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可调谐天线- 管理频率的变化

(2011-06-10 14:56:50)
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杂谈

分类: MTK
A look at how to manage the increasing demands being placed on wireless devices.
Customers worldwide want to do more and more with their wireless devices. They want multiple functionalities packed into a single mobile device. They want even the most basic handsets to incorporate functionality that could not have been achieved in anything but the most expensive handsets only a few years ago.
And, while such demands are leading to wireless devices becoming increasingly complex, the device itself is getting thinner and smaller. To keep pace with that change, components that make up the handset also have to be miniaturised. Antennas, one of the major components, are also witnessing a similar trend - for example, some new internal antennas weigh only 0.12 grams, significantly reducing the overall weight of the mobile device.

A handset can have a multitude of antennas, presenting real challenges to the device manufacturer community. Given that a handset could contain separate antennas for enabling GSM, WCDMA, TV, Bluetooth, W-LAN, RFID and FM radio to name but a few, how will the frequency bands be managed in the future?

Modern handset antenna design has to account for the current trends in the market to address the challenges of managing multiple frequencies. With new applications and features finding their way into wireless devices, the requirement for new antenna design approaches increases. When you add the emergence of technologies such as WiFi, WiMAX, ultra wideband (UWB) and multiple input multiple output (MIMO) to this scenario, handset antenna designers face a significant challenge.

While multi-band operation is desired from the main antenna, the challenge for handset designers is to cover all additional bands through a single efficient antenna with sufficient bandwidth. Currently, additional antennas are needed for non-cellular, diversity and MIMO systems, which presents challenges in providing better Over-The-Air (OTA) performance required by operators.

In conventional antenna systems, individual antennas each transmit on different frequencies. With intelligent antenna systems, such as "multiple-antenna systems" or MIMO systems, multiple antennas transmit different yet concurrent streams of data over a single radio channel and frequency band. Such systems enable increased efficiency in the usage of frequency band.

As the concept of world phones comes to the fore, there is a need for handsets that can be tuned to operate at multiple frequencies in different communication systems across the world. A tuneable antenna is an antenna that can change resonance frequencies for effective reception of a wide range frequency bands. Change between communication systems or operating bands is achieved by tuning the resonant frequency of an antenna element.

Resonant frequency can be changed by loading the antenna with a reactive tuning component, which can be placed between the antenna element and the ground plane. Another approach is to change the shape or dimensions of an antenna element with a switching component, resulting in change of the resonant frequency of the antenna - software defined radios (SDRs), as an example, take advantage of these tuneable antennas.

Today's multiple antenna systems use high computing power. The next generation of mobile communications will see multi-mode, multi-band and multi-functional systems in more compact and faster mobile devices with the help of these configurable antennas.

在如何管理日益增长的需求看被放置在无线设备上。
世界各地的客户想与他们的无线设备越来越多。他们希望到一个单一的移动设备包装多种功能。他们希望即使是最基本的功能手机,无法融入已经取得了什么是最昂贵的手机仅在几年前,但。


而且,当这种需求正在导致日益复杂的无线设备,该设备本身就是变瘦和更小的。为了跟上这种变化的步伐,成份中有听筒也必须小型化。天线的主要成分之一,还看到了类似的趋势 - 例如,一些新的内置天线的重量只有0.12克,大大降低了移动设备的总重量。

一个手机可以有多种天线,呈现真正的挑战,设备制造商的社区。由于手机可能包含一个启用了GSM,WCDMA,电视,蓝牙,无线局域网,射频识别和FM电台的名称,但一些独立的天线,频段将如何在未来的管理?

现代手机天线的设计必须考虑到市场目前的趋势,以解决管理多个频率的挑战。随着新的应用程序和功能寻找到无线设备,天线设计的新要求,提高他们的方式方法。当您添加了如WiFi,WiMAX技术,超宽带(UWB)和多输入多输出(MIMO)技术的出现,这种情况下,手机天线设计人员面临的一个重大挑战。

而多波段操作是从主天线需要,为手机设计的挑战是要通过一个包括有足够的带宽效率天线的所有其他乐队。目前,还需要额外的天线,非细胞性,多样性和MIMO系统,提供更好地呈现在空中(OTA)的性能要求运营商的挑战。

在传统的天线系统,个体每个天线上传输不同的频率。随着智能天线系统,如“多天线系统”或MIMO系统,多天线传输不同但并发流过一​​个单一的无线电频道和频率波段的数据。这种系统能够增加在频段的使用效率。

作为世界手机概念来自中脱颖而出,有一个可以被调整到操作在世界各地的多个频率不同的通信系统手机的需求。一个可调谐天线是一个天线,可以改变一个广泛有效的频段接收共振频率。之间的通讯系统或工作频段调谐的变化是通过了一个天线单元的谐振频率。

共振频率可以改变被动的加载与调谐组件,它可与天线单元和接地层放置天线。另一种方法是改变一个开关元件的形状或尺寸的天线单元,在改变天线的共振频率产生 - 软件定义无线电(SDR),作为一个例子,可调谐天线利用这些优势。

今天的多天线系统使用高的计算能力。移动通信的下一代将看到这些配置的天线可以多模式,多波段更紧凑,更快的移动设备和多功能系统。

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