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利玛窦的记忆之宫(终) The "Memory Palace" (Final)

(2008-08-03 13:54:54)
标签:

文化

倪波路

意大利

利玛窦

分类: 文化论文Discorsi

The “ Memory Palace” of Matteo Ricci: a possible reconstruction of a system of Diplomacy and Culture

利玛窦的记忆之宫

 ---外交与文化交流的一种可能途径



承上

Part III



      This virtual palace contained 49 boxes, or rooms, correlated by passages and corridors; it was basically a “magical square” composed of 7 rows of 7 rooms, each one doted of a door/archway, painted with various images and filled with symbols and virtual inhabitants.

这个虚拟的宫殿由49个盒子、或者49间房间组成,由过道走廊相联接。这个“魔幻空间”的房间7排7列,每间房间有一扇门/拱廊,绘有各种图像,内有各种符号和虚拟的居住者。

      The number 7, a magic number according to the western tradition, corresponds to the 7 main planets influencing the human beings on earth: from left to right, the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn.

数字7,根据西方传统,标志着与人世息息相关的7大星体,由左至右为月亮,水星,金星,太阳,火星,木星和土星。

      Giulio Camillo devised a mystical system in which the 49 boxes/rooms would be combined horizontally and vertically, according to a complex game of esoteric and astrologic correspondences: his work was considered as a pure and precious treasure, and as such, studied by Kings and Courts men all around Europe.

噶米洛(Giulio Camillo)依照隐秘的星占术原理,设计出由49个盒子/房间依照垂直与水平走向组成的神秘系统,他的这项成果被视作至宝,被整个欧洲的君主王公拿来钻研。

      Ricci was born few decades after the death of Giulio Camillo and added a huge religious and missionary objective to the philosophical system of Giulio Camillo: the evangelization of China. In order “to preach the Verb”(1) Matteo Ricci had to include the Gospel in the Memory Palace.

利玛窦在噶米洛(Giulio Camillo)死后几十年中诞生,并肩负起一项切合噶米洛(Giulio Camillo)哲学体系的宗教使命:向中国传教。“布道为业”(“To preach the Verb” )利玛窦必须将福音置入记忆之宫。

 
-------------
1.  This heraldic device belongs to the coat of arms of Mgr., Bishop of Macerata and uncle of the Author. The present study is humbly dedicated to him and to the saint memory of “The Apostle of China”. 这句句子是作者的叔叔、马切拉塔市主教Tarcisio Carboni (1923-1995)阁下徽章的一部分。本研究正是作者谦恭地献给他和他的“中国传道者”回忆的。

 

      One possible clue to Ricci’s choice of Giulio Camillo’s system based on 49 rooms came to our mind while reading the recommendation of the Church Fathers to the youth: “to pray a lot”, and “to remember the words of the prayer Holy Father in Heavens” which was composed by Jesus Christ in person, according to the Gospels.

可以借来说明利玛窦承用了噶米洛(Giulio Camillo)建基于49间房间的记忆之宫的一条线索,就是神甫经常教导青年的话,祈祷吧,记住祈祷文“教宗在天”(“Holy Father in Heavens”),福音书中说那是耶稣基督的话。

      We noticed then that this prayer contains exactly 49 latin words, some of them being unnecessary and redundant for the meaning or the sintaxis of the text, such as some prepositions (sicut et nos dimittimus…etc).

我们发现这句祈祷文由49个拉丁词组成,其中有些是无关紧要的赘文(诸如sicut et nos dimittimus…etc)

      It means that the mysterious system of memory for young Catholics was based on a palace of 49 rooms, each one connected to the other by the words of “Holy Father in Heavens” like the grains of a rosary!

这说明年青的天主教徒的神秘的记忆之宫是由49间房间组成的,房间之间凭借“Holy Father in Heavens”这样的祈祷文像念珠一般联接起来。

We therefore filled the palace of Giulio Camillo with the words of that prayer, starting from the basement (the lower floor) and proceeding vertically, one column at a time, from left to right.

这样,我们就从下往上,然后从左往右一列接一列,将噶米洛(Giulio Camillo)的记忆之宫用祈祷文填补起来了。

      We then translated in Chinese characters the Latin letters and formed “families” of characters related to each other by the meaning or the repetition of some components.

接着我们将拉丁文翻译成汉语,形成有些元素反复出现的一个意义相关的“家族”。

 

      We hereby show 3 examples:我们这里展示3个例子:

The first box, or room, of the Palace, corresponding to the word “Father” (n° 1);

宫殿的第一个盒子,或者说房间,相当于“父”(编号1)

 

The middle box, or room, of the Palace, corresponding to the word “da” (n° 25);

宫殿中间一个盒子,或者说房间,相当于“大”(编号25)

The last box, or room, of the Palace, corresponding to the word “malo” (n° 49).

宫殿的第一个盒子,或者说房间,相当于“魔鬼”(编号49)

 

      The box n° 1 relates to the first word of the prayer: pater = father. The literal translation in Chinese is

“fu qin” = 父亲.

       第一个盒子指祷文的第一个词:pater=father, 中文的字面翻译为“父亲”

      The character “fu” 父 can be associated with “hammer” = “fu tou” 斧头. The character “qin” 亲 includes two other characters:

       其中第一个字“父”的字形使人联想到“斧头”。而“亲”这个字可以拆分成两个字:

lì立 = to stand

mù木 = tree.

    

      So the memory image of the room no. 1 would be: one’s father standing near a tree with a hammer in hand. We associated as well this mental image with the lame no. 1 of the tarots showing in fact a standing man.

       因此,一号房间的记忆形象就是:一位父亲手持一把斧头站在一棵树旁。我们也会把这种头脑中的想象和第一张塔罗牌中所画的站立的人的形象联系起来。

    

In the box n° 25 we find the word

       在第25个盒子中我们找到这个词:

“da” = to give, part of the sentence “give our daily bread to us”. It is translated with “gěi” 给, character composed of:

“da”=给,是句子“给予我们每日所需的面包”中的词。“给”这个词可被拆分成:

 

sī 丝 = silk

rén 人 = man

kŏu口 = mouth.

    

     Giulio Camillo indicated the mythological reference for this box: the Latin hero Aeneas, taking the golden bough to penetrate into the Ades. The memory image would thus be a man, possibly one’s friend, with a silk mantle pulling a golden bough with his mouth and giving it to the incumbent.

      噶米洛指出了这个盒子的神话来源:古罗马神话中的英雄埃涅阿斯手持金树枝打开了地狱之门。如此,记忆形象就成为了一个男子,可能是想象者本人的朋友,身披丝质斗篷,用嘴拉出一根金树枝,然后交给想象者。

      The box n° 25 is the exact center of the magical square and we find it significant that it encompasses the most important theme of the Christian religion: to give, to be generous.

       第25个盒子是整个神奇方阵的正中心,我们可以发现很有意义的一点是它包含了基督教最重要的主旨:给予,慷慨。

    

      The last box (n. 49) contains the final word of the prayer: malo = the evil, part of the sentence “Free us from the evil”. It corresponds to the Chinese “móguí” 魔鬼.

       最后一个盒子包含了祷文的最后一个词:malo=魔鬼,是句子“使我们远离魔鬼”的一部分。

      We thought that Matteo Ricci could have introduced in this box the concept of the Good which overcomes the evil. The idea could well represent a bridge between Christian and Confucian values. Therefore the Chinese characters “mó” 魔could be fragmented into:

       我们认为利玛窦可能已将战胜邪恶的美德这一概念引入他的盒子系统中。这种思想代表了基督教和儒家思想的共通之处。因此,中国字“魔”可以被拆分成:

fángzi 房子= house

lín 林 = forest

 

      On the other hand, the concept of Good could be perfectly expressed with the Chinese character “hăo” 好 divided into:

       另一方面,美德的概念可被精确地通过拆分中国字“好”来表达:

nü女= woman

zi 子= child.

 

      What a marvellous possibility for Matteo Ricci to thus visualize the Virgin Mary, holding in her hand Jesus Christ as a child and killing under her feet the evil in the shape of a snake!

因此,利玛窦很有可能在想象中看到了圣母玛丽亚怀抱圣子,并杀死她脚下化身为蛇的恶魔!

      One could visualize a house in a forest as a background to this holy image. The game of correspondences between the different parts of the Palace of Memory can be synthesised in these series of concepts: it begins with the Father, it ends with the Mother and the central box refers to oneself giving away everything for the sake of love.

       你可以想见这幅以一座林中小屋为背景神圣图像。记忆宫殿不同部分间的配对游戏可以被归纳成这一系列概念:始于父亲,终于母亲,而位于中心的盒子指的是自己以爱的名义奉献所有。




Paolo Sabbatini

Director

Italian Culture Institute, Shanghai

倪波路 (萨巴蒂尼)

意大利驻上海总领事馆文化处处长


 

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