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美国

(2009-04-03 13:47:18)
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杂谈

Tensions between American colonials and the British during the revolutionary period of the 1760s and early 1770s led to the American Revolutionary War, fought from 1775 through 1781. On June 14, 1775, the Continental Congress, convening in Philadelphia, established a Continental Army under the command of George Washington.

定居美国之间的紧张关系和英国革命时期的1760s和早期1770s导致美国革命战争,打从1775年通过1781年。在1775年6月14日,在大陆会议,在费城召开,成立了一个大陆架下治军命令的乔治华盛顿。

宣布“人人生而平等” ,并赋予了“某些不可剥夺的权利” ,大会通过了独立宣言,起草很大程度上是由托马斯杰斐逊,对1776年7月4日。该日期现在每年庆祝的美国的独立日。在1777年,联合会章程设立了一个薄弱联邦政府运作,直到1789年。

Proclaiming that "all men are created equal" and endowed with "certain unalienable Rights," the Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, drafted largely by Thomas Jefferson, on July 4, 1776.

 

That date is now celebrated annually as America's Independence Day. In 1777, the Articles of Confederation established a weak federal government that operated until 1789.

 

After the British defeat by American forces assisted by the French, Great Britain recognized the independence of the United States and the states' sovereignty over American territory west to the Mississippi River.

在英国挫败了美国军队的协助下,法国,大不列颠承认独立的美国和各国的领土主权,美国西部的密西西比河。

 

制宪会议举办了1787年的那些希望建立一个强大的国家政府与权力的税收。

A constitutional convention was organized in 1787 by those wishing to establish a strong national government, with powers of taxation.

美国宪法,批准了1788年,新的共和国第一参议院,众议院和总统乔治华盛顿在1789年上任。人权法案,禁止联邦政府限制个人自由和保证了一系列的法律保护,通过了1791年。

The United States Constitution was ratified in 1788, and the new republic's first Senate, House of Representatives, and president—George Washington—took office in 1789. The Bill of Rights, forbidding federal restriction of personal freedoms and guaranteeing a range of legal protections, was adopted in 1791.

 

Attitudes toward slavery were shifting; a clause in the Constitution protected the African slave trade only until 1808. The Northern states abolished slavery between 1780 and 1804, leaving the slave states of the South as defenders of the "peculiar institution."

被奴役的态度转变;一项条款,在宪法中保护非洲奴隶贸易,直到1808年。北部各州废除奴隶制1780年和1804年之间,离开奴隶南方国家为捍卫者的“特殊机构。 ”

第二次大觉醒,约1800年初,取得了福音的力量背后各种社会改革运动,其中包括废除主义。
The
Second Great Awakening, beginning about 1800, made evangelicalism a force behind various social reform movements, including abolitionism.

 

Territorial acquisitions by date
 

Americans' eagerness to expand westward prompted a long series of Indian Wars and an Indian removal policy that stripped the native peoples of their land.

领土收购dateAmericans '急于扩大向西促使了一系列的战争和印度的印度搬迁政策,剥夺了土著人民的土地。

The Louisiana Purchase of French-claimed territory under President Thomas Jefferson in 1803 almost doubled the nation's size.

The War of 1812, declared against Britain over various grievances and fought to a draw, strengthened U.S. nationalism.

路易斯安那购买法语声称领土总统托马斯杰斐逊在1803年几乎增加了一倍国家的大小。 1812年的战争,宣布对英国的各种不满和斗争,以一场平局,加强美国的民族主义。

 

A series of U.S. military incursions into Florida led Spain to cede it and other Gulf Coast territory in 1819. The United States annexed the Republic of Texas in 1845. The concept of Manifest Destiny was popularized during this time.[33]

一系列美国佛罗里达州的军事入侵导致西班牙割让它和其他墨西哥湾沿岸地区在1819年。美国所附德克萨斯共和国于1845年。这一概念推广定命运是在这段时间内。 [ 33 ]

1846年俄勒冈州与英国条约导致美国控制的当今美国西北。美国胜利,美墨战争的结果是1848年割让加利福尼亚州和许多当今美国西南。加州淘金热的1848至1849年进一步推动西部迁移。

The 1846 Oregon Treaty with Britain led to U.S. control of the present-day American Northwest. The U.S. victory in the Mexican-American War resulted in the 1848 cession of California and much of the present-day American Southwest. The California Gold Rush of 1848–49 further spurred western migration. New railways made relocation easier for settlers and increased conflicts with Native Americans.

新铁路更容易取得搬迁定居者和冲突的增加土著美国人。经过半个世纪的时间里,高达40万美国野牛或水牛,被屠杀的毛皮和肉类,并缓解铁路传播。损失的水牛,一个主要的资源平原印度人,是一个生存的打击,许多土著文化。

Over a half-century, up to 40 million American bison, or buffalo, were slaughtered for skins and meat and to ease the railways' spread. The loss of the buffalo, a primary resource for the plains Indians, was an existential blow to many native cultures.

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