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英汉翻译2--------词义处理和选词方法

(2008-11-15 10:29:53)
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英汉翻译2--------词义处理和选词方法 

练习二

1.将下列句子翻译成汉语,注意词义选择

A. 1). The two Foreign Ministers reviewed the world situation.  两国外长回顾了世界形势。

  2). The president reviewed a guard of honour.    总统检阅了仪仗队。

  3). That is an excellent book review.    那是一篇很长的书评。

  4). “The review of the American politics is going on in the State Department.”    对美国政策的审查工作正在国务院进行。

  5). The kremlin’s review of Russian position in Africa produced a great alarm.   克里姆林宫关于俄国在非洲态度的说明,使人们大吃一惊。

6). The Department of Commerce’s review of business in the U.S. was made public yesterday.   商业部关于美国企业情况的报告,昨日已公开发表。

B.1). Ken is working at the B.B.C.  肯目前在中国广播公司工作。

2). The bell is not working.   铃不响了。

3). Your idea won’t work practice.    你的想法实际上行不通。

4). You are working hard!   你真有功夫啊!(你真卖力啊!)

5). My mother worked a sweater for me.   妈妈为我织了一件毛衣。

6). Do you know how to work this machine?   你知道怎样使用这台机器吗?

7). He worked his way through college.   他靠做工挣钱读完了大学。

8). This dress is my own work.   这件连衣裙是我自己做的。

9). The students finished their work in class.   学生当堂把作业做完了。

10). Professor Liu is at work on a new book.   刘教授正在写一本新书。

C.1). Study reading is different from regular reading. 研读不同于一般阅读。

2). You will find him in his study. 你可以在书房里找到他。

  3). He has made great progress in his studies. 他在学业上已取得巨大进步。

4). He is continuing his studies abroad. 他继续在国外留学。

  5). Scientists are studying the photographs of Mars (火星)for signs of life. 科学家们正在仔细观看火星的照片,寻找生命的迹象。

6). My brother is studying at Beijing University. 我兄弟在北京大学上学。

7). He has been studying law these years. 他这几年一直在攻读法律。

8). The prisoner studied ways to escape. 犯人策划了各种逃跑的办法。

D.1). There is a round post near the school. 学校附近有个圆柱。

  2). The wheels go round rapidly.  车轮飞快地旋转。

  3). The night watchman makes his round every hour.   夜间值班员每小时巡回一次。

  4). The students stood round the teacher. 学生们站在老师周围。

  5). Round the Cape of Good Hope. 绕道好望角。

  6). The talk rounded into a plan. 从这次谈话发展出一个计划。

 

3. 将下列句子翻译成汉语,注意词义引申

A.1). Our bus had to be ferried across the river. There was a line of trucks. We settled down to a hot wait. The river was inviting. I suggested a swim.    我们的公共汽车及一列卡车必须运到河对岸,我们在焦急地等待着。这河很引人入胜,于是我提出了游泳。

2). As the Politburo gave the go–ahead signal to Brezhnev, Nixon and Kissinger were meeting in President’s Krenlin apartment, prepared to accept a setback on SALT. 在政治局向勃列日捏夫开放绿灯时,尼克松和基辛格正在克里姆林宫的总统下榻处开会,准备承受限制战略武器谈失败的挫折。

3). For a man whose powers of retention have been described as elephantine, his uncertainty has struck his critics and even his admirers as an understandable, if timely, lapse of memory.象他这样一个记忆力特强的人,这次竟健忘起来,这使得他的批评者以至拥护者都觉得可以理解,但又觉得很奇怪。

4). “After all”, counseled Sonnenfelt, “you’re the only Republican I know with the proper academic credentials”. Kissinger demurred. Such an offer, he said, was highly unlikely.  索南弗尔特劝他说,“共和党我知道只有你一人具有这一行必备的学识条件。”基辛格免不了谦虚一番,说恐怕不大可能给他这样的职位吧。

5). There were no luxuries and few comforts. There were people with keen minds, deep thoughts, and a worldview.    没有奢侈品,也没有安逸,而是有强烈的愿望(崇高的志向),深刻的思想及世界观的人。

6). Despite his inclination to be a farmer, John Adam’s schooling prepared him for college and a career in the Ministry.  尽管约翰.亚当想当农场主,但他所受的教育为他上大学以及在内阁任职做好了准备。

7). The tremendous potential of the film in education was appreciated by many of the pioneers in the development of the motion picture.  电影在教育方面的巨大潜力在其发展过程中受到电影界老前辈的重视。

8). To a certain extent the kinds of animals raised by man were also determined by climate and geography, or simply by the kinds of animals available in one particular area.  在一定程度上,人类饲养何种动物也是由气候和地理环境决定的,或仅仅是由某一特定地区可生存和种动物决定的。

9). As nineteenth-century American cultural ambitions expanded, women stepped into a new role as interpreters of art, both by writing works on art history and by teaching art.  随着19世纪美国人文化欲望的增长,妇女依靠撰写艺术和教艺术的方式扮演了解释艺术的新角色。

10). With so much of the population attending school, education is necessarily diversified, to meet the student’s various needs.  上学的人如此之多,教育有必要多样化以满足学生的各种要求。

11). Her career blossomed at a time when the American art world had embraced Modernism and found a new beauty in technology.  当美国艺术界接受了现代派并在表现手法上找到了一种新的美时,他的艺术事业曾一度繁荣。

12). Today many teachers try to give considerable attention to the personal development of each individual student, especially at the elementary school level.  目前许多老师努力对学生,特别是小学生的个性发展给予相当重视。

13). After completing certain basic requirements, students are often permitted to choose the subjects that best suit their plans for college or for work after graduation.  学生某些基础课后,常可选修最符合上大学或毕业后找工作的课程。

14). When we speak of a basic human need we mean something which is necessary to life, something we cannot possibly do without.  当我们谈论人的基本需要时,我们是指那些对于生命必不可少的东西,那些缺少了我们无论如何无法生存的东西。

15). Eligibility requirements for public school teachers vary from school district to school district, but most elementary school teachers must have a bachelor of arts degree with a major in education.   公立学校对教师的资格要求一个学区与一个学区不同,但大多数小学教师必须有教育专业的文学学士学位。

B. 1). The study had a Spartan look.  这所书房看上去有一种斯巴达式的简朴风格。

2). A Daniel came to judgment! Yea, a Daniel, wise young judge! How I honour thee.  廉明公正的但以理法官到了,真的是但以理在此,聪明年轻的法官,我真佩服你。(现引申为“正直的法官,贤明的人”。)

3). He sowed the apple of discord between the two countries.   他在两国之间制造不和

    [the apple of discord来自于争吵女神的神话。国王珀琉斯和女神西蒂斯结婚,邀请众神参加,惟独忘了争吵之神厄里斯,她便寻衅把一个金苹果仍到宴席上,说要送给最美丽的女神,从而在天后赫拉、智慧女神雅典娜和爱神阿芙洛狄特之间引起争端,最后导致了特洛伊战争。后来,the apple of discord就被引申为“祸端、争端”。]

4). “Cetting small appliance fixed is Catch-22,” complained the customers.   顾客抱怨说:“要找个地方修理小器具真比登天还难。”

    [解析:Catch-22 (第二十二条军规)规定:疯子可不执行飞行任务而回国,但必须自己提出请求。意识到飞行有危险,自己要求停止飞行的,就证明他不是疯子,不能回国。这是一条自相矛盾、无法执行的军规。现在Catch-22被引申为“难以逾越的障碍”。]

5). As fair as Helen of Troy, she was pursued by numerous men, but she never really cast an eye on them.   她是一位绝世美女,被无数的男人追求,但她对他们从没看上过一眼。

[解析:Helen of Troy是来自于希腊罗马神话的一个典故。特洛伊城的海伦是世界上最美的人,是斯巴达的王后。但她后来跟特洛伊王子 Paris 私奔,从而引起了长达十年的特洛伊战争,也给特洛伊城带来了彻底的毁灭。后来Helen of Troy就引申比喻美人。]

6). Is she really sick or is she just crying wolf  她是真病还是假病。

   [解析:crying wolf 是来自于伊索寓言里的一个狼来了的故事。现在则引申为“报谎、做虚假的警报”。

7). The company has several Solomons in its advisory body.  这家公司的顾问中有好几个才智过人的所罗门。

8). The book is a vehicle of learning and enlightrnent, an open sesame to countless joys and sorrows.   书籍是传播知识、启迪智慧的工具,是开启无穷的欢乐与悲伤之门的秘诀。

   [解析:open sesame 是来自于《天方夜谭》里“阿里巴巴与四十大盗”的故事。只要阿里巴巴念“哦喷色萨么”,藏有财宝的洞门就会打开。现在open sesame 则成为“秘诀、关键”的代名词。]

9). Had I now had the sense to have gone home, I had been happy, and my father, an elblem of our blessed Savior’s parable, had even killed the fatted calf for me…   假如我当时有一点头脑,回到家中,我一定会很幸福,我的父亲也一定会像耶稣寓言中的父亲一样,为我宰杀肥牛……

   [解析:《圣经》中有一个比喻:某人的二子,幼着不肖,把分得的财产在远方耗尽,沦为牧猪奴。后醒悟,到父亲面前请罪,父亲宽恕了他,宰杀肥牛庆祝浪子回头。现Kill the fatted carf 引申为“热情的款待,用最好的东西待客”。]

10). She is Cinderella of the family; nobody paid special attention to her.   她是这个家庭中的灰姑娘,没有人特别关注她。

   [解析:Cinderella 灰姑娘是来自于《格林童话》的典故,她被异母姊妹和继母虐待做苦工,后得神仙援助,成为皇后。现Cinderella 引申为“优点和能力尚未被人认可的女子”。]

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