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梦这个东西

(2010-09-27 17:11:00)
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美国

梦这个东西

活动量

肌肉放松

人体组织

杂谈

梦这个东西

               有人说,人生中只有梦,才是自己的东西。是这回事吗?不妨请读英语版《梦这个东西》。

               It  is  fairly clear  that the sleeping period must have some function , and because there is so mush of it the function would seem to be important. Speculations about its nature have been going on for literally of vears , and one odd finding that makes the problem puzzling is that it looks very mush as if sleeping is not simply a matter of giving the body a rest . ' Rest', in terms of musele relaxation and so on , can be achieved by a brief period lying, or even sitting down, The body's tissues are self-repairing and self-restoring to a degree ,and function best when more or lest continuously active . In fact a basic amount of movement occurs during sleep which is specifically concerned with preventing muscle inactivity .

                 If it is not a question of resting the body, then perhaps it is the brain that needs resting ? The might be a plausble hyporthesis were it not for two factors. First the electroencephalograph (which is simply a device for recording the electrical activity of the bram by attaching electrodes to the scalp ) shows that while there is a changs in the patternof activity during sleep, there is no evidence that the total amount of activity is any less . The second factor is more interesting and more fundamenral . In 1960  an American psychiatrist named William Dement published  experiments dealing with the recording of eye-movements during sleep. He showed that the average individual's sleep eyele is punctuated with peculiar bursts of eye-movements , some drifing and slow , others jerky and rapid . People woken during these periods of eye-movements generally reported that they had been dreaming . When woken at other times they reported no dreams . If one group of people were disturbed from their eye-movement sleep for several nights on end , and another group were disturbed for an equal period of time but when they were not exhibiting eye-movements, the frist group began to show some personality disorders while the others seemed more or less unaffected . The implications of all this were that it was not the disturbance of sleep that mattered , but the disturbance of dreaming.

                    【汉译】 很清楚,睡眠期肯定具有某种功能。同时,因为睡眠又那么多,所以这种功能看起来似乎是重要的。关于这种功能的实质的种种推测,确实已进行数千年之久了。一个使这个问题令人迷惑不解的奇怪发现是,睡眠看起来很像不仅是给人体以休息。就肌肉放松等等而言的“休息”,通过短暂的躺一下,或者甚至坐一坐就可以实现。人体组织在一定程度上是能自行修补和自行恢复的。在或多或少的连续活动时,其功能最佳。事实上,睡眠中存在着一种基本的活动量。这种活动量是专门防止肌肉活动休止的。

                                   如果问题不是在于使身体得到休息,那么也许是大脑需要休息?要不是下面两个因素。这种假设似乎是合理的。首先脑电图记录器(它是把电极接到头皮上记录脑电活动的一种简单仪器)表明,虽然睡眠过程中脑活动的图形有变化,但没有脑活动的总量有任何减少的证据;第二个因素更为有趣,也更为重要。1960年,一名叫威廉﹡迪门特的美国精神病学家发表了有关记录睡眠过程中眼睛活动的试验报告。他指出,正常人的睡眠周期中不时伴有一阵阵奇怪的眼睛活动,有些活动漂忽而缓慢,有些活动急剧而快速。在这些眼睛活动期间被叫醒的人们都说他们在做梦;其他时间被唤醒的人们则说没有做梦。如果一组人连续数夜在眼睛有活动的睡眠中被搞醒;另一组人在相同的一段时间里,在眼睛没有活动的睡眠中被搞醒,则第一组人开始显示出某种性格上的不正常现象,而另一组人似乎没有受多少影响。所以这一切暗示睡眠受到干扰没有关系,而做梦受到干扰却不行。  

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