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思想录  法 帕斯卡尔 Pensees

(2008-12-27 19:07:13)
标签:

杂谈

分类: 知识百科

Section 2  The misery of without god  (节选)

 

Let us , then , take our compass ;we are something ,and we are not everything .the nature of our existence hides from us the knowledge of first beginnings which are born of the Nothing ;and the littleness of our being conceals from us the sight of the Infinite.

  那么,就让我们认识自己的界限吧,我们是某种物体但非所有之物。我们存在的本性掩盖了诞生于虚无的第一原理的知识,而存在的渺小又蒙蔽了我们对无限的视野。

  Our intellect holds the same position in the world of thought as our body occupies in the expanse of nature.

我们的智力在思想的世界中所占的位置,和我们的身体在自然的广袤中所占的位置相同。

  Limited as we are in every way ,this state which holds the mean between two extremes is present in all our impotence .Our senses perceive no extreme. Too much sound deafens us ;too much light dazzles us ; too great distance or proximity hinders our view. Too great length and too great brevity of discourse tend to obscurity; too much truth is paralyzing (I know some who cannot understand that to take four from nothing leaves nothing).First principles are too self-evident for us ;too much pleasure disagrees with us .Too many concords are annoying in music; too many benefits irritate us ;we wish to have the wherewithal to overpay our debts. We feel neither extreme heat nor extreme cold. Excessive qualities are prejudicial to us and not –perceptible by the senses ;we do not feel but suffer them. Extreme youth and extreme age hinder the mind ,as also too much and too little education. In short, extremes are for us as though they were not ,and we are not within their notice. They escape us ,or we them.

  由于各个方面都受到限制,我们表现出两个极端之间的平庸无能状态。我们的感官察觉不到任何极限。太大的声音使我们耳聋,太强的光线使我们眼花,太远或太近的距离防碍视线,太长或太短的话语使观点变得模糊,太多的真理叫人无法行动(我知道有些人不理解零减四还等于零)。第一原理对我们来说过分自明,太多的快乐使我们不快。过度和声使音乐难听,太多的恩惠叫我们不安。我们希望有资金偿付债务。我们感觉不到极度的热与冷。极端的品质我们无法觉察,它也对我们有害,我们感觉不到却深受其苦。太年轻和太老都有碍思维,过多或过少的教育也是如此。总之,极端对于我们好像根本不存在,我们并不在它们的视线中。它们逃避我们的注意,我们也逃避它们的注意。

This is our true state; this is what makes us incapable of certain knowledge and of absolute ignorance. We sail within a vast sphere ,ever drifting in uncertainty ,driven from end to end .When we think to attach ourselves to any point and to fasten to it , it wavers and leaves us.; and if we follow it ,it eludes our grasp, slips past us, and vanishes for ever. Nothing stays for us .This is our natural condition and yet most contrary to our inclination ;we burn with desire to find solid ground and an ultimate sure foundation whereon to build a tower reaching to the Infinite .But our whole groundwork cracks , and the earth opens to abysses . Let us ,therefore, not look for certainty and stability. Our reason is always deceived by fickle shadows ; nothing can fix the finite between the two Infinites , which both enclose and fly from it.

  这是我们的真实状态,也正是因此,我们对某些知识虽无法掌握,却又不是全然无知。我们在一个辽阔的区域内航行,四处漂流不定,从这头被推到那头。当我们认为自己依附在某个点上并固定下来时,那个点却荡漾着离我们而去。如果我们不追逐它,它会从我们的掌握中逃走,滑过我们的身边,永远地消失。没有东西为我们而停留。这就是我们所处的与我们意愿完全相违的自然状况。我们怀着热切的渴望去寻觅一块坚实的地面和永久的根基,来建造一座直达无限的高塔,但整个基础爆裂了,大地陷为深渊。因此,我们就不要再寻找确定性和稳定性了。我们的理性总是被变化无常的阴影所欺骗,没有什么能把两种无限之间相互包含又相互逃避的有限固定下来。

  If this be well understood, I think that we shall remain at rest, each in the state wherein nature has placed him. As this sphere which has fallen to us as our lot is always distant from either extreme, what matters it that man should have a little more knowledge of the universe ? If he has it, he but gets a little higher. Is he not always infinitely removed from the end ,and is not the duration of our life equally removed from eternity, even if it lasts ten years longer?

  如果很好地理解了这一点,我想我们就应该在大自然所安排的状态下保持稳定。由于注定降临到我们头上的这个空间总是远离两极,所以我们知道更多一点儿的宇宙知识又有什么用处呢?就算多一些了解,长进却不会更大。人总是无限地远离终极。即使多活十年,人的生命同样无法达到永恒。

   In comparison with there Infinites, all finites are equal ,and I see no reason for fixing our imagination on one more than on another. The only comparison which we make of ourselves to the finite is painful to us .

  和这些无限比较起来,所有的有限都是相同的,我找不到理由把想象力固定在某种而非他种有限上。仅仅把我们自己和有限相比较就已经让我们痛苦的了。

   If man made himself the first object of study, he would see how incapable he is of going further. How can a part know the whole ? But he may perhaps aspire to know at least the parts to which he bears some proportion. But the parts of the world are all so related and linked one another that I believe it impossible to know one without the other and without the without the whole.

如果人们把自己列为首要的研究目标,他就会发现自己是多么难以向前推进。部分何以能认识整体呢?但他也许渴望至少能认识和他相称的那些部分吧。但是世界上的各个部分都是彼此相关、互相联系的,所以我相信不了解其他部分和整体就不可能认识某一部分。

Man, for instance, is related to all he knows. He  needs a place wherein to abide ,time through which to live ,motion in order to live ,elements to compose him, warmth and food to nourish him, air to breathe. In short, he is in a dependent alliance with everything .Therefore ,to understand the one, we must understand the other .

例如,跟他了解的一切事物关联着。他需要空间来居住,需要时间来生存,需要运动来生活,需要热量和食物来滋养,还需要空气来呼吸。总之,他和一切事物相互依存。因此,想认识前者就必须认识后者。

Since everything, then, is cause and effect, dependent and supporting, mediate and immediate, and all is held together by a natural though imperceptible chain which binds together things most distant and most different, I hold it equally impossible to know the parts without knowing the whole and to know the whole without knowing the parts in detail.

因为万事万物既是因也是果,既有所依赖也有所支持,既是远亲有是近邻,它们由一条天然的却又是不可察觉的纽带连接起来,这条纽带可以使极其遥远的和极不相同的事物发生联系;所以,我认为不了解整体就无法认识部分,同样地,不详尽地认识部分就无以了解整体。

The eternity of things in itself or in God must also astonish our brief duration. The fixed and constant immobility of nature , in comparison with the continual change which goes on within us , must have the same effect.

事物在自身之中或在上帝之中的永恒,也一定会使我们短暂的生命惊叹不已。大自然恒定不变的稳定性,和我们自身经久不息的变化比起来,一定有着同样的效果。

  Misery.—The only thing which consoles us for our miseries is diversion, and yet this is the greatest of our miseries. For it is this which principally hinders us from reflecting upon ourselves and which makes us insensibly ruin ourselves. Without this we should be in a state of weariness, and this weariness would spur us to seek a more solid means of escaping from it. But diversion amuses us, and leads us unconsciously to death.

  悲哀。------能够抚慰我们内心悲哀的唯一东西就是消遣,然而,它本身却是我们最大的悲哀。因为正是消遣首当其冲地防碍我们的想到自己,并使我们在不知不觉中毁掉自己。没有消遣,我们会处于厌倦的状态中,这种厌倦会驱使我们去寻找更可靠的办法从中解脱。但是,消遣使我们开心,并让我们不知不觉走向死亡。

  We do not rest satisfied with the present. We anticipate the future as too slow in coming, as if in order to hasten its course; or we recall the past, to stop its too rapid flight. So imprudent are we that we wander in the times which are not ours and do not think of the only one which belongs to us ;and so idle are we that we dream of those times which are no more and thoughtlessly overlook that which alone exists. For the present is generally painful to us. We conceal it from our sight, because it troubles us; and, if it be delightful to us, we regret to see it pass away. We try to sustain it by the future and think of arranging matters which are not in our power ,for a time which we have no certainty of reaching.

  我们不会在满足现状中安静下来。我们期待的未来来得太慢,我们好像要加速它的进程似的;或者我们回想从前,好像要阻止它飞快的飞逝。我们是如此的轻率,以至于在不属于我们的时代里游荡,却根本想不到那唯一属于我们的时代;我们是如此的虚妄,以至于梦想着那已消失的时光,却随意地忽略了那唯一存在的时光。因为现实对我们来说总是痛苦的。我们对现在视而不见,因为它使我们痛苦。假如它使我们快乐,我们会对它的消失感到遗憾。我们试图用未来维系现在,而且,对现在无能为力的事情,我们想要将之安排到并不确定的时间里。

   Let each one examine his thoughts , and he will find them all occupied with the past and the future. We scarcely ever think of the present; and if we think of it, it is only to take light from it to arrange the future. The present is never our end. The past and the present are our means; the future alone is our end. So we never live, but we hope to live ;and , as we are always preparing to be happy it is inevitable we should never be so.

   假如每个人都检查一下他自己的思想,他会发现其中塞满了过去和未来。我们极少想到现在,而且假如我们想到的话,也只是想借助现在来安排未来。现在永远都不是我们的目的,过去和现在是我们的手段,只有未来才识我们的目的。因此我们从没有生活过,但我们渴望生活。由于我们永远都在准备着能够幸福,我们就必然永远不会幸福。

    The great and the humble have the same misfortunes, the same grieves, the same passions; but the one is at the top of the wheel, and the other near the center, and so less disturbed by the same revolutions.

伟大的人和渺小的人都有同样的不幸,同样的痛苦,也有同样的激情,但是一种人是在轮子的边缘,另一种人是在轮子的中心,因而在同样的转动中后者所受的影响就要小一些。

We are so unfortunate that we can only take pleasure in a thing on condition of being annoyed if it turn out ill, as a thousand things can do , and do every hour. He who should find the secret of rejoicing in the good, without troubling himself with its contrary evil, would have hit the mark. It is perpetual motion.

我们是如此不幸,以至于只有在某件事难以处理、令人烦恼的情况下,才能得到快乐,成千上万的事情都是这样,我们时时都有事情可做。发现了能在好事中取乐,而不为坏事烦恼这个秘密的人,才算找到了要害。那就是永恒的运动。

Section 6    The philosophers      哲学家

    Man is but a reed, the most feeble thing in nature; but he is a thinking reed. The entire universe need not arm itself to crush him. A vapor, a drop of water suffices to kill him. But ,if the universe were to crush him, man would still be more noble than that which killed him, because he knows that he dies and the advantage which the universe has over him; the universe knows nothing of this.

人不过是一根芦苇,是自然界中最脆弱的东西,但他是一根会思想的芦苇。不需要整个宇宙武装起来就可以毁灭他,一团水蒸气、一滴水就足够杀死他。但是,即使宇宙毁灭了他,人却仍然要比杀死他的东西更高贵,因为他知道自己会死去,知道宇宙所超过他的优势,然而宇宙却对此一无所知。

When we would pursue virtues to their extremes on either side, vices present themselves, which insinuate themselves insensibly there, in their insensible journey towards the infinitely little ;and vices present themselves in a crowd towards the infinitely great, so that we lose ourselves in them and no longer see virtues.

当我们追求德行,一直达到它的两个极端时,邪恶就会出现。在通向无限小的难以觉察的道路上,邪恶在不知不觉中暗暗滋长;在通向无限大方面,邪恶则大量涌现,以至于我们迷失其中再也见不到德行了。

Man is neither angel nor brute, and the unfortunate thing is that he who would act the angel acts the brute.

人即不是天使,也不是野兽,不幸的是想扮演天使的人却扮演了野兽。

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