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罗马文化简介(英汉对照)

(2010-01-06 09:58:02)
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古代罗马兴起于意大利半岛,与希腊毗邻。罗马文化是西方古典文化的重要组成部分,它与希腊文化有着千丝万缕的联系。无论在建筑、宗教、科学,还是在文学、艺术等方面都可以看到希腊文化的影响和印记,这是对希腊文化的继承和发展,但它在这些方面的成就却又比希腊更胜一筹。The rise of ancient Rome in the Italian peninsula is adjacent to the Greece. Roman culture which is inextricably linked with the Greek culture is an important part of the Western classical culture.  No matter architecture, religion, science, or literature, art, etc. can all see the impact and the imprint of Greek culture, which is the inheritance and development of Greek culture, but it's achievements in these areas are even better than in Greece

罗马艺术的突出成就表现在建筑和雕刻上。罗马建筑在整体规划、建筑技术结构的复杂、用途的广泛类型的多样化等方面都大大超过了希腊,形成了罗马风格的建筑。拱和圆顶罗马式建筑的显著特点。Outstanding achievement in the arts of Rome reflected in the architecture and sculpture. Roman architecture was far beyond Greece in the overall planning, complexity of architectural technology and structure, use of wide range, type of diversity, etc. which formed the Roman-style buildings. The arch and the dome are Roman architecture striking features.

罗马在政体上的发展和完善,对文化的影响是十分突出的。罗马社会先后经历了王政时代、共和时代和帝国时代三个时代阶段。故罗马人的政治实践,给西方政治传统增添了许多新的因素,例如,国家观念、统治术、法律、军事技术和工程等;在公民中提倡坚毅、服从、责任感等道德。It's very prominent to the constitutional development and improvement in Rome to the impact of culture. Roman society has gone through the Wang era, the Republican era and the Age of Empires. Therefore, the political practice of the Romans has added many new elements to the Western political tradition, such as the concept of state, the rule of operation, legal, military technology and engineering, etc., and advocating moral in the citizens such as perseverance, obedience, responsibility and so on.

在文学方面,罗马文学的发展是在大量接受希腊文化的影响,移植和改造希腊的诗歌、戏剧等文学形式的基础上取得的。罗马文化作品十分的丰厚,如西塞罗就留下了57篇演讲稿和800多篇书信。In the literature, Roman literature development was achieved because of largely accepting the impact of Greek culture, and migration and transformation of Greek poetry, drama. Rome cultural works are very rich, such as Cicero with 57 speeches and more than 800 letters.

文字上创造了拉丁文字母。后经不断完善拉丁文字母成为其他许多民族创造自己文字的基础.这是古罗马人对世界文化的重大贡献之一。In the text, the Romans created the Latin alphabet. After constant improvement,the Latin alphabet was become foundation in many other nations to create their own text. This is one of the major contribution to world culture of ancient Romans.

在自然科学上,罗马人有较强的实用科学理性精神,其要表现为两方面:是将古希腊以来的科学知识加以综合,乃至集大成为知识体系;二是注重于将科学知识运用于生产实践,从而创造了古代西方世界最高度发达的生产力。In the natural sciences, the Roman had a strong practical spirit of science and rationality, which should be manifested in two aspects: one was formation for the knowledge system by the way of integrating the ancient Greek scientific knowledge. The other was scientific knowledge into production practice, so that Rome created most highly developed productive forces of ancient Western world.

Rome has also had a tremendous impact on Western cultures following it. Many aspects of Classical culture have been incorporated into the cultures of those states rising from the ashes of the Roman Empire. Latin, the empire's primary language, remains used in religion, science, and law. Christianity was adopted by the official culture in the later 4th century; its triumph over rival can be partly attributed to its promotion by Roman authorities.

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