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杜甫诗(英译)1.15:《假山》

(2019-10-18 12:29:07)
分类: 翻译天地
杜甫诗(英译)1.15:《假山》

天宝初,南曹小司寇舅,于我太夫人堂下,垒土为山,一匮盈尺,以代彼朽木,承诸焚香瓷瓯,瓯甚安矣。旁植慈竹,盖兹数峰,嵚岑婵娟,宛有尘外格致,乃不知兴之所至,而作是诗

一匮功盈尺,
三峰意出群。
望中疑在野,
幽处欲生云。
慈竹春阴覆,
香炉晓势分。
惟南将献寿,
佳气日氤氲。

Stephen Owen 译:

1.15
Artificial Mountain

At the beginning of the Tianbao Reign my maternal uncle, the Vice-Director of the Bureau of Appointments, piled earth into a mountain by the hall of my [step-]grandmother. It was a basketful of dirt a full foot high, to take the place of the dried wood [of an incense burner stand], and it held all the crockery bowls for burning incense. The bowls were quite steady indeed. Beside it he planted “loving bamboo.”These several peaks, the craggy heights, and lithe grace [of bamboo] convey perfectly the quality of transcending this dusty world. Then, not realizing how far my own elation had gone, I wrote this poem.

One basketful, a full foot of merit,
three peaks, his conception not ordinary.
As I gaze, it seems I am in the wilderness,
a secluded spot ready to bring forth clouds.
The loving bamboo will cover it with spring shade,
Incense Burner’s dawn form is discerned. 1
It is a South Mountain to wish her long life, 2
with auspicious vapors curling up daily.

Notes:

1. Incense Burner was one of the peaks of Mount Lu, so-called because its clouds were like smoke. Du Fu here is clearly playing on the function of the artificial mountain as an incense stand.

2. “Tian bao” 天保 (Heaven Protect) in the Classic of Poetry has the line “Long life like South Mountain” 如南山之壽. Thereafter it became a commonplace in wishes for longevity.

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【鹤注】此当题曰假山,旧题乃诗之序。序云天宝初,指元年也。故吕汲公、鲁訔俱编此诗在元年。

天宝初,南曹小司寇舅于我太夫人堂下垒土为山,一匮盈尺,以代彼朽木,承诸焚香瓷瓯,瓯甚安矣。旁植慈竹,盖兹数峰,嵚岑婵娟,宛有尘外致。乃不知兴之所至,而作是诗。

《旧唐书》:史部员外郎二员,一人主判南曹。注:以在选曹之南,故曰南曹。【朱注】唐制未闻以司寇判南曹。权德舆《吏部南曹厅壁记》:高宗上元初,请外郎一人颛南曹之任,其后或诏他曹郎权居之。此云南曹小司寇,当是以秋官权职者。太夫人卢氏,公祖审言继室,天宝三载五月卒于陈留群之私第,公作墓志。
嵚岑,谓山。婵娟,谓竹。申涵光曰:序不易解。杜文长至数语,便期期不能达意。如“夔人屋壁”、“平章郑氏女子”、“公孙大娘”等篇,世人附会以为古,其实不明。诗小序,莫妙于元次山,杜短语多有佳者。

一匮功盈尺,三峰意出群。望中疑在野,幽处欲生。慈竹春阴覆,香炉势分。惟南将献寿,佳气日氤氲。

(诗序错综,须看此诗布置次第。先提土山,次出数峰。在野、生云,申明尘外之致。慈竹、香炉,傍景点缀。南山献寿,又就舅氏为山,归到太夫人堂下。)

《书》:“为山九仞,功亏一匮。”沈约诗:“一匮望成峰。”陆云《岁暮赋》:“盼盈尺其若遗。”
诸葛也明《黄陵庙记》:“崔嵬巑屼,列作三峰。”赵曰:《华山记》有云:“其三峰直上,晴霁可观。”
《世说》:殷中军曰:“韩康伯居然是出群器。”
潘岳诗:“卉木在野。”
《述异记》:汉章帝三年,子母竹生白虎殿前,群臣作竹颂。【鹤注】《竹纪》云:慈竹,吴蜀皆有之,其竹丛生,每年笋出不离丛内。隋候夫人诗:“春阴正无际,独步意何如。”
刘斌诗:“香炉烟气多。”晓势分,谓晓烟分布。旧注谓从庐山香炉峰分其晓势,太迂。
《诗》:“如南山之寿。”李适诗:“山翠遥添献寿杯。”
张正见诗:“香浮佳气里。”陆云诗:“灵爽氤氲。”朱异诗:“山泽共氛氲。”

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