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论文摘要

(2010-05-28 18:02:13)
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论文摘要

十六国

书法

杂谈

分类: 学术研究

             摘 

 

十六国时期是中国书法大变革时期,正处于新旧书法的交替点,楷书从通俗隶书中萌生,并逐步成长起来。

本文集中整理了十六国时期的书法遗存。受魏晋禁碑的影响,十六国时期铭石书不见发达,所见约五十件左右。出于特殊的气候条件,十六国时期的写本主要是出土于西北地区,包括楼兰木简纸文书、敦煌遗书、吐鲁番出土文书三大部分。洞窟题字主要是指永靖炳灵寺169号窟的西秦墨书,笔者通过实地考察对其进行了断代。其它书法遗存包括各地出土的十六国时期镇墓瓶、衣物疏、瓦当等。

通过对十六国时期书法资料的分析,我们发现,适应不同的功能要求,作品在典型笔画特征上有不同的表现,形成了丰富多彩的类型样式,大致可以分为六个类型:美术篆书类型、典型隶书类型、通俗隶书类型、通俗楷书类型、行书类型和典型楷书类型。

经对作品按时间排队分析,我们发现各类型在自身的演变中有不同的趋向,在类型的相互作用中扮演不同的角色。主要表现为:

1.通俗隶书与典型隶书在十六国时期走上了同步式微的道路。通俗隶书的数量逐步减少,典型隶书在十六国晚期楷化,在北凉体中表现得尤为突出。

2.通俗隶书与通俗楷书最初为衍生关系,后来发展为替代关系。通俗楷书从通俗隶书内部衍生出来,并迅速发展,成为日常书写的主要书体。通俗楷书的发展过程就是通俗隶书的衰亡过程。

3.通俗书法类型与行书同步发展,互为补充。一方面,行书的发展受通俗楷书体发展的推动,另一方面,行书又反过来影响与推动通俗楷书的发展。

4.以实用为主的通俗书法类型是以审美为主的典型书法类型的“母体”。典型楷书从通俗楷书与行书中产生,并进行改造与雅化,作为书法内部环境成为下一阶段书法发展的基石。

5.各类型并不是平衡发展的。以实用为主的通俗楷书类型是书法的主流,数量最大,发展也最为活跃,推动其他类型的发展。

6.类型间的作用是通过边缘作品实现的。愈是边缘的作品,愈容易与其他类型发生作用,其间能量的“流入”与“流出”也最为频繁。

7.书法类型在纵向发展的同时,无时无刻不在与其他类型横向发生作用,类型间的相互作用是书法史发展的重要动力,书法史在类型间纵横交纵的作用下整体演进。

由于各类型在发展中出现的快慢荣衰的变化,使得书坛整体结构表现出不同的阶段性特征。十六国时期书法以公元400年为界分为前后两期,前期自公元301年至公元400年,是楷书初步发展时期;后期自公元401年至公元460年,是楷书加速发展时期。综观前后两期的变化,我们认为:楷化笔法的发展是前后两期转化的关键因素。

十六国时期的书风特点和书坛结构与十六国时期的书法环境密切相关。书法环境可按其对书法的作用方式分为书法外围环境和书法内围环境。外围环境尽管以间接方式发生作用,却是书法发展无法逃出的“上帝之手”,十六国时期书法的外围环境具体表现为:1.动荡的政治格局;2.缓慢的生产发展;3.复杂的民族形势;4.迅速发展的佛教文化。与外围环境相比,内围环境对书法的作用是直接的,十六国时期书法内围环境的作用主要体现在三个方面:1.汉末以来的书风转变为十六国时期书法发展提供了较为丰富的笔法资源;2.受“以实用为重”书法观念的限制,典型草书类型在十六国后期逐步式微,却因此发展了楷书;3.纸张的普及、高足坐具的引入影响了书写姿势和用笔,对楷书发展有极大地促进作用。

 

 

关键词:十六国   书法    类型   分期    环境


          ABSTRACT

 

As a turning point from old to new forms of calligraphy, the period of sixteen kingdoms was a revolutionary era in the history of Chinese calligraphy, when the Regular script (Kaishu) derived from the demotic Clerical script (Lishu) and thrived gradually.

The remaining calligraphy works from the period of sixteen kingdoms are organized collectively within this article. Influenced by the prohibition from making monuments since Wei and Jin dynasties, only around 50 inscriptions have been found from the period of sixteen kingdoms. As the result of special climate conditions, the manuscripts from sixteen kingdoms are mainly unearthed in northwest regions of China, including manuscripts written on wooden pieces and papers from Lowlan, those from Dunhuang and from Turpan. The cave inscriptions are mainly the ink works from West Qin dynasty found in cave 169# in the Bingling temple in Yongjing county, the age of which is determined via on-site investigation. Other remaining calligraphy works are found on tomb-repressing bottles, garments and tiles from the period of sixteen kingdoms around all over the country.

Through analysis of the materials from the period of sixteen kingdoms, it is found that those art works showed differently in their typical features of strokes to adapt different functional requirements, and thus gave various styles, which are classified into six types including Art Seal script, typical Clerical script, demotic Clerical script, demotic Regular script, Semi-cursive script and typical Regular script.

By arranging the calligraphy works by their ages, it is found that different types show different trends in their own development, and played different roles in their mutual effects. These are reflected in the following aspects:

1. The demotic Clerical script and typical Clerical script declined simultaneously in the period of sixteen kingdoms. The former was then replaced by demotic Regular script, and the latter became Regular script like, especially embodied in Beiliang script.

2. The demotic Regular script originally derived from the demotic Clerical script, and then replaced the latter to be the major font of daily writing. The development process of the demotic Regular script was in another word the declining process of the demotic Clerical script.

3. The demotic scripts and the Semi-cursive script developed in parallel complementarily. On one hand, the development of the Semi-cursive script relied on the development of the demotic scripts. And vice versa, the Semi-cursive script also influenced and promote the development of the demotic scripts.

4. The demotic scripts focused on practicability are the “parents” of the typical scripts which focused on aesthetics. The typical Regular script originated from the demotic Regular script and the Semi-cursive script, got improved to be more elegant, and became the groundwork of further calligraphic development as the inner environment of calligraphy.

5. Different types of scripts had not developed equally. The demotic scripts focused on practicability are the mainstream of calligraphy, with the most amount of works and the most active development, promoting the development of other types.

6. The inter-type influences were implemented via borderline works. Those works near the borderlines are more likely to interact with different types, through which the ‘inflow’ and ‘outflow’ of communication between different types are the most frequent.

7. Each type of scripts, when developing vertically, had always been horizontally interacting with other types. The mutual interaction between different types had formed an important power pushing the development of calligraphy, which evolved as an integrated body in its history.

As the result of various patterns in the development and vicissitude of different types, the overall structure of the calligraphy have been characterized along with different historic stages.  The period of sixteen kingdoms could be divided into two sub-periods by the year 400 AD. From 301 to 400 AD, the Regular script got developed initially; and from 400 to 460 AD,  the Regular script got acceleratedly developed. Based on the observation of the change between the two sub-periods, the development of Regularized brushwork is regarded as the key factor in the transformation between the two sub-periods.

The characteristics of calligraphy styles and the structure of the field during the period of sixteen kingdoms are closely correlated with the calligraphic environment at the time. The calligraphic environment could be classified into exterior and interior environmental factors according to their influencing patterns. The exterior envionment, though had influenced the calligraphy field indirectly, was a “God's hand” that could not have been escaped from. The exterior factors included: 1)  the turbulent political situations; 2) the slow development of production; 3) the complex ethnic situations; 4) the quickly developing Buddhist culture. The interor environment had influenced the caligraphy directly, which was embodied in three major aspects: 1) the changes of styles from the end of Han dynasty had provided abundant resources of brushworks; 2) the typical Cursive script types had declined at the end of the  sixteen kingdoms period as limited by the sense of “practicality”, promoting the development of Regular script; 3) the prevalence of papers and the introduce of high seating devices had influenced the writing postures and the handling of brush pens, which greatly promoted the development of Regular scripts.

 

 

Keywords: sixteen kingdoms  calligraphy   types of scripts   staging    environment

 

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