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《佛说清净乞食经》中英对照

(2009-02-19 17:51:48)
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杂谈

分类: 修禅
佛说清净乞食经(Pindapataparisuddhi Sutta)
          [The Purification of Almsfood    陈慈兰 译 2003/1/3]
■ 此文译自《A New Translation of the Majjhima Nikaya /中部尼柯耶》
    by Bhikkhu Nanamoli & Bhikkhu Bodhi 第151经
当时,世尊住在王舍城(Rajagaha)竹林园的松鼠神阁(the Squirrels’ Sanctuary),一日傍晚,舍利弗尊者从禅观中起座后,便去拜见世尊。

世尊一见舍利弗尊者,便问:“舍利弗,你身心明觉敏慧,皮肤洁净又光亮,最近你如何修习禅观呢?”
「Sariputta, your faculties are clear. The colour of your skin is pure and bright. What abiding do you often abide in now, Sariputta?」
“世尊,我最近时常安住于空性(心解脱)中。”(见批注1)
「Now, venerable sir, I often abide in voidness.」
“太好了!太好了!舍利弗,你最近确实经常安住在一个大丈夫的境界,空性心解脱是大丈夫的安住处。” (见批注2)
「Good, good, Sariputta!Now, indeed, you often abide in the abiding of a great man. For this is the abiding of a great man, namely, voidness.」

“所以,舍利弗,如果一个比丘希望经常安住在空性(心解脱)中,他应该如是思省:‘我径行(注:即经行、行禅)至村落或其它地方乞食,或托钵结束的回程 中,(注:不仅经行时如此,任何时候都应安住在空性中)于眼见色时,有否生起任何感官的贪欲、瞋意、迷惑、或厌恶呢?’ 如果经过这样检视觉察,他了知:‘我径行至村落或其它地方乞食,或托钵结束的回程中,于眼见色时,曾生起感官的贪欲、瞋意、迷惑、或厌恶’,那么他应该精 勤修习,以舍离这些不善心;但是如果经过这样检视觉察,他了知:‘我径行至村落或其它地方乞食,或拖钵完毕的回程中,于眼见色时,没有生起任何感官的贪 欲、瞋意、迷惑、或厌恶 ’,那么他可以欢喜愉悦地日夜修习,安住在善心中。”
「So, Sariputta, if a bhikkhu should wish: “May I now often abide in voidness,” he should consider thus: “On the path by which I went to the village for alms, or in the place where I wandered for alms, or on the path by which I returned from the almsround, was there any desire, lust, hate, delusion, or aversion in my mind regarding forms cognizable by the eye? If, by so reviewing, he knows thus: “On the path by which I went to the village for alms, or in the place where I wandered for alms, or on the path by which I returned from the almsround, there was desire, lust, hate, delusion, or aversion in my mind regarding forms cognizable by the eye,” then he should make an effort to abandon those evil unwholesome states. But if, by reviewing, he knows thus: “On the path by which I went to the village for alms, or in the place where I wandered for alms, or on the path by which I returned from the almsround, there was no desire, lust, hate, delusion, or aversion in my mind regarding forms cognizable by the eye,” then he can abide happy and glad, training day and night in wholesome states.」
“再者,舍利弗,一个比丘应该如是思省:‘我径行至村落或其它地方乞食,或拖钵结束的回程中,于耳听到声音时,于鼻嗅到味道时,于舌尝到饮食时,于身触起 觉受时,于心识知目标时,有否生起任何感官的贪欲、瞋意、迷惑、或厌恶呢?’ 如果经过这样检视觉察,他了知‘我径行至村落乞食,于心识知目标时,曾生起感官的贪欲、瞋意、迷惑、或厌恶’,那么他应该精勤修习以舍离这些不善心;但 是,如果经过这样检视觉察,他了知:‘我径行至村落乞食,……于心识知目标时,没有生起任何感官的贪欲、瞋意、迷惑、或厌恶’,那么他可以欢喜愉悦地日夜 修习,安住在善心中。”

「Again, Sariputta, a bhikkhu should consider thus: “On the path by which I went to the village for alms, or in the place where I wandered for alms, or on the path by which I returned from the almsround, was there any desire, lust, hate, delusion, or aversion in my mind regarding sounds cognizable by the ear?... regarding odors cognizable by the nose?… regarding flavors cognizable by the tongue? …regarding tangibles cognizable by the body?… regarding mind- objects cognizable by the mind? If, by so reviewing, he knows thus: “On the path by which I went to the village for alms, … there was desire, lust, hate, delusion, or aversion in my mind regarding mind- objects cognizable by the mind,” then he should make an effort to abandon those evil unwholesome states. But if, by reviewing, he knows thus: “On the path by which I went to the village for alms, .there was no desire, lust, hate, delusion, or aversion in my mind regarding mind- objects cognizable by the mind,” then he can abide happy and glad, training day and night in wholesome states.」

“再者,舍利弗,一个比丘应该如是思省:我是否巳经舍离了五种感官欲望?如果经过这样检视觉察,他了知五种感官欲望尚未舍离,那么他应该精勤修习以舍离这 五种感官欲望。但是,如果经过这样检视觉察,他了知五种感官欲望巳经舍离了,那么他可以欢喜愉悦地日夜修习,安住在善心中。”
「Again, Sariputta, a bhikkhu should consider thus: “Are the five cords of sensual pleasure abandoned in me? If, by so reviewing, he knows thus: “The five cords of sensual pleasure are not abandoned in me” then he should make an effort to abandon those five cords of sensual pleasure. But if, by reviewing, he knows thus: “The five cords of sensual pleasure are abandoned in me,” then he can abide happy and glad, training day and night in wholesome states.」

“再者,舍利弗,一个比丘应该如是思省:我是否巳经舍离了五盖障碍?如果经过这样检视觉察,他了知:五盖障碍尚未舍离,那么他应该精勤修习以舍离这五盖障碍。但是,如果经过这样检视觉察,他了知五盖障碍巳经舍离了,那么他可以欢喜愉悦地日夜修习,安住在善心中。”
「Again, Sariputta, a bhikkhu should consider thus: “Are the five hindrances abandoned in me? If, by so reviewing, he knows thus: “The five hindrances are not abandoned in me” then he should make an effort to abandon those five hindrances. But if, by reviewing, he knows thus: “The five hindrances are abandoned in me,” then he can abide happy and glad, training day and night in wholesome states.」

“再者,舍利弗,一个比丘应该如是思省:我是否巳经彻底了解这由于执取而生的五蕴?如果经过这样检视,他知道:尚未彻底了解这由于执取而生的五蕴,那么他 应该精勤修习,以彻底了解这由于执取而生的五蕴。但是,如果经过这样检视,他知道:巳经彻底的了解这由于执取而生的五蕴,那么他可以欢喜愉悦地日夜修习, 安住在善心中。”
「Again, Sariputta, a bhikkhu should consider thus: “Are the five aggregates affected by clinging fully understood by me? If, by so reviewing, he knows thus: “The five aggregates affected by clinging are not fully understood by me” then he should make an effort to abandon those five hindrances. But if, by reviewing, he knows thus: “The five aggregates affected by clinging are fully understood by me,” then he can abide happy and glad, training day and night in wholesome states.」
   
“再者,舍利弗,一个比丘应该如是思省:我是否巳经开发了四念处?如果经过这样反观检视,他了知尚未开发四念处,那么他应该精勤修习以开发四念处。但是,如果经过这样反观检视,他了知巳经开发了四念处,那么他可以欢喜愉悦地日夜修习,安住在善心中。”
「Again, Sariputta, a bhikkhu should consider thus: “Are the four foundations of mindfulness developed in me? If, by so reviewing, he knows thus: “The four foundations of mindfulness are not developed in me” then he should make an effort to develop the four foundations of mindfulness. But if, by reviewing, he knows thus: “The four foundations of mindfulness are developed in me,” then he can abide happy and glad, training day and night in wholesome states.」

“再者,舍利弗,一个比丘应该如是思省:我是否巳经开发了四正勤?是否巳经开发了四如意足?是否巳经开发了五根?是否巳经开发了五力?是否巳经开发了七觉 支?是否巳经开发了八正道?是否巳经开发了止禅和内观禅(毗婆舍那观)? 如果经过这样反观检视,他了知:尚未开发四正勤……止禅和内观禅,那么他应该精勤修习以开发止禅和内观禅。但是,如果经过这样反观检视,他了知:巳经开发 了止禅和内观禅,那么他可以欢喜愉悦地日夜修习,安住在善心中。”
「Again, Sariputta, a bhikkhu should consider thus: “Are the four right kinds of striving developed in me?…Are the four bases for spiritual power developed in me?…Are the five faculties developed in me?…Are the five powers developed in me?…Are the seven enlightenment factors developed in me?…Are the Noble Eightfold Path developed in me?…Are the serenity and insight developed in me? If, by so reviewing, he knows thus: “Serenity and insight are not developed in me,” then he should make an effort to abandon them. But if, by reviewing, he knows thus: “Serenity and insight are developed in me,” then he can abide happy and glad, training day and night in wholesome states.」
“再者,舍利弗,一个比丘应该如是省思:我是否巳经体证了实相智和解脱?如果经过这样反观检视,他了知:尚未体证实相智和解脱,那么他应该精勤修习以体证 实相智和解脱。但如果经过这样反观检视,他了知:巳经体证了实相智和解脱,那么他可以欢喜愉悦地日夜修习,安住在善心中。”
「Again, Sariputta, a bhikkhu should consider thus: “Are the true knowledge and deliverance realized by me? If, by so reviewing, he knows thus: “True knowledge and deliverance are not realized by me” then he should make an effort to realize the true knowledge and deliverance. But if, by reviewing, he knows thus: “The true knowledge and deliverance realized by me,” then he can abide happy and glad, training day and night in wholesome states.」

“舍利弗,过去,现在,乃至未来,任何出家人和梵志,都是以这样的方式,不断地检视、觉察,来清净他们的乞食修行。因此,舍利弗,你们应该如是训练:‘我们要以这样的方式,不断地检视觉察,来清净我们的乞食修行。’”
「Sariputta, whatever recluses and brahmins in the past have purified their almsfood have all done so by repeatedly reviewing thus. Whatever recluses and brahmins in the future will purify their almsfood will all do so by repeatedly reviewing thus. Whatever recluses and brahmins in the present are purifying their almsfood are all doing so by repeatedly reviewing thus. Therefore, Sariputta, you should train thus: “We will purify our almsfood by repeatedly reviewing thus.”」
   
■ 翻译此经之缘起与后记
好多年前,译者在一个中国寺庙的华丽大雄宝殿,聆听一位中国出家人演讲,其间他说了一个故事,内容大概是这样:有位中国(大陆)出家人,因面临某种环境而 辗转到了缅甸,于是先到中国寺庙请求挂单,但皆被拒绝,最后只好到愿意接纳他的南传道场挂单;然而,每天早上他必须跟着南传比丘们出去托钵,以一个「中国 大乘」出家人的身份挨家挨户去乞食,让他感到心有戚戚焉,于是他就抄下「法华经」(或「华严经」) 的词句,藏在钵里,一面走一面背诵。终于有一天,他得到某种「感应」。
从这个故事来说,演讲者和故事的主角皆未继承佛陀的教法,反而担任起耆那教、提婆达多、梁武帝的传教士。因为不修习佛陀教导的「毗婆舍那观」,所以对止观 内涵不清楚,于是把宗教感应、宗教体验和形而上学,跟佛法混为一体,令人遗憾!再说,「感应」有时也非全是宗教信仰来的,也有可能是更低层次的灵媒造作, 也有可能是由于个人的生理或精神问题而产生的,宗教徒们应理性、客观的来对待各种「感应」现象。

■ 批注
1.《中部》批注 #458 & # 1347说:所有的四种心解脱---空性心解脱、无量心解脱、无相心解脱、无愿心解脱都是阿罗汉果位。这四种心解脱,虽不同名,但同义,都是涅盘的别名,都是证取阿罗汉果位的禅观目标。请读者再详阅《中部》第43经。
MN n. #458 & n. #1347:All the four deliverances of mind are one in meaning in that they all refer to the fruition attainment of arahantship. The four deliverances are one in meaning because the terms--- the immeasurable, nothingness, the signless, and voidness---are all names for Nibbana, which is the object of the fruition attainment of arahantship.

2.《中部》批注 #1348说:大丈夫境界是佛、辟支佛,以及如来的伟大弟子们所安住的。又《长部》#34经2.1说:大丈夫( The Great Man)要具备八样心境:1.少欲;2.知足;3.精勤不懈;4.能独一静处;5.有正念明觉;6.有正定;7.有观慧;8.不喜轮回者;前7样是由 阿那律尊者叙说的,第8样---不喜轮回,是佛陀加上去的。
MN n. #1348:This is the abiding of such great man (mahapurisa) as Buddhas, paccekabuddhas, and the great disciples of the Tathagatas. And DN #34-2-1:Eight thoughts of a Great Man:This Dhamma is 1. for one of few wants; 2. for the contented; 3. for the withdrawn, not for those delighting in company; 4. for the energetic; 5. for one of established mindfulness; 6. for one of concentrated mind; 7. for one who has wisdom; 8. for one who delights in non- proliferation / nippapancaramassa, not for one who delights in proliferation. The first seven were proposed by the Venerable Anuruddha, and the eighth was added by the Buddha.

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