accident was broken, and two pages reduced to pi, I immediately distributed and composed it over again before I went to bed; and this industry, visible to our neighbors, began to give us character and credit; particularly, I was told, that mention being made of the new printing-office at the merchants' every night club, the general opinion was that it must fail, there being already two printers in the place, Keimer and Bradford; but Dr. Baird (whom you and I saw many years after at his native place, St. Andrew's in Scotland) gave a contrary opinion: "For the industry of that Franklin," said he, "is superior to any thing I ever saw of the kind. I see him still at work when I go home from the club, and he is at work again before his neighbors are out of bed."
我巨细靡遗叙述俱乐部,为的是表示有些与我有利害关系的事,会里每人都极力为我们介绍生意。尤其白理尼特纳尔使我们从桂格儿那里获得印刷他们的历史四十张,其余由基梅尔承印,但这件工作使我们工作得极为困难,因为价格很便宜。这是四开本,印四号字,用大字长字做标题,我一天排一张纸的字,而由梅尔迪士印出来。在我把明天工作分配完毕以前,把纸印好已是夜间十一时,有时还要更晚。因为我们其它朋友时常介绍小生意,经常不能如期交货,但是我决定仍要每天印一张四开纸,有一天晚上,我已经将活字版排好,以为一天的工作完毕了,不料里面有一版损毁了,有两页的活字次序弄乱了,我立即在我上床以前把活字还原重新排过;如此勤劳工作,我们的邻居都明白,开始信任我们了。尤其人家告诉我,在商人们的每晚俱乐部中提及新开的印刷厂,一般意见以为必定失败,因为那里已有两个印刷厂,基梅尔和布雷德福特。但是贝亚德博士(我在许多年以后在他的故乡苏格兰的圣安特罗看见他)却持相反的意见:「因为那个富兰克林的勤劳,」他说:「是我所见凌驾同行任何人之上;当我从俱乐部返家时,我看到他仍在工作,并且他在他的邻居起床之前又在工作了。」

 

This struck the rest, and we soon after had offers from one of them to supply us with stationery; but as yet we did not choose to engage in shop business. George Webb, who had found a female friend that lent him wherewith to purchase his time of Keimer, now came to offer himself as a journeyman to us. We could not then employ him; but I foolishly let him know as a secret that I soon intended to begin a newspaper, and might then have work for him.
这句话打动了别人,以后就有人托我们代销文具,但是这时候我们没有做门市。乔治威勃交了一个女朋友,她借给他钱,以此赎抵基梅尔的工作期效,而想到我们这里做一个工人。现在我们不能雇用他;但是我愚蠢地告诉他我有意办报的密秘,说那时也许就有工作了。
My hopes of success, as I told him, were founded on this, that the then only newspaper, printed by Bradford, was a paltry thing, wretchedly managed, no way entertaining, and yet was profitable to him; I therefore freely thought a good paper would scarcely fail of good encouragement. I requested Webb not to mention it; but he told it to Keimer, who immediately, to be beforehand with me, published proposals for one himself, on which Webb was to be employed. I was vexed at this; and to counteract them, not being able to commence our paper, I wrote several amusing pieces for Bradford's paper, under the title of the BUSY BODY, which Breintnal continued some moths. By this means the attention of the public was fixed on that paper, and Keimer's proposals, which we burlesqued and ridiculed, were disregarded. He began his paper, however, and, before carrying it on three quarters of a year, with at most only ninety subscribers, he offer-it me for a trifle; and I, having been ready some time to go on with it, took it in hand directly; and it proved in a few years extremely profitable to me. Our first papers made quite a different appearance from any before in the province; a better type, and better printed; but some remarks of my writing, on the dispute then going on between Governor Burnet and the Massachusetts Assembly, struck the principal people, occasioned the paper and the manager of it to be much talked of, and in a few weeks brought them all to be our subscribers.
就写几篇有趣味的文章登在布雷德福特的报上以反对他们─署名为「劳人」,这类文章后来白理尼特纳尔继续写了几个月。因为这个缘故,公众的注意力都集中在布雷德福特的报纸上,而基梅尔所要开办的报纸,就是我们戏谑和嘲笑的对象,便置之不理了。他仍旧开办他的报,后来办三季,定报的人最多祇有九十个,他就以很少的钱盘给我了;而我,早已预备办这件事的,就径自把它接手;而在数年之后,这份报确实让我获得极大利益。我告诉他,我成功的希望是基于这个,而现在的布雷德福特所印的唯一报纸是毫无价值的东西,管理不得当,毫无趣味,但他仍可获利;我于是想办一份优良的报纸,且在我经营之下不致于会失败的。我请威勃不要透露,但是他把这事告诉基梅尔,他立即先行着手,自己筹备印行报纸,威勃也被雇用。我大为愤怒,因为我现在已不能开办我们的报纸,我们刚出版的新报纸则和本省以前的任何一种报纸有很不一样的内容,是一种较好的版次,和较好的印刷;并且对于柏纳特省长和马沙启斯次议会的争辩,我灵活观察所写的文章,打动了这些上流人士,遂使这张报和报馆的经理常被讲到,在几个星期之中使他们成了我们的订户。

 

Their example was followed by many, and our number went on growing continually. This was one of the first good effects of having learned a little to scribble; another was, that the leading men, seeing a newspaper now in the hands of those who could also handle a pen, thought it convenient to oblige and encourage me. Bradford still printed the votes, and laws, and other public business. He had printed an address of the House to the governor, in a coarse, blundering manner; we reprinted it elegantly and correctly, and sent one to every member. They were sensible of the difference: it strengthened the hands of our friends in the House, and they voted us their printers for the year ensuing. But now another difficulty came upon me which I had never the least reason to expect.
接着有许多人跟进,因此使我们的销售数量不断地增加。这是我曾随意写的第一次好效果之一,还有一件事,那些领袖级人物,看到一种报纸现在归一个能够执笔的人管理,以此鼓励我并资助我。布雷德福特仍旧印他的选举票、法典和其它公家生意。他曾印一篇议院送给省长的陈述,印得模糊不清,我们把这篇文章重新排过,排得优美及准确,每一个议员送一篇。我们觉得两者真的不同;让这件事加强我们在议院里朋友的助力,使他们通过明年让我们承印各种印刷物。但是现在我更面临另一种困难,这件事是我意想不到的。
Mr. Meredith's father, who was to have paid for our printing-house, according to the expectation given me, was able to advance only one hundred pounds currency, which had been paid; and a hundred more were due to the merchant, who grew impatient, and sued us all. We gave bail, but saw that, if the money could not be raised in time, the suit must soon come to a judgment and execution, and our hopeful prospects must, with us, be ruined, as the press and letters must be sold for payment, perhaps at half price.
梅尔迪士先生的父亲,他原本答应替我们的印刷厂付款,依约定只垫付我一百镑现金,这笔款子他已付了;但是欠商人却不止一百镑,他们不能忍耐,就控告我们了。我们虽加以保证,但是实际上,如果这笔款子不能如期给付,这件官司必将立即判决和执行,而我们极有希望的前途必将毁于一旦,因为印刷机和铅字必将拍卖以清偿债务,也许只能半价卖掉。
In this distress two true friends, whose kindness I have never forgotten, nor ever shall forget while I can remember any thing, came to me separately, unknown to each other, and, without any application from me, offered each of them to advance me all the money that should be necessary to enable me to take the whole business upon myself, if that should be practicable; but they did not like my continuing the partnership with Meredith, who, as they said, was often seen drunk in the street, playing at low games in alehouses, much to our discredit.
遇到困难时总有两个忠实的朋友从旁协助,他们的好意我永远不会忘记。他们不约而同到我那儿,但并非出自我的请求,如果我要实行,两人都肯垫付我自己经营印刷业务的全部金钱。但是他们不喜欢我和梅尔迪士继续合伙,他们说,常常看见他在街上饮酒,并且在酒店里玩下等的赌博,早已是声名狼藉了。
These two friends were William Coleman and Robert Grace. I told them I could not propose a separation while any prospect remained of the Merediths' fulfilling their part of our agreement, because I thought myself under great obligation to them for what they had done, and would do if they could; but, if they finally failed in their performance, and our partnership must be dissolved, I should then think myself at liberty to accept the assistance of my friends.
这两个朋友就是威廉柯尔孟和罗伯特格来斯。我告诉他们,如果梅尔迪士能够履行条约中属于他的一部份,我不致于有拆伙的计划,因为我想我自己曾受过他们的好处应该回报,他们若能履行,我也必定依约做下去;但是如果不能履行,我们就必须拆伙,那时我自己才有自由去接受我朋友的帮助。

 

Thus the matter rested for some time, when I said to my partner, "Perhaps your father is dissatisfied at the part you have undertaken in this affair of ours, and is unwilling to advance for you and me what he would for you. If that is the case, tell me, and I will resign the whole to you, and go about my business." "No," said he, "my father has really been disappointed, and is really unable; and I am unwilling to distress him further. I see this is a business I am not fit for.
于是这件事便停顿了一段时间,我对我的合伙人说,「也许你的父亲不满意你在我们的印刷厂中所担任的职位,并且不愿意用单独为你垫付的钱为我和你两人垫付。如果是这样的话,老实告诉我,那么我将把全部事务让给你,我自己另外找事情做好了。」「不是的,」他说:「我的父亲真的非常失望了,并且也真的没有能力了,而我不愿再逼迫他。我看这事业并不适合我。
I was bred a farmer, and it was folly in me to come to town, and put myself, at thirty years of age, an apprentice to learn a new trade. Many of our Welsh people are going to settle in Morth Carolina, where land is cheap. I am inclined to go with them, and follow my old employment; you may find friends to assist you. If you will take the debts of the company upon you, return to my father the hundred pounds he has advanced, pay my little personal debts, and give me thirty pounds and a new saddle, I will relinquish the partnership, and leave the whole in your hands."
我本来是学做农夫的,跑到城里来实是我的愚蠢,以三十岁的年龄,投身成为新商业的学徒。我们韦尔斯有许多人都跑到北卡罗讷那里立业,那里的地是便宜的。我很想和他们一起去重操旧业。你可以找朋友来帮助你。如果共同的债务由你担任,还我父亲所垫的一百镑,另代我偿还小小的私人债务,再给我三十镑和一副新马鞍,我立即放弃这个合伙权,把一切东西归你所有。」
I agreed to this proposal; it was drawn up in writing, signed, and sealed immediately. I gave him what he demanded, and he went soon after to Carolina, whence he sent me next year two long letters, containing the best account that had been given of that country, the climate, the soil, and husbandry, for in those matters he was very judicious. I printed them in the papers, and they gave great satisfaction to the public.
我同意他的建议,立即把这话写下来,签字盖章。我把他要求的东西给了他,之后他就立即到北卡罗讷那里去了,翌年他从那里给我两封长信,信里写的是那个地方的最好叙述,气候、土壤、农业状况等等,可见他是很适合从事这种事情的。我将此信印在报上,颇受大众欢迎。
As soon as he was gone, I recurred to my two friends; and because I would not give an unkind preference to either, I took half of what each had offered and I wanted of one, and half of the other; paid off the company's debts, and went on with the business in my own name, advertising that the partnership was dissolved. I think this was in or about the year 1729.
等到他去的时候,我便求助于我的两个朋友,又因为我不肯在两人之间有所偏爱,于是我把我所需要的钱,也就是各人愿意供给的钱,各取一半。在还清了共同的债务,再用我自己的名字进行业务,登报声明两个合伙是取消了。我想此事大约在一七二九年。
About this time there was a cry among the people for more paper money, only fifteen thousand pounds being extant in the province, and that soon to be sunk. The wealthy inhabitants opposed any addition, being against all paper currency, from the apprehension that it would depreciate, as it had done in New England, to the injury of all creditors. We had discussed this point in our Junto, where I was on the side of an addition, being persuaded that the first small sum struck in 1723 had done much good by increasing the trade, employment, and number of inhabitants in the province, since I now saw all the old houses inhabited, and many new ones building; whereas I remembered well, when I first walked about the streets of Philadelphia, eating my roll, I saw many of the houses in Walnut-street, between Second and Front streets, with bills on their doors, "To be let," and many likewise in Chestnut-street and other streets, which made me think the inhabitants of the city were one after another deserting it.
约在此时民间出现要求更多纸币的声音,在本省现存的只有一万五千镑,而那些钞票立刻就有没了。有钱的居民反对增加,凡是债权人都断然地反对全部的纸币,因为他们唯恐纸币会跌价,像新英格兰一样。关于这一点我们曾在俱乐部中讨论,在那里我是站在增加纸币的一方面,我确信在一七二三年初次发行的小数目,做了许多的好处,曾使商业、工作、人口都有大幅增加,到现在我见所有的老房子都有住人,而许多新的正在建筑的房子;据我所记得的,当我初次在费城的街道上散步,吃我的「一卷」时,我看到在胡桃街和近于二条街之间的房屋,大部分在他们的门上贴着「出租」,在栗子街和其它街道的许多房屋也差不多,这种情形使我想到城里的居民都要一个个离开此地了。

 

The utility of this currency became by time and experience so evident, that the principles upon which it was founded were never afterward much disputed; so that it grew soon to fifty-five thousand pounds, and in 1739 to eighty thousand pounds, trade, building, and inhabitants all the while increasing, though I now think there are limits beyond which the quantity many be hurtful.
纸币的效用以时间和经验而更为显著,后来也不用多加辩论了;所以没有多久就增加到五万五千镑,在一七三九年达到九万镑,以后因战事更增加到三十五万镑,在这时候商业、建筑和人口都有增加,而我现在想应该有一个限度,超出了限度的数量也许是有害的。
I now opened a small stationer's shop. I had in it blanks of all kinds, the correctest that ever appeared among us. I was assisted in that by my friend Breintnal. I had also paper, parchment, chapmen's books, & c. One Whitemarsh, a compositor I had known in London, an excellent workman, now came to me, and worked with me constantly and diligently; and I took an apprentice, the son of Aquila lose.
我现在开了一间小小的文具店。店中兼卖各种表格,那是市面上仅见的且最无错误的一种,是我的朋友白理尼特纳尔帮助我的。我也卖纸张、羊皮纸、账簿等等。怀特马斯是我在伦敦认识的一个排字工人,而且是一个很好的工人,现在到我这儿来和我一起工作,勤劳而有恒心,我还收一个学徒,是阿基拉罗斯的儿子。
I began now gradually to pay off the debt I was under for the printing-house. In order to secure my credit and character as a tradesman, I took care not only to be in reality industrious and frugal, but to avoid the appearances to the contrary. I dressed plain, and was seen at no places of idle diversion. I never went out a fishing or shooting; a book, indeed, sometimes debauched me from my work, but that was seldom, was private, and gave no scandal; and, to show that I was not above my business, I sometimes brought home the paper I purchased at the stores through the streets on a wheelbarrow. Thus being esteemed an industrious, thriving young man, and paying duly for what I bought, the merchants who imported stationery solicited my custom; others proposed supplying me with books, and I went on prosperously. In the mean time, Keimer's credit and business declining daily, he was at last forced to sell his printing-house to satisfy his creditors. He went to Barbadoes, and there lived some years in very poor circumstances.
我现在开始慢慢清偿开印刷厂所积欠下来的债。因为要巩固商人的信用和人格,我不但注意到勤劳和节俭的实际情形,也要避免负面的现象。我穿得很朴素;在休闲的娱乐场所从没被人家看见过。我从不从事钓鱼和打鸟的活动;真的,有时只有一本书打扰我的工作,但那也是难得的,并且很适当,也不会受议论;而且为表示我没有看不起我的职业,有时我把店中购办的纸张装在手推车上,直接穿过街道,推回家中。于是人家尊敬我为一个勤劳节俭的年轻人。我买东西不拖欠,这些进口文具的商人都拉我做主顾;还有别的商人以书籍供应我,所以我进行得顺利。在这时候,基梅尔的信用和事业一天天地衰退了,终于逼得他把他的印刷厂卖掉来还债。他跑到巴佩道斯,在那里过了几年苦日子。

 

There remained now no other printer in Philadelphia but the old Bradford; but he was rich and easy, did a little business by straggling hands, but was not anxious about it. However, as he held the post office, it was imagined he had better opportunities of obtaining news; his paper was thought a better distributor of advertisements than mine, and therefore had many more, which was a profitable thing to him, and a disadvantage to me; for, though I did indeed receive and send papers by the post, yet the public opinion was otherwise, for what I did send was by bribing the riders, who took them privately, Bradford being unkind enough to forbid it, which occasioned some resentment on my part; and I thought so meanly of the practice, that, when I afterward came into his situation, I took care never to imitate it.
现在费城除了布雷德福特老店以外,再也没有和我竞争的人了;他富裕又舒服,是个散漫的工人,三天捕鱼,二天晒网的,并不是很热心这个事业。毕竟他是管理邮政的,以此想起来他有更好的机会去得到新闻;他的报纸广告销路广,广告也比我的报还要多,所以有许多有利于他却不利于我的东西;虽然我真的也由邮政接送报纸,但是公众的意见却仍是两样。我的派送报纸是由于贿赂邮差,他私自担任的,布雷德福特却从中阻隔,这件事使我很愤慨;我认为他做这件事太卑鄙了,后来我做到他的地位时,我留意决不重蹈覆彻。
I had hitherto continued to board with Godfrey, who lived in a part of my house with his wife and children, and had one side of the shop for his glazier's business, though he worked little, being always absorbed in his mathematics. Mrs. Godfrey projected a match for me with a relation's daughter, took opportunities of bringing us often together, till a serious courtship on my part ensued, the girl being in herself very deserving. The old folks encouraged me by continual invitations to supper, and by leaving us together, till at length it was time to explain.
我至今仍寄食于高弗莱处,他和他的妻子、小孩住在我的房屋之一部份,店面的一边是他做玻璃生意的地方,他常常沉酣于数学之中,所以对工作不太热心。高弗莱太太设法想把亲戚的女儿给我做妻子,因此我们有见面的机会,随即我真诚的向她求爱,而这位少女本身也认为应该接受了。她的家长以请我吃晚饭作鼓励,并且借故离开了,只留我们两人在一起,直到后来这是坦诚相待的时候了。
Mrs. Godfrey managed our little treaty. I let her know that I expected as much money with their daughter as would pay off my remaining debt for the printing-house, which I believe was not then above a hundred pounds. She brought me word they had no such sum to spare; I said they might mortgage their house in the loan-office. The answer to this, after some days, was, that they did not approve the match; that, on inquiry of Bradford, they had been informed the printing business was not a profitable one; the types would soon be worn out, and more wanted; that Keimer and David Harry had failed one after the other, and I should probably soon follow them; and, therefore, I was forbidden the house, and the daughter was shut up. Whether this was a real change of sentiment or only artifice, on a supposition of our being too far engaged in affection to retract, and therefore that we should steal a marriage, which would leave them at liberty to give or withhold what they pleased, I know not; but I suspected the motive, resented it, and went no more.
高弗莱太太处理我们的小条约,我告诉她我希望他们女儿带一些钱来,其数目只须足以偿还我的印刷厂所欠的债务而已,我相信这笔款子不会超过一百镑的。她传言说没有这些钱;我说他们可以把他们的房屋拿去货款。过了几天,结果是他们不赞成这件婚事了,因为他们询问布雷德福特,他告诉他们印刷厂不是赚钱的生意;铅模很快会用坏,因此常要淘旧换新;基梅尔和哈利相继失败,而我或许不久会和他们一样;为了如此,我即被禁止登门拜访,而这个女儿也关在屋里了。我不知道究竟真的是情感的变迁,抑或不过是一种诡计,在想法上,我们因情爱而订婚是不可改变的,所以我们必定私自结婚,这样就可离开他们而获得自由,至于时间长短就由他们好了;但是我疑心这是诡计,甚为痛恨,再也不进行了。

 

Mrs. Godfrey brought me afterward some more favorable accounts of their disposition, and would have drawn me on again; but I declared absolutely my resolution to have nothing more to do with that family. This was resented by the Godfreys; we differed, and they removed, leaving me the whole house, and I resolved to take no more inmates. But this affair having turned my thoughts to marriage, I looked round me and made overtures of acquaintance in other places; but soon found that, the business of a printer being generally thought a poor one, I was not to expect money with a wife, unless with such a one as I should not otherwise think agreeable. A friendly correspondence as neighbors had continued between me and Miss Read's family, who all had a regard for me from the time of my first lodging in their house. I was often invited there and consulted in their affairs, wherein I sometimes was of service. I pitied poor Miss Read's unfortunate situation, who was generally dejected, seldom cheerful, and avoided company.
高弗莱太太后来又带给我一些关于他们想法的好消息,想叫我再继续下去;但是我慎重宣布我的决心,已和那个家庭断绝来往了。这句话高弗莱太太甚为不悦;我们有了心结,高弗莱就搬家了,于是全部房屋都归我住,我也决定不再和人家同住了。但是这件事情把我的思维转移到结婚上,我在自己的四周寻找,在别的地方还托人代觅;但是不久就觉得,一个以印刷为职业的人,一般人都以为是穷人,我再不能希望可以娶一个带钱来的妻子,即使有这样的人,在我心里却又难得合意。正在此时,那种年轻人难以约束的欲望促使我常和偶然碰到的低下等级妇女恋爱了,跟着这种事情而来的是浪费和不舒服,除了我所惧怕且由烦恼而导致健康陷于危险中以外,虽然我很幸运地逃开了这种危险。基于友谊,我和李得小姐的家庭之间仍旧继续来往,起先和他们是邻居,又是旧识,他们从我一开始寄宿他家的时候就很关心我。我经常被邀请,有时也到我那里来商量事情。我怜悯苦命的李得小姐不幸遭遇,她总是一副很沮丧的样子,难得快乐,不和人作伴。
I considered my giddiness and inconstancy when in London as in a great degree the cause of her unhappiness, though the mother was good enough to think the fault more her own than mine, as she had prevented our marrying before I went thither, and persuaded the other match in my absence. Our mutual affection was revived, but there were now great objections to our union. The match was indeed looked upon as invalid, a preceding wife being said to be living in England; but this could not easily be proved, because of the distance, & c; and, though there was a report of his death, it was not certain. Then, though it should be true, he had left many debts, which his successor might be called upon to pay. We ventured however, over all these difficulties, and I took her to wife, September 1st, 1730. None of the inconveniences happened that we had apprehended; she proved a good and faithful helpmate, assisted me much by attending to the shop; we throve together, and ever mutually endeavored to make each other happy. Thus I corrected that great erratum as well as I could.
每想到当我在伦敦时的不坚贞和无情实是致使她不快乐的最大因素,虽然她的母亲认为这个过失自己该负更多的责任,因为她曾阻止我们在我到那边去之前结婚,又当我不在时劝她和别人结婚,我们之间的爱情复活了,但是我们的结合仍有很大阻力。他们的婚姻看起来虽已失败,因为据说他有前妻住在伦敦;但是这件事不容易证明,因为是在远地;并且认识有他死亡的报告,也是不可确定的。何况,即使这个消息是确实的,他还留下许多债,这些钱必定要求他的继承人偿还。最后我们还是排除一切的困难,我在一七三○年十一月一日,我娶她为妻子。我们所惧怕的事情一件也没有发生;她的确是个美好与忠实的配偶,帮助我照管店务;我们共谋生财之道,并且努力地相互使对方感到快乐。从此我尽力改正我的缺点。
About this time, our club meeting, not at a tavern, but in a little room of Mr. Grace's, set apart for that purpose, a proposition was made by me, that, since our books were often referred to in our disquisition upon the queries, it might be convenient to us to have them all together where we met, that upon occasion they might be consulted; and by thus clubbing our books in a common library, we should, while we liked to keep them together, have each of us the advantage of using the books of all the other members, which would be nearly as beneficial as if each owned the whole.
在此时,我们的俱乐部不在酒店里开会,而搬到格来斯先生的一个小房间里去了,迁移的目的是因为我的建议,由于我们的书籍在我们讨论问题时常要参考,为求舒服一点,便把它们聚在我们开会的地方,有机会就可互相商议;从此把我们的书籍合并为一个普通图书馆。我们的书集聚在一起,我们要使其余的每一个会员有利用书籍的益处,而好处则差不多每个人都有这些书了。

 

It was liked and agreed to, and we filled one end of the room with such books as we could best spare. The number was not so great as we expected; and, though they had been of great use, yet some inconveniences occurring for want of due care of them, the collection, after about a year, was separated, and each took his books home again. And now I set on foot my first project of a public nature, that for a subscription library.
他们都同意了,我们的书籍充满了房间的一端,这些书我们应当好好地爱惜的。书的数目没有我们预期的那么多;虽然他们曾大大的利用它们,但是因为不留心,所以常有困恼的事情发生。这些书的集合,约在一年之后,又各归原位,各人都把自己的书带回家去。现在我着手我的公共事业的计划,就是租借图书馆。
I drew up the proposals, got them put into form by our great scrivener, Brockden, and, by the help of my friends in the Junto, procured fifty subscribers of forty shillings each to begin with, and ten shillings a year for fifty years, the term our company was to continue. We afterward obtained a charter, the company being increased to one hundred: this was the mother of all the North American subscription libraries, now so numerous.
我做了一篇建议书,由大律师布洛克顿先生把建议书的格式弄好,又由俱乐部中我几位朋友的鼎力相助,介绍了五十个订户,开办时每人出四十先令,以后五十年每年十先令,这是我们同伴续约的年限。后来我们获得许可,同伴增至一百人;这是北美租借图书馆始祖,现在却是那么多了。
It is become a great thing itself, and continually goes on increasing. These libraries have improved the general conversation of the Americans, made the common tradesmen and farmers as intelligent as most gentlemen from other countries, and perhaps have contributed in some degree to the stand so generally made throughout the colonies in defense of their privileges.
图书馆本身是伟大的事业,而且继续地增加,那些图书馆改进了美洲人的普通知识,使普通的商人和农夫的知识和其它各地的大多数绅士一样,并且也相当有助于使全殖民地普遍地独立保护他们的权利。

When we were about to sign the above-mentioned articles, which were to be binding on us, our hers, & c., for fifty years, Mr. Brockden, the scrivener, said to us, "You are young men, but it is scarcely probable that any of you will live to see the expiration of the term fixed in the instrument." A number of us, however, are yet living; but the instrument was after a few years rendered null by a charter that incorporated and gave perpetuity to the company.

当我们签订上述之条约时,我们和他们的子孙都得受约束,因为期限是五十年;布洛克顿先生,这位代立契约人对我们说,「你们是年轻人,但是你们之间的任何一个人很少能够活着看到在证书上所写的年限满期。」现在,我们之间毕竟还有许多人仍旧活着;但是过了几年,这张证明书无效了,因为归于政府,而使其永久存在。
The objections and reluctances I met with in soliciting the subscriptions, made me soon fell the impropriety of presenting one's self as the proposes of any useful project, that might be supposed to raise one's reputation in the smallest degree above that of one's neighbors, when one has need of their assistance to accomplish that project. I therefore put myself as much as I could out of sight, and stated it as a scheme of a number of friends, who had requested me to go about and propose it to such as they thought lovers of reading.
在恳请应募时,我遭到了反对和勉强承认,我深深觉得藉个人名义为任何有效计划的建议人是不适合,当一个人经由他人的帮助以完成那个计划时,他们也许疑心会提高此人的声誉凌驾在他们之上。于是我把自己置身于事外,并且说是为许多朋友所设计的,他们是爱书的人,请我去进行和设法。

 

In this way my affair went on more smoothly, and I ever after practised it on such occasions; and, from my frequent successes, can heartily recommend it. The present little sacrifice of your vanity will afterward be amply repaid. If it remains a while uncertain to whom the merit belongs, some one more vain than yourself may be encouraged to claim it, and then even envy will be disposed to do you justice by plucking those assumed feathers, and restoring them to their right owner.
用了这个方法事情进行极顺利;自从这一次的成功,往后我在这种情形上一直使用这个方法,并且诚恳地介绍给别人。在这时你虚荣的小小牺牲在以后将会充分地回报你。如果有件事在一时不能确定是谁的功劳,有些比你更爱虚荣心的人便要以此揽功,而以后扯掉了伪装的羽毛,即使猜忌你也得还你公道,而把这个功绩交还给这个真正的所有者。
This library afforded me the means of improvement by constant study, for which I set apart an hour or two each day, and thus repaired in some degree the loss of the learned education my father once intended for me. Reading was the only amusement I allowed myself. I spent no time in taverns, games, of frolics of any kind; and my industry in my business continued as indefatigable as it was necessary, I was indebted for my printing-house; I had a young family coming on to be educated, and I had two competitors to contend with for business, who were established in the place before me. My circumstances, however, grew daily easier, My original habits of frugality continuing, and my father having , among his instructions to me when a boy, frequently repeated a proverb of Solomon, "Seest thou a man diligent in his calling, he shall stand before kings, he shall not stand before mean men," I thence considered industry as a means of obtaining wealth and distinction, which encouraged me, though I did not think that I should ever literally stand before kings, which, however, has since happened; for I have stood before five, and even had the honor of sitting down with one, the King of Denmark, to dinner.
这个图书馆使我持之以恒的研习而增进我的知识,每天我待在里面一二个钟头,以此补足了丧失受高深教育的机会,那是父亲以前所期望的。我自认读书是我唯一的娱乐。我从不将时间浪费在酒店、赌博、或任何一种的恶劣游戏上;而对于事业之勤劳仍是不厌倦地尽力而为。我为印刷厂所欠的债务还没有还清,还有幼小的子女慢慢地要受教育了,另要和两家印刷厂竞争事业,他们在我之前就在这里开店。我的环境无论如何,一天天地坦然平顺了。我俭朴习惯仍旧没有改变,我的父亲曾在我幼时教训之中常常引用苏鲁门的一句格言,「凡一生勤劳之人,他将要站在帝王之前,而不站在卑贱者之前。」从此以后,我以为勤劳是得到财富和名声的方法,这句格言鼓励我,虽然我没想到往后真的会站在帝王之前,这件事,是那么的偶然;因为我曾站在五个帝王之前,甚至曾有和丹麦国王并坐吃饭的荣幸。
We have an English proverb that says, "He that would thrive, must ask his wife." It was lucky for me that I had one as much disposed to industry and frugality as myself. She assisted me cheerfully in my business, folding and stitching pamphlets, tending shop, purchasing old lined rags for the papermakers, & c. We kept no idle servants, out table was plain and simple, our furniture of the cheapest. For instance, my breakfast was for a long time bread and milk (no tea), and I ate it out of a two penny earthen porringer, with a pewter spoon. But how luxury will enter families, and make a progress, in spite of principle: being called one morning to breakfast, I found it in a China bowl, with a spoon of silver!
有一句英国格言说,「他如果要发达,必得问他的妻子。」我真幸运,有了一位和我一样的勤俭持家的妻子。她愉快地帮助我的事业,折迭和缀缝这些小册子,照管店面,收捡破布以卖给造纸人等等。我们不用懒惰成性的仆人,然而桌子和我们的最便宜的器具都是简单清洁。例如,我们的早餐一直都只吃面包与牛乳(没有茶),我吃牛乳是用一只价值两便士的陶制粥碗来盛,又用一只锡蜡的汤匙。但是要注意的,奢侈如何会进入家庭的,并且日渐增加,不管情形怎样,一天早上叫我吃早餐,我看见牛奶盛在一只磁碗中,还有一把银匙!

 

They had been bought for me without my knowledge by my wife, and had cost her the enormous sum of three-and-twenty shillings, for which she had no other excuse or apology to make, but that she thought her husband deserved a silver spoon and China bowl as well as any of his neighbors. This was the first appearance of plate and China in our house, which afterward, in a course of years, as our wealth increased, augmented gradually to several hundred pounds in value.
这些东西是我的妻子没有让我知道就为我买来,花费她二十三先令,做这件事她并无其它托词或辩护,只是她认为她的丈夫应该有一把银匙和磁碗,就像他的任何一位邻居一样罢了。这是第一次在我们家里发现银器和磁器。隔了几年,我们的财富增加了,金银器皿也渐渐地增多至价值数百镑。
I had been religiously educated as a Presbyterian; but, though some of the dogmas of that persuasion, such as the eternal decrees of God, election, reprobation, & c., appearing to me unintelligible, others doubtful, and I early absented myself from the public assemblies of the sect, Sunday being my studying day, I never was without some religious principles. I never doubted, for instance, the existence of a Deity; that he made the world, and governed it by his providence; that the most acceptable service of God was the doing good to man; that our souls are immortal; and that all crimes will be punished, and virtue rewarded, either here or hereafter. These I esteemed the essentials of every religion; and, being to be found in all the religions we had in our country, I respected them all, though with different degrees of respect, as I found them more or less mixed with other articles, which, without any tendency to inspire, promote, or confirm morality, served principally to divide us, and make us unfriendly to one another.
我曾被宗教教育成一个长老教徒;虽然有些教义,如永远不改的上帝教令、选拔、定罪等等,据我看来是难以明白,还有几点是可疑的,而我早就不出席这个教派的公开集会,礼拜日是我的读书日。但是我绝不怀疑,例如上帝之存在;他创造世界,以上帝的保佑管理世界;例如对于上帝最蒙嘉惠的服务是为人造福;例如我们的灵魂不灭,和一切宗教都能找出这些话,要我尊敬的程度有差别,我还觉得他们多少和别的信条相混合,这些信条,对于鼓吹、长进、或巩固道德并无任何倾向,而首要分裂我们,使我们互相仇视。
This respect to all, with an opinion that the worst had some good effects, induced me to avoid all discourse that might tend to lessen the good opinion another might have of his own religion; and as our province increased in people, and new places of worship were continually wanted, and generally erected by voluntary contribution, my mite for such purposes, whatever might be the sect, was never refused.
据我的意见,即使是最坏的宗教也有一些好效果,由此而论,诱导我们避免一切谈论之足以减弱别人由他自己的宗教里得来的想法;至于我们一省人口增多,而礼拜的新场所仍是缺乏,为了这个目的之捐款,我从未拒绝。

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