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菊与刀( 1 )

(2008-07-24 16:53:23)
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杂谈

                               

我在无聊时就开始翻译这本书,但是进度缓慢,只能将目前已经译好的的一部分献上,希望高人予以指教

 

 

 THE

    CHRYSANTHEMUM

    AND THE

     SWORD

               The Japanese are, to the highest degree,
                     both aggressive and unaggressive,
                     both militrasitic and aeshestic,
               both insolent and polite,rigid and adaptable,
             submissive and resentful of beinng pushed around,
                  loyal and treacherous,brave and timid,
                  conservative and hospitable to new ways.


       菊与刀

       日本人很大程度上极负侵略性又很奴性

    负有军国主义和美学
       傲慢而又礼貌,刚柔并济
       顺从但怨恨于他人的摆布
        集忠诚与背叛,勇敢与怯懦于一身
          保守着对新事物热心

 

                  Charter 1    Assignment:Japan


   The Japanese were the most alien enemy the United States had ever fought in an all-out struggle.In no other war with a major foe had it been nece-ssary to take into a account such exceedingly different habits of acting and thinking.Like Czarist Russia before us in 1905, we were fighting a nation fully armed and trained which did not belong to the Westen cultural tradition.Convention of war which Westen nations had come to accept as facts of human nature obviously did not exist for the Japanese.It made the war in Pacific more than a series landing on island beaches,more than an unsurpassed problem of logistics. It made it a major problem in nature of the enemy. We have to understand their behavior in order to copy with it.
 
   The diffculties were great.During the past seventy-five years since Japan's cloesd doors were opened, the Japanese have been discribed in the most fantastic series of "but also" sever used for any nation of the world. When a serious observer is writing about peoples other than Japanese and says they are unprecedentedly polite,he is not likely to add, "But also insolent and overbearing" When he says people of some nation are incomparably rigid in their behaviour, he does not add,"But also they adapt themselves readily to extreme innovations" When he says a people are submissive, he does not explain too that they are not easily amenable to control above.When he says they are loyal and generous, he does nt declare,"But also treacherous and spiteful." When he says they are genuinely brave, he does not expatiate on their timidity.When he says they act out of concern for other's opinions,he does not then go on to tell that they have a truly terrifying consciences. When he describes robot-like discipline in their army, he does not continue discribing the way the soldier in that Army take the bit in their own teeth even to the point of insubordination.when he describes a people devote themselves with passion to Westen learning, he does not enlarge their fervid conservatism. When he wrote a book on a nation with a popular cult of aestheticism which give high honour to actors and to artists and lavishes art upon the cultivation of chrysanthemums,that book does not ordinarily have to be supplemented by another which is devoted to the cult of the sword and the top prestige of warrior.

   All these contradicitions, however, are the warp and woof of books on Japan. They are ture. Both the sword and the chrysanthemum are a part of picture.The Japanese are, to the highest degree, both aggressive and unaggressive, both militrasitic and aeshestic, both insolent and polite,rigid and adaptable, submissive and resentful of beinng pushed around, loyal and treacherous,brave and timid, conservative and hospitable to new ways. They are concerned about what other people will think of their behavior, and they are aslo overcome by guilt when other people know nothing of their misstep. Their soldiers are disciplined to the hilt but are also insubordinate.

    When it become so inportant for America to understand Japan, these contradicitions and many others equally blatant could not be waved aside. Crises were facing us in quick succession. What would the Japanese do? Was capitulation possible without invasion? Should we bomb Emperor's palace? What could we expect of Japanese prisoners of war? What should we say in our propaganda to Japanese troops and to Japanese homeland which could save the lives of Americans and lessen the Japanese determination of fight to the last man? There were violent disagreement among those who knew Japanese best.When peace came, were the Japanese a people who would require perpetual martial law to keep them in order? Would our army have to prepare to fight desperate bitter-enders in every mountains fastness of Japan? Would there have to be a revolution in Japan after the order of the French Revolution and Russian Revolution before international peace was possible? Who would lead it? Was the alternative the eradication of the Japanese? It made a great difference what our judgment were.
   
    In June, 1944, I was assigned to the study of Japan. I was asked use all the techniques I could as a cultural anthropologist to spell out what Japanese were like.During that early summer our great offensive against Japan had just begun to shaw itself in its magnitude. People in United states were still saying that the war with Japan would last three years, perhaps ten years, more.In Japan they talked it of it lasting one hundred years. Americans, they said, had had local victories, but New Guinea and Solomans were thousands miles away from their home islands. Their official communiques had hardly admitted naval defeata and the Japanese people still regarded themselves as victors.

    In June, however, the situation began to change. The second front was opened in Europe and the military priority which the High Command had for two years and a half given to the European theater paid off. The end of the war against Germany was in sight. And in Pacific our forces landed on Saipan, a great operation forecasting eventual Japanese defeat. Form then on our soilders were to face the Japanese army at constantly closer quarters. And we knew well, from the fighting in New Guinea, on Guadalcanal, in Burma, on Attu and Tarawa and Biak, that we were pitted against a formidable foe.

   In June,1944, therefore, it was important to answer a multitude of questiona about our enemy,Japan. Whether the issue was military or diplomatic whether it raised by questions of high policy or of leaflet to be dropped behind the Japanese front lines, every insight was important. In all-out war Japan was fighting we had to know, not just the aims and motives of those in power in Tokyo, not just the long history of Japan, not just economic and military statistics; we had to know what their government could count on from the people. We had to try to understand Japanese habits of thought and emotion and patterns into which these fell.We had to know the sanctions behind these actions and opinions. We had to put aside for the moment the premises on which we act as Americans and to keep ourselves as far as possible from leaping to the easy conclusion that we would do in a given situation was what they would do.

 

第一章 目标: 日 本

 

 

日本是美国这场全力对外战争中最为不同的敌人。没有任何一场对抗顽敌的战争有重视敌人完全不同地行动和思考习惯的必要。继1905年沙俄之后,我们对抗着一个非西方传统文化武装和训练的国家。西方国家的战争协定不得不接受日军显然毫无人性的事实。它使太平洋战争不再是在一系列岛屿海滩上登陆,后勤保障无法超越的难题。它将主要问题变为敌人的本质。为了复制它们,我们必须了解敌人的行为。
    这很有难度。在日本国门被打开后的七十五年里,日本被一系列世上其他国家未曾用过的非常奇异的“但是”描述着。当一个严肃的观察家在描述除了日本以外的其他民族的人是空前地礼貌时,他不可能会加上一句:“但是也十分傲慢和专横”。在他说这个国家的人的行为无比刚硬时,也不会补一句:“也很容易让自己适应于激烈的改革”。若他说人民很顺从,不需解释他们并不容易服从上面的命令。他说他们忠诚而慷慨,不会说:“但是也会背叛,心怀恶意”他称赞他们真诚勇敢,不会再阐述他们的胆怯。当他说他们将其他观点的利害关系付诸行动时,不会继续讲他们确有极大的良知。当他描述他们军队中机械般的纪律时,他不会继续描述军队中的士兵有一点公然反对甚至反抗。当他描述一个人投身于向西方学习的热情中,他却不能扩大他热心的保守主义。当他写一本书关于一个国家有着给予演员与艺术家高尚的荣耀,赋予菊花栽培以艺术感的唯美主义狂热崇拜时,通常不会不得不补充另一点:这个国家也狂热于对刀剑和武士无尚声望的崇拜。
    然而,所有这些矛盾都是日本这本书的脉络。它们是真实的。所有的刀与菊都是图画的一部分。日本人很大程度上极负侵略性又很奴性,富于军国主义和美学,傲慢而又礼貌,刚柔并济,顺从但怨恨于他人的摆布,集忠诚与背叛,勇敢与怯懦于一身,保守着对新事物热心,他们关心别人对他们的行为怎样看,别人不知道他们失足时,他们依然会被内疚击倒。他们的士兵训练有素但仍不顺从。
    当美国了解日本变得如此重要时,这些矛盾和许多相同的喧闹的事物被置之不理。我们直接面对着危险。日本会怎样做?我们若不进攻,他们会投降吗?我们可以轰炸皇宫吗?我们可以期望日本战俘做什么?我们应该在那些投向日军和日本本土来挽救美军生命、消减日本人“玉碎”决心的传单上说什么?在那些了解日本的人中会引发激烈的冲突吗?当和平来临,日本人需要永久的严格的法律来约束他们吗?我们的军队要准备对付那些在每个山上要塞内绝望的抵抗到底的敌人吗?在国际性和平到来前,日本会步法国和苏联的后尘爆发革命吗?谁来领导这场革命?可否选择性的消灭日本人?我们的判定将做出很大影响。
    1944年六月,我被指派了一项日本的研究工作。我作为一个人类文化学家被要求用一切方法来描述日本人。在夏初我们浩大的对日作战开始展现它的巨大。美国人说和日本人的战争将持续三年,也许十年,甚至更久。而日本则认为会持续一百年。他们说美国人已经取得了本土的胜利(译者:实际上太平洋战争并未触及美国本土,此处应是指中途岛一役),但是新几内亚群岛和所罗门群岛据美国本土有上千公里。日本政府几乎不承认海军的失败而日本的民众依然以胜利者自居。
    但是六月初,情况发生了变化。欧洲第二战场被开辟而最高指挥部在欧洲舞台两年半的军事优先权被付清。与德国的战争眼看就要结束。而在太平洋战场,我们的军队在塞班岛登陆,一个伟大的行动预示了日本的最终失败。从那时我们的士兵将与日军近距离接触。从新几内亚的瓜达卡纳尔,缅甸的阿图岛、塔瓦拉岛和Biak我们可以得知,我们在对抗强敌。
    因此,1944年六月,解答众多有关我们敌人——日本的问题变得至关重要。无论结果是军事的还是外交的,无论它是否会因高层的政策或向敌人的阵地上投掷传单的问题而变得突出,我们所看到的每件事都是重要的。在这场日本竭力进行的战争中我们必须了解的,不仅仅是东京当权者的目的和动机,不仅仅是日本悠久的历史,也不仅仅是经济和军事的统计表:而是要了解他们的政府期望人民什么。我们要试着了解日本人思想和感情的习惯并仿造它,当这种习惯倒下以后。我们要了解这些行动和观念背后的认同点。我们必须把我们作为美国人如何行事的前提抛开,使我们不会冒出一个简单结论:我们在假定情况下要做的就是他们要做的。

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