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翻译《计算机网络》introduction

(2009-09-25 19:31:55)
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杂谈

1.1.4 Social Issues
Let us just briefly mention a few of them; a thorough study would require a full book, at least.

且让我们简短地提及其中的几个,深入研究,至少需要一本完整的书。

A popular feature of many networks are newsgroups or bulletin boards whereby people can exchange messages with like-minded individuals. As long as the subjects are restricted to technical topics or hobbies like gardening, not too many problems will arise.

许多网络的普遍特征是网络新闻组或公告板,在这里人们可以和志同道合的人交换信息。

 

只要主题仅限于技术或类似园艺的爱好,不会有太多的问题出现。
when newsgroups are set up on topics that people actually care about, like politics, religion, or sex.

当新闻组设置的话题是人们实际上最关心的如政治,宗教或性,

Views posted to such groups may be deeply offensive to some people.

Worse yet, they may not be politically correct. Furthermore, messages need not be limited to text. High-resolution color photographs and even short video clips can now easily be transmitted over computer networks.

张贴到这些群里的观点可能会深深冒犯到一些人。

更糟糕的是,他们可能政治上并不是正确的。此外,消息不必限于文本。高分辨率彩色照片,甚至视频短片现在可以很容易地通过计算机网络传输。
Some people take a live-and-let-live view, but others feel that posting certain material is simply unacceptable and must be censored.

有些人采取活也让别人生活的看法,但也有人认为,张贴某些材料是完全不能接受的,必须审查。

Different countries have different and conflicting laws in this area.
Thus, the debate rages.

不同的国家在这方面的有不同的和相互冲突的法律。
因此,辩论十分激烈。
People have sued network operators, claiming that they are responsible for the contents of what they carry, just as newspapers and magazines are.

人们起诉网络运营商,声称他们应该对承载的内容负责,就像报纸和杂志那样。

The inevitable response is that a network is like a telephone company or the post office and cannot be expected to police what its users say.

不可避免的反应是,网络如电话公司或邮局,不能指望其管辖用户说什么。

It is probably safe to say that this debate will go on for a while.
Another fun area is employee rights versus employer rights. Many people read and write e-mail at work. Many employers have claimed the right to read and possibly censor employee messages, including messages sent from a home computer after work. Not all
employees agree with this.

毫不夸张地说,这次辩论将继续一段时间的。
另一个有趣的领域是雇员权利与雇主权利。许多人在工作时阅读和书写电子邮件。许多雇主都声称有权阅读并可能审查员工的信息,包括电脑下班后用家用电脑发送邮件。并非所有
雇员同意这一点。
Even if employers have power over employees, does this relationship also govern universities and students? How about high schools and students? In 1994, Carnegie-Mellon University decided to turn off the incoming message stream for several newsgroups dealing with sex because the university felt the material was inappropriate for minors (i.e., those few students under 18).

即使雇主对雇员有权力,那么这种关系也支配着大学和学生?高中和学生? 1994年,卡内基梅隆大学决定关闭一些与性有关的新闻组的输入消息流,因为大学感觉这些材料不适合未成年人(即18岁以下的一些学生)。


Another key topic is government versus citizen. The FBI has installed a system at many Internet service providers to snoop on all incoming and outgoing e-mail for nuggets of interest to it (Blaze and Bellovin, 2000; Sobel, 2001; and Zacks, 2001).


另一个关键问题是政府与公民。联邦调查局已经在许多互联网服务提供商处安装了一种系统,窥探所有传入和传出电子邮件的利益金块邮件给它(Blaze和贝拉文,2000年,索贝尔,2001年和扎克斯,2001)

The system was originally called Carnivore but bad publicity caused it to be renamed to the more innocent-sounding DCS1000.

该系统最初被称为食肉动物,但由于糟糕的公众形象,导致它被重新命名为更加无辜冠冕堂皇DCS1000。

But its goal is still to spy on millions of people in the hope of finding information about illegal activities.

Whether these 54 words, written in the 18th century, still carry any weight in the 21st century is a matter that may keep the courts busy until the 22nd century.

无论这54字,在18世纪写的,仍然继续在21世纪的体重是一个问题,可能使法院忙碌,直到22世纪。

The government does not have a monopoly on threatening people's privacy.

The private sector does its bit too.

政府并不是威胁到人们隐私的唯一一个。

私人机构也有点。

For example, small files called cookies that Web browsers store on users' computers allow companies to track users' activities in cyberspace and also may allow credit card numbers, social security numbers, and other confidential information to leak all over the Internet (Berghel, 2001).

例如,小文件,即cookies网络浏览器在用户的计算机存储,让企业追踪用户在网络空间的活动,也可以让信用卡号码,社会安全号码,以及其他机密信息泄漏的所有互联网(贝里赫尔,2001 )
Computer networks offer the potential for sending anonymous messages.

In some situations, this capability may be desirable.

计算机网络提供了发送匿名邮件的可能性。

在某些情况下,这种能力可能是可取的。 


————————————

The Internet makes it possible to find information quickly, but a lot of it is ill-informed, misleading, or downright wrong. The medical advice you plucked from the Internet may have come from a Nobel Prize
winner or from a high school dropout.

互联网使得我们能够快速查找信息,但其中许多是不灵通,误导或完全错误的。你从互联网上摘取医疗建议可能来自诺贝尔奖得住也和能是高中辍学的学生。

 

E-mail messages containing active content (basically programs or macros that execute on the receiver's machine) can contain viruses that wreak havoc.
包含的活跃内容电子邮件信息(基本上是程序或者宏,执行接收者的机器)可以包含肆虐的病毒。

Identity theft is becoming a serious problem as thieves collect enough information about a victim to obtain get credit cards and other documents in the victim's name.

身份盗窃正在成为一个严重的问题。窃贼收集有关受害者获得足够的信息来获取信用卡和其他文件。

 

Finally, being able to transmit music and video digitally has opened the door to massive copyright
violations that are hard to catch and enforce.
最后,能够数字化传输音乐和视频难以捕捉和执行的大规模的盗版侵权打开了大门。

A lot of these problems could be solved if the computer industry took computer security seriously.

这些问题可以解决,如果计算机产业严肃地对待计算机安全。

If all messages were encrypted and authenticated, it would be harder to commit mischief.

 

This technology is well established and we will study it in detail in Chap. 8.

如果所有消息都是加密和认证的,这将是更难作恶。


这项技术已经非常成熟,我们将在第八章详细地研究它。

 

The problem is that hardware and software vendors know that putting in security features costs money and their customers are not demanding such features.

问题是,硬件和软件供应商都知道,把安全功能都需要钱,他们的客户并没有要求等特点。

In addition, a substantial number of the problems are caused by buggy software, which occurs because
vendors keep adding more and more features to their programs, which inevitably means more code and thus more bugs.

此外,有大量的问题都是由于软件bug,这是因为厂商不断增加更多功能,他们的程序,这不可避免地意味着更多的代码,因此更多的错误。

A tax on new features might help, but that is probably a tough sell in some quarters.

关于税收的新功能可以帮助,但可能是在某些方面很难卖。

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